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Upgrade of Literals section (#2946)

* Upgrade of Literals section
* Some additional amendments to updated Literals section
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threadless-screw committed Aug 12, 2019
1 parent 1b907cc commit fbff02f8f653de2049a4e544f25a27e8a350df0e
Showing with 57 additions and 9 deletions.
  1. +57 −9 doc/Language/regexes.pod6
@@ -61,21 +61,69 @@ and L<multi line/embedded comments|
say '2015-12-25'.match($regex); # OUTPUT: «「2015-12-25」␤»
=head1 Literals
=head1 Literals and metacharacters
The simplest use case for a regex is a match against a string literal:
A regex describes a pattern to be matched in terms of literals and
metacharacters. Alphanumeric characters and the underscore C<_> constitute the
literals: these characters match themselves and nothing else. Other characters
act as metacharacters and may, as such, have a special meaning, either by
themselves (such as the dot C<.>, which serves as a wildcard) or together with
other characters in larger metasyntactic constructs (such as C«<?before ...>»,
which defines a lookahead assertion). But before looking at metacharacters and
their particular uses, let's first explore the relation between literals and
metacharacters in some more detail.
In its simplest form a regex comprises only literals:
if 'properly' ~~ / perl / {
say "'properly' contains 'perl'";
say "'properly' contains 'perl'"; # OUTPUT: «'properly' contains 'perl'␤»
}
Alphanumeric characters and the underscore _ are matched literally. All other
characters must either be escaped with a backslash (for example, C<\:> to match
a colon), or be within quotes:
If you want a regex to literally match one or more characters that normally act
as metacharacters, these characters must either be escaped using a backslash, or
be quoted using single or double quotes.
The backslash serves as a switch. It switches a single metacharacter into a
literal, and vice versa:
/ \# / # matches the hash metacharacter literally
/ \w / # turns literal 'w' into a character class (see below)
/Hallelujah\!/ # matches string 'Hallelujah!' incl. exclamation mark
Even if a metacharacter does not (yet) have a special meaning in Perl 6,
escaping (or quoting) it is required to ensure that the regex compiles and
matches the character literally. This allows the clear distinction between
literals and metacharacters to be maintained:
/ \, / # matches a literal comma ','
/ , / # !! error: a yet meaningless/unrecognized metacharacter
# does not automatically match literally
While an escaping backslash exerts its effect on the next individual character,
single I<and multiple> metacharacters may be turned into literally matching
strings by quoting them using single or double quotes:
/ "abc" / # you may quote literals like this, but it has no effect
/ "Hallelujah!" / # yet, this form is generally preferred over /Hallelujah\!/
/ "two words" / # quoting a space renders it significant, so this matches
# the string 'two words' including the intermediate space
/ '#!:@' / # this regex matches the string of metacharacters '#!:@'
Quoting does not turn every metacharacter into a literal, however. This is due
to the fact that quotes allow for backslash-escapes and interpolation.
Specifically: in single quotes, the backslash may be used to escape single
quotes and the backslash itself; double quotes additionally enable the
interpolation of variables, and of code blocks of the form C<{...}>:
/ '\\\'' / # matches a backslash followed by a single quote: \'
/ '\' / # !! error: this is NOT the way to literally match a
# backslash because now it escapes the second quote
my $x = 'Hi';
/ "$x there!" / # matches the string 'Hi there!'
/ 'two words' /; # matches 'two words' including the blank
/ "a:b" /; # matches 'a:b' including the colon
/ \# /; # matches a hash character
/ "1 + 1 = {1+1}" / # matches the string '1 + 1 = 2'
Strings are searched left to right, so it is enough if only part of the string
matches the regex:

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