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ENGLISH SCRIPT

Angle is the Python implementation of English as a programming language. Since Angle compiles to Python bytecode, it is can be used as a drop-in-replacement for classic Python and is fully debuggable, even in PyCharm. It is currently in development to be run directly in WASM via wasp.

The main purpose of this language is to facilitate programming computers via voice. Angle is the first speakable programing language and thus makes programing accessible to many more people.

🖥 INSTALL

pip install angle

angle examples

Or from source:

git clone --recursive git@github.com:pannous/angle.git

cd angle; ./install.sh

Start the shell : ./bin/angle

📓 Examples

Here are some of our favorite working examples from the tests:

assert two minus 1½ equals 0.5

beep three times (There will be a generation of programmers who will shake their heads that there ever was a programming language which did not interpret that sentence correctly.)

assert square of [1,2 and 3] equals 1,4,9

assert 3rd word in 'hi my friend' is 'friend'

x is 2; if all 0,2,4 are smaller 5 then increase x; assert x equals 3

beep every three seconds

last item in 'hi','you' is equal to 'you'

While Peter is online on Skype
	make a beep
	sleep for 10 seconds
Done

Despite being a natural language, angle has brevity and readabilty as its highest goals. Verbosity is optional, as are types and sigils.

To check if person is online on Skype:
	Skype.checkStatus(person)
	if result is "online": return yes 
	else return no
End

Function pointers and aliases with class map: to merge is to update

Status:

Beauty is more important in computing than anywhere else in technology because software is so complicated. Beauty is the ultimate defence against complexity.

    — David Gelernter

ALPHA, partly usable, some tests not yet passing: Build Status

Operators:


  • | pipe : output of last command as input for next command. ls ~ | sort
  • , list : turn two nodes into a list. Append if one is a list. 'cons' in lisp
  • : pair : turn two nodes into a pair, a:3 (hashed+symbolic). almost identical to:
  • = value : turn two nodes into a variable pair, a=3
  • ; list : end expressions/statements, list inside a block. if 1 : 0 ;
  • ., of, in selection: garden of house == house.garden
  • space acts as comma in lists
  • newline, dedent: acts as comma in lists or closing 'bracket' if matching block start

usual math operators add plus times ^ … and logical and or xor not

brackets: content of () is evaluated, {} is deferred (block/lambda)

angle uses mark as data and code format:

cat{
    size:3
    color:{r=1 g=0 b=0}
    form{
        dimensions=(3,size*2)
    }
}

equivalent to

a cat
   size is 3
   color is 1 for red, 0 for green and blue
   a form
     dimensions are 3 , size * 2
   end
end cat
       

All code is data and all data can be 'executed':

cat().dimensions returns (3,6) because last statement == return value
cat(!) returns cat fully evaluated: cat{size:3,…,form:dimensions:{3,6}}

print(size) // prints value of size()
print{size} // prints function size
colors={red green blue}
colors=(red green blue)

sort{.size} // ok
sort{it.size} // ok
sort{it's size} // ok
sort(size) // warn unless value of size() returns lambda
sort{size} // todo: read as it.size
sort by size  // todo

[] is evaluated as property index/match or deferred if assigned:
cat[size] = 3
cat[size:3] = true
pattern=[size:3]
cat[pattern] = true
difference to cat.size : in cat[size], size can be a variable. to be sure use symbol or string cat[#size] cat['size']

switch takes a usual hash in which keys can be patterns:
switch :: a -> { b -> c } -> c()
switch(time){
    5pm: read
    [hour<5am]: sleep
    [it.minute=0]: smoke
    other: work
}
switch(time,my_block)
my_block[time()]

fallthrough must be forced with … if desired

how to force evaluation inside deferred block:
cat{
    born=time()  // instant
    born:=time()  // deferred
    born:time()  // deferred
    
}

blocks can be given 'arguments' when evaluated:
cat(time:5pm) == cat{born:5pm}
same rules apply: arguments can be values or blocks
cat(time:calculate()) == cat{born:calculate()}
cat(time=calculate()) == cat{born:5pm}


⏳ In progress

Angles implicit list filter 'that' applies a selection criterion to all elements:

delete all files in my home folder that end with 'bak'

translates to ruby:

folder(:home).files.select{|that|that.end_with?("bak")}.each{|file| file.delete}

Implicit lambda variable 'it'

for all mails by peter: mark it as read if its subject contains 'SPAM'

translates to ruby:

mails(by: Peter).each{|it| it.mark(:read) if it.subject.match('SPAM')}

The last example also illustrates what we call matching by type name.

To delete mail:
  move that mail to trash folder
End
count char in "שָלוֹם" = 4
count byte in "שָלוֹם" = 12
count codepoints in "שָלוֹם" = 6

as loop:

for char in "שָׁלוֹם ": print char.clean
שלום

Here 'mail' acts as argument name and argument type at once. No more Java style Mail mail=new Mail().getMail();

🐁 EXPERIMENT

Run it and see yourself!

experiment by typing

angle "6 plus six"

angle examples/test.e

angle (no args to start the shell)

⦠ 1/4

⦠ 6 plus six

⦠ beep three times

⦠ x is 2; if all 0,2,4 are smaller 5 then increase x

⦠ ls | item 2

📑 Language Specification

Angle is a multi-paradigm programming language with gradual typing.

Read the DOSSIER for a more complete language specification, vision and some background.

The grammar is not meant to be linguistically complete, but functionality complete and easily extendable. "Premature optimization is the root of all evil." Many programming languages 'optimize' on the syntax level in order to optimize the resulting applications. Maybe this is a mistake.

To check out the current capabilities of English Script have a look at the tests, keywords and grammar

🕶 Future

English Script / Angle is currently running in the

Having a self-hosted "bootstrapped" compiler is an important mid-term goal.

Why the new implementation in python🐍?

We can compile English script / Angle directly to python byte-code: As opposed to Ruby, Python(3) comes with a very nice and clean abstract syntax tree as well as byte code capabilities preinstalled. Compiling is so much nicer & faster than interpreted code. Also the Python execution model is a bit more friendly than the Ruby VM, but both have their advantages and drawbacks. The biggest advantage of Python is that objects can be given attributes at any time o.x='y'! However pythons limited block/lamda capabilities are a painful limitation.

"There should be one -- and preferably only one -- obvious way to do it" Beautiful is better than ugly. Simple is better than complex. Complex is better than complicated. Flat is better than nested.

For a background story/vision/philosophy/future of this project read the DOSSIER

Also check out: Program Synthesis from Natural Language Using Recurrent Neural Networks

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