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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
This module implements a cookie that is not alterable from the client
because it adds a checksum the server checks for. You can use it as
session replacement if all you have is a user id or something to mark
a logged in user.
Keep in mind that the data is still readable from the client as a
normal cookie is. However you don't have to store and flush the
sessions you have at the server.
Example usage:
>>> from werkzeug.contrib.securecookie import SecureCookie
>>> x = SecureCookie({"foo": 42, "baz": (1, 2, 3)}, "deadbeef")
Dumping into a string so that one can store it in a cookie:
>>> value = x.serialize()
Loading from that string again:
>>> x = SecureCookie.unserialize(value, "deadbeef")
>>> x["baz"]
(1, 2, 3)
If someone modifies the cookie and the checksum is wrong the unserialize
method will fail silently and return a new empty `SecureCookie` object.
Keep in mind that the values will be visible in the cookie so do not
store data in a cookie you don't want the user to see.
Application Integration
If you are using the werkzeug request objects you could integrate the
secure cookie into your application like this::
from werkzeug.utils import cached_property
from werkzeug.wrappers import BaseRequest
from werkzeug.contrib.securecookie import SecureCookie
# don't use this key but a different one; you could just use
# os.urandom(20) to get something random
SECRET_KEY = '\xfa\xdd\xb8z\xae\xe0}4\x8b\xea'
class Request(BaseRequest):
def client_session(self):
data = self.cookies.get('session_data')
if not data:
return SecureCookie(secret_key=SECRET_KEY)
return SecureCookie.unserialize(data, SECRET_KEY)
def application(environ, start_response):
request = Request(environ)
# get a response object here
response = ...
if request.client_session.should_save:
session_data = request.client_session.serialize()
response.set_cookie('session_data', session_data,
return response(environ, start_response)
A less verbose integration can be achieved by using shorthand methods::
class Request(BaseRequest):
def client_session(self):
return SecureCookie.load_cookie(self, secret_key=COOKIE_SECRET)
def application(environ, start_response):
request = Request(environ)
# get a response object here
response = ...
return response(environ, start_response)
:copyright: (c) 2014 by the Werkzeug Team, see AUTHORS for more details.
:license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
import pickle
import base64
from hmac import new as hmac
from time import time
from hashlib import sha1 as _default_hash
from werkzeug._compat import iteritems, text_type
from werkzeug.urls import url_quote_plus, url_unquote_plus
from werkzeug._internal import _date_to_unix
from werkzeug.contrib.sessions import ModificationTrackingDict
from import safe_str_cmp
from werkzeug._compat import to_native
class UnquoteError(Exception):
"""Internal exception used to signal failures on quoting."""
class SecureCookie(ModificationTrackingDict):
"""Represents a secure cookie. You can subclass this class and provide
an alternative mac method. The import thing is that the mac method
is a function with a similar interface to the hashlib. Required
methods are update() and digest().
Example usage:
>>> x = SecureCookie({"foo": 42, "baz": (1, 2, 3)}, "deadbeef")
>>> x["foo"]
>>> x["baz"]
(1, 2, 3)
>>> x["blafasel"] = 23
>>> x.should_save
:param data: the initial data. Either a dict, list of tuples or `None`.
:param secret_key: the secret key. If not set `None` or not specified
it has to be set before :meth:`serialize` is called.
:param new: The initial value of the `new` flag.
#: The hash method to use. This has to be a module with a new function
#: or a function that creates a hashlib object. Such as `hashlib.md5`
#: Subclasses can override this attribute. The default hash is sha1.
#: Make sure to wrap this in staticmethod() if you store an arbitrary
#: function there such as hashlib.sha1 which might be implemented
#: as a function.
hash_method = staticmethod(_default_hash)
#: the module used for serialization. Unless overriden by subclasses
#: the standard pickle module is used.
serialization_method = pickle
#: if the contents should be base64 quoted. This can be disabled if the
#: serialization process returns cookie safe strings only.
quote_base64 = True
def __init__(self, data=None, secret_key=None, new=True):
ModificationTrackingDict.__init__(self, data or ())
# explicitly convert it into a bytestring because python 2.6
# no longer performs an implicit string conversion on hmac
if secret_key is not None:
secret_key = bytes(secret_key)
self.secret_key = secret_key = new
def __repr__(self):
return '<%s %s%s>' % (
self.should_save and '*' or ''
def should_save(self):
"""True if the session should be saved. By default this is only true
for :attr:`modified` cookies, not :attr:`new`.
return self.modified
def quote(cls, value):
"""Quote the value for the cookie. This can be any object supported
by :attr:`serialization_method`.
