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If you want to jump to the code bit, either go to the bottom or do a search
for "CODING:" or "EXAMPLES:" - A lot of meaningful details come beforehand,
though =).
Formerly, ufuns, $-commands, triggers, etc were both limited to 10 args, and
required an array of char *args[nargs] to be passed to every function Penn
uses for propagating state, or kept within PE_INFO as an ugly hack.
PE_REGS is a register stack. As functions or commands (such as @switch/@dol)
recurse, they create their own information and push it onto the bottom
of the stack (This document treats the stack as growing _down_, and searches
on the stack will go up the stack).
A single PE_REGS object will contain one or more PE_REG_* flags to determine
its type:
These tell the parser how to treat this particular pe_regs object: Whether
to check it for Args (%0-%9), Q-regs (%q<foo>), Regexp ($<foo>),
Switch/@switch (stext/%$0/slev), Iter/@dol (%i0/%il/itext/inum). At the
time of this writing, SYS is unused, but it will eventually be used for
other stateful information.
REGEXP and ARG will only check the bottommost one matching their needs.
SWITCH and ITER statefully impact each other on gets: itext(num)/stext(num)
count from the bottom-up.
The special one, PE_REGS_QUEUE, is created for every pe_info, and should exist
at the top of every stack. When a new queue entry is created (@switch, @dol,
@wait, @trigger, @include, @force, etc etc), then everything in the current
queue entry's PE_REGS stack is compacted and placed into the pe_regs for
the new queue.
There are also other bitwise flags that may be or'd with the above types.
PE_REGS_LET Used for let(): Only set qregs that already exist
otherwise pass them up.
PE_REGS_QSTOP Q-reg get()s don't travel past this.
PE_REGS_ARGPASS If set on a PE_REGS that is also set NEWATTR, then %0-%9
will continue past the NEWATTR.
PE_REGS_IBREAK A PE_REGS structure is flagged IBREAK only by the function
ibreak() - It signals iter() to stop processing.
Iter, arg (%0-%9), switch:
PE_REGS_NEWATTR Iter, switch, arg checks don't travel past this.
(If it is also set ARGPASS, %0-%9 checking will continue
PE_REGS_ISOLATE A combination of:
it is intended to stop any 'fetch' from going up the
stack - essentially the same as wiping the pe_info of
earlier implementations.
Each PE_REGS has zero or more PE_REG_VAL items within it. A PE_REG_VAL is
simply a key -> value map, with a unique key+type combo. (There can be a
'0' for %q0 and a '0' for %0.) Each PE_REG_VAL should have a single
PE_REGS_... type with it. In addition, there are some more flags that
may be associated with it:
PE_REGS_STR - It's a string.
PE_REGS_INT - It's an integer. (Duh).
For your use:
PE_REGS_NOCOPY - Use NOCOPY when you are passing a value that will last
longer than the pe_regs structure it is being saved to.
Best used in ufuns. If you free the value you pass
before you use the pe_regs structure it's saved in,
it can do screwy things.
If you want to access any values, use the handy macros or functions available
that pull them straight from pe_info:
PE_Getq(pe_info, name) - name being '0' for %q0 or %q<0>
PE_Get_re(pe_info, name) - name being '0' for $0 or $<0>
PE_Get_Itext(pe_info, num) - itext(<num>)/%i0. <num> is an integer.
PE_Get_Inum(pe_info, num) - inum(<num>). <num> is an integer.
PE_Get_Ilev(pe_info) - ilev()
PE_Get_Stext(pe_info, num) - stext(<num>)/%$0. <num> is an integer.
PE_Get_Slev(pe_info) - slev()
PE_Get_Env(pe_info, num) - 0-9 for %0-%9
PE_Get_Envc(pe_info) - %+
Unique among all uses of the PE_REGS stack are Q-registers. Everything else
has their values set when the pe_regs for it are created. Q-registers can
travel up the stack to set at a higher stack item. For this reason, setting
q-registers is based around pe_info:
PE_Setq(pe_info, name, value) - name being '0' for %0, etc.
