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=begin pod
=TITLE class Method
=SUBTITLE Member function
class Method is Routine { }
A type for methods that behave the same way then L<Routine|/type/Routine> with
some exceptions listed in the following. For details of a method's parameter
list see L<Signature|/type/Signature>.
To create a method outside a L<class definition|/language/typesystem#Methods>,
use the declarators C<my> and C<method>. If an
L<identifier|/language/syntax#Identifiers> is provided the methods name will be
injected into the scope specified by the declarator.
my $m = method ($invocant: $param) {
say "$invocant: '$param'";
"greeting".$m("hello"); # OUTPUT: «greeting: 'hello'␤»
<a b c>.&(my method (List:D:) { say self.perl; self }).say;
# OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c")␤(a b c)␤»
The invocant of a method defaults to C<self>. A type constraint including a
type-smiley can be used and is honored both for methods defined in a class and
for free floating methods. Call the latter with C<.&> on an object.
my method m(Int:D: $b){
say self.^name
my $i = 1;
# OUTPUT: «Int␤»
X<|extra named arguments>
Methods will ignore extra named arguments where other types of C<Routine> will
throw at runtime. Extra arguments will be forwarded by
L<nextsame|/language/functions#index-entry-nextsame-nextsame> and friends.
class A {
multi method m(:$a, :$b) { say "2 named" }
class B is A {
method m(:$a) { say "1 named"; nextsame }
B.m( :1a, :2b );
# OUTPUT: «1 named␤2 named␤»
=head2 sub lastcall
sub lastcall(--> True)
Truncates the current dispatch chain, which means any calls to
C<nextsame>, C<callsame>, C<nextwith>, and C<callwith> will not
find any of the next candidates. Note that since C<samewith>
restarts the dispatch from the start, it's not affected by the
truncation of current chain with C<lastcall>.
Consider example below. C<foo(6)> uses C<nextsame>
when C<lastcall> hasn't been called, and so it reaches the C<Any>
candidate. C<foo(2)> calls C<nextsame> as well, but since
C<lastcall> was called first, the dispatch chain was truncated and
the C<Any> candidate was not reached. The last call, C<foo(1)>,
calls C<lastcall> too, however, it then uses C<samewith>, which
isn't affected by it, and so the dispatch re-starts from scratch,
hits the C<Int> candidate with the new argument C<6>, and then
proceeds to the C<Any> candidate via C<nextsame> (which
isn't affected by the C<lastcall> that was used before the
C<samewith> was called):
multi foo (Int $_) {
say "Int: $_";
lastcall when *.is-prime;
nextsame when * %% 2;
samewith 6 when * !%% 2;
multi foo (Any $x) { say "Any $x" }
foo 6; say '----';
foo 2; say '----';
foo 1;
# Int: 6
# Any 6
# ----
# Int: 2
# ----
# Int: 1
# Int: 6
# Any 6
=end pod
# vim: expandtab softtabstop=4 shiftwidth=4 ft=perl6
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