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ERA Toolbox

The ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox uses generalizability theory as a method for evaluating the psychometric reliability of ERP data. Dependability (and some generalizability) estimates (generalizability-theory analog to reliability) can be computed for any number of events, groups, or occasions. The influence of number of trials on dependability of measurements will also be determined, and a recommended cutoff for inclusion of ERP data will be provided based on the stability of measurement as the number of trials included in a single-subject average for a given group and event increases. The Toolbox can also estimate the psychometric internal consistency of difference scores.

See the User Manual or wiki for more information about the ERA Toolbox.


Clayson, P. E., & Miller, G. A. (2017). ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox: An open-source toolbox for analyzing the reliability of event-related brain potentials. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 111, 68-79. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.10.012


Clayson, P. E., Carbine, K. A., Baldwin, S. A., Olsen, J. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). Using generalizability theory and the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox for assessing test-retest reliability of ERP scores part 1: Algorithms, Framework, and Implementation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 166, 174-187. (preprint)


Clayson, P. E., Brush, C. J., & Hajcak, G. (2021) Data quality and reliability metrics for event-related potentials (ERPs): The utility of subject-level reliability. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 165, 121-136. (preprint)


Clayson, P. E., Baldwin, S. A., & Larson, M. J. (2021). Evaluating the internal consistency of subtraction-based and residualized difference scores: Considerations for studies of event-related potentials. Psychophysiology, 58, e13762. (preprint)


Copyright (C) 2016-2021 Peter E. Clayson

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program (gpl.txt). If not, see


Matlab toolbox for obtaining dependability estimates for ERP measurements






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