The next most common use of PE_REGS is to pass env args (%0-%9). There are
two recommended ways to do this:
1) Using call_ufun, or any function that takes a PE_REGS * as a parameter:
PE_REGS *pe_regs = pe_regs_create(PE_REGS_ARG, "functionname");
If you're using a value that's not going to last until pe_regs is used:
pe_regs_setenv(pe_regs, num, value);
If you are (Most common for fun_*. Not common for commands)
pe_regs_setenv_nocopy(pe_regs, num, value);
call_ufun(..., pe_regs);
2) When you need to impact a process_expression:
PE_REGS *pe_regs = pe_regs_localize(pe_info, PE_REGS_ARG, "functionname");
pe_regs_setenv(pe_regs, num, value); (or pe_regs_setenv_nocopy(...));
process_expression(..., pe_info)
pe_regs_restore(pe_info, pe_regs);
Look at hdrs/mushtype.h for the full list of pe_regs functions available.
* Every pe_regs_create must have a pe_regs_free, in the same function.
* Every pe_regs_localize must have a pe_regs_restore, and a pre_regs_free,
in the same function.
* Forgetting to call pe_regs_restore after a localize can cause crashes or
memory corruption.
* If you used to do pe_info->env[num] = mush_strdup() or otherwise allocate
memory, then use pe_regs_setenv(), and it will create a copy itself. If you
didn't, then use pe_regs_setenv_nocopy().
* while you can use pe_regs_localize around call_ufun, call_ufun creates its
own pe_regs stack, with PE_REGS_NEWATTR. If you want your args available
to what is called, use pe_regs_create and pass pe_regs to call_ufun.
* fun_hello: A function calling the obj/attr in its first arg with two args:
"Hello World" and a static counter of how many times it's been called since
char rbuff[BUFFER_LEN]; /* Response buffer */
ufun_attrib ufun; /* Contains the ufun call information */
PE_REGS *pe_regs;
static int counter = 0;
if (!fetch_ufun_attrib(args[0], executor, &ufun, UFUN_DEFAULT)) {
safe_str(T(ufun.errmess), buff, bp);
pe_regs = pe_regs_create(PE_REGS_ARG, "fun_helloworld");
/* "Hello world" persists permanently - no need for pe_regs to make a copy */
pe_regs_setenv_nocopy(pe_regs, 0, "Hello world");
/* But unparse_integer returns a pointer to a buffer - it can change in the
course of calling the attribute, so we make a copy of it. */
pe_regs_setenv(pe_regs, 1, unparse_integer(counter++));
/* Call the ufun. In the ufun, "Hello world" will be %0 and the number
will be %1. */
call_ufun(&ufun, rbuff, executor, enactor, pe_info, pe_regs);
/* Copy the result back to the buffer. */
safe_str(rbuff, buff, bp);
int argcount = 2;
const char *myenv[2];
myenv[0] = mush_strdup(unparse_dbref(executor), "dbcpy");
myenv[1] = message;
call_attrib(player, attrname, myenv, argcount, obuf, player, pe_info)
mush_free(myenv[0], "dbcpy");
PE_REGS *pe_regs = pe_regs_create(PE_REGS_ARG, "my_function_name");
pe_regs_setenv(pe_regs, 0, unparse_dbref(executor));
pe_regs_setenv(pe_regs, 1, message);
call_attrib(player, attrname, obuf, player, pe_info, pe_regs)
If you don't know when to use pe_regs_setenv_nocopy instead of pe_regs_setenv,
then just use pe_regs_setenv. pe_regs_setenv will create an in-memory clone of
what's passed to it, so this is a memory leak:
pe_regs_setenv(pe_regs, 0, mush_strdup(message, "messagecopy"));