:param value: the value to quote.
if cls.serialization_method is not None:
value = cls.serialization_method.dumps(value)
if cls.quote_base64:
value = b''.join(base64.b64encode(value).splitlines()).strip()
return value
def unquote(cls, value):
"""Unquote the value for the cookie. If unquoting does not work a
:exc:`UnquoteError` is raised.
:param value: the value to unquote.
if cls.quote_base64:
value = base64.b64decode(value)
if cls.serialization_method is not None:
value = cls.serialization_method.loads(value)
return value
except Exception:
# unfortunately pickle and other serialization modules can
# cause pretty every error here. if we get one we catch it
# and convert it into an UnquoteError
raise UnquoteError()
def serialize(self, expires=None):
"""Serialize the secure cookie into a string.
If expires is provided, the session will be automatically invalidated
after expiration when you unseralize it. This provides better
protection against session cookie theft.
:param expires: an optional expiration date for the cookie (a
:class:`datetime.datetime` object)
if self.secret_key is None:
raise RuntimeError('no secret key defined')
if expires:
self['_expires'] = _date_to_unix(expires)
result = []
mac = hmac(self.secret_key, None, self.hash_method)
for key, value in sorted(self.items()):
result.append(('%s=%s' % (
mac.update(b'|' + result[-1])
return b'?'.join([
def unserialize(cls, string, secret_key):
"""Load the secure cookie from a serialized string.
:param string: the cookie value to unserialize.
:param secret_key: the secret key used to serialize the cookie.
:return: a new :class:`SecureCookie`.
if isinstance(string, text_type):
string = string.encode('utf-8', 'replace')
if isinstance(secret_key, text_type):
secret_key = secret_key.encode('utf-8', 'replace')
base64_hash, data = string.split(b'?', 1)
except (ValueError, IndexError):
items = ()
items = {}
mac = hmac(secret_key, None, cls.hash_method)
for item in data.split(b'&'):
mac.update(b'|' + item)
if b'=' not in item:
items = None
key, value = item.split(b'=', 1)
# try to make the key a string
key = url_unquote_plus(key.decode('ascii'))
key = to_native(key)
except UnicodeError:
items[key] = value
# no parsing error and the mac looks okay, we can now
# sercurely unpickle our cookie.
client_hash = base64.b64decode(base64_hash)
except TypeError:
items = client_hash = None
if items is not None and safe_str_cmp(client_hash, mac.digest()):
for key, value in iteritems(items):
items[key] = cls.unquote(value)
except UnquoteError:
items = ()
if '_expires' in items:
if time() > items['_expires']:
items = ()
del items['_expires']
items = ()
return cls(items, secret_key, False)
def load_cookie(cls, request, key='session', secret_key=None):
"""Loads a :class:`SecureCookie` from a cookie in request. If the
cookie is not set, a new :class:`SecureCookie` instanced is
:param request: a request object that has a `cookies` attribute
which is a dict of all cookie values.
:param key: the name of the cookie.
:param secret_key: the secret key used to unquote the cookie.
Always provide the value even though it has
no default!
data = request.cookies.get(key)
if not data:
return cls(secret_key=secret_key)
return cls.unserialize(data, secret_key)
def save_cookie(self, response, key='session', expires=None,
session_expires=None, max_age=None, path='/', domain=None,
secure=None, httponly=False, force=False):
"""Saves the SecureCookie in a cookie on response object. All
parameters that are not described here are forwarded directly
to :meth:`~BaseResponse.set_cookie`.
:param response: a response object that has a
:meth:`~BaseResponse.set_cookie` method.
:param key: the name of the cookie.
:param session_expires: the expiration date of the secure cookie
stored information. If this is not provided
the cookie `expires` date is used instead.
if force or self.should_save:
data = self.serialize(session_expires or expires)
response.set_cookie(key, data, expires=expires, max_age=max_age,
path=path, domain=domain, secure=secure,