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=begin pod
=comment
This file is deliberately specified in Perl 6 Pod format
=TITLE
Synopsis 26 - Documentation
=begin VERSION
=table
Maintainer: Damian Conway
Date: 9 Apr 2005
Last Modified: 25 Jul 2014
=end VERSION
=head1
Pod
D<Pod> is an easy-to-use markup language with a simple, consistent
underlying document object model. Pod can be used for writing language
documentation, for documenting programs and modules, as well as for
other types of document composition.
Pod is an evolution of Perl 5's L<I<Plain Ol' Documentation>|doc:perlpod>
(POD) markup. Compared to POD, Perl 6's Pod is much more
uniform, somewhat more compact, and considerably more expressive. The
Pod dialect also differs in that it is a purely descriptive mark-up
notation, with no presentational components.
=head2 General syntactic structure
Pod documents are specified using D<directives|directive>, which are
used to declare configuration information and to delimit blocks of
textual content. All Pod directives are considered to be special types
of comments in Perl 6.
Every directive starts either with an equals sign (C<=>) followed
immediately by an identifier N<as specified in Synopsis 2>, or with
a C<#=> or C<#|> followed immediately by whitespace or an opening bracket.
Directives that start with C<=> can be indented like the code they
interleave, but their initial C<=> must still be the first non-whitespace
character on their line. Directives that start with C<#=> or C<#|> can be placed
anywhere that a Perl 6 comment can appear, though they are meaningful
only in a subset of those places; see L<#Declarator blocks>.
An indented Pod block is considered to have a I<virtual left margin>,
determined by the indentation of its opening delimiter.
In other words, if a directive is indented from the left margin, the
column at which the first character of its opening delimiter appears is
thereafter considered the first column of the entire block's contents.
As with Perl 6 heredocs, the virtual margin treats leading tabs as
aligning to tabstops spaced every C<($?TABSTOP // 8)> characters.
=head2
Pod blocks
The content of a document is specified within one or more D<blocks|block>.
Every Pod block may be declared in any of four forms:
L<I<delimited style>|#Delimited blocks>, L<I<paragraph style>|#Paragraph
blocks>, L<I<abbreviated style>|#Abbreviated blocks>, or L<I<declarator
style>|#Declarator blocks>. The first three forms are all equivalent; the
fourth is distinct.
Anything in a document that is neither a Pod directive nor contained
within a Pod block is treated as "ambient" material. Typically this
would be the source code of the program that the Pod is documenting. Pod
parsers still parse this text into the internal representation of the
file, representing it as a C<Pod::Block::Ambient> block. Renderers
will I<usually> ignore such blocks, but see L<#Aliases>.
In Perl 5's POD format, once a POD directive is encountered, the parser
considers everything that follows to be POD, until an explicit C<=cut>
directive is encountered, at which point the parser flips back to
parsing ambient source code. The Perl 6 Pod format is different. All Pod
directives have a defined terminator and the Pod parser always reverts to
"ambient" at the end of each Pod directive or block. To cause the parser
to remain in Pod mode, you must enclose the desired Pod region in a
C<pod> block:
=begin code :allow<B>
B<=begin pod>
=head1 A heading
This is Pod too. Specifically, this is a simple C<para> block
$this = pod('also'); # Specifically, a code block
B<=end pod>
=end code
=head3 Delimited blocks
Delimited blocks are bounded by C<=begin> and C<=end> markers, both of
which are followed by a valid Perl 6 identifier, which is the
D<typename> of the block. Typenames that are entirely lowercase (for
example: C<=begin head1>) or entirely uppercase (for example: C<=begin
SYNOPSIS>) are reserved.
After the typename, the rest of the C<=begin> marker line is treated as
configuration information for the block. This information is used in
different ways by different types of blocks, but is always specified using
Perl6-ish option pairs. That is, any of:
=for table :nested
Value is... Specify with... Or with... Or with...
=============== =================== ============== ======================
Boolean (true) C«:key» C«:key(1)» C«key => 1»
Boolean (false) C«:!key» C«:key(0)» C«key => 0»
String C«:key<str>» C«:key('str')» C«key => 'str'»
List C«:key<1 2 3>» C«:key[1,2,3]» C«key => [1,2,3]»
Hash C«:key{a=>1, b=>2}» C«key => {a=>1, b=>2}»
All option keys and values must, of course, be constants since Pod is a
specification language, not a programming language. Specifically, option
values cannot be closures. See Synopsis 2 for details of the various
Perl 6 pair notations.
The configuration section may be extended over subsequent lines by
starting those lines with an C<=> in the first (virtual) column followed
by a whitespace character.
The lines following the opening delimiter and configuration are the
data or contents of the block, which continue until the block's matching
C<=end> marker line. For most block types, these contents may be
indented if you wish, without them being treated as L<code blocks|#Code
blocks>. Unlike Perl 5, indented text is only treated as code within
C<=pod>, L<C<=nested>|#Nesting blocks>, L<C<=item>|#Lists>, C<=code>,
and L<semantic|#Semantic blocks> blocks.
The general syntax is:
=begin code :allow< R >
=begin R<BLOCK_TYPE> R<OPTIONAL CONFIG INFO>
= R<OPTIONAL EXTRA CONFIG INFO>
R<BLOCK CONTENTS>
=end R<BLOCK_TYPE>
=end code
For example:
=begin code
=begin table :caption<Table of Contents>
Constants 1
Variables 10
Subroutines 33
Everything else 57
=end table
=begin Name :required
= :width(50)
The applicant's full name
=end Name
=begin Contact :optional
The applicant's contact details
=end Contact
=end code
Note that no blank lines are required around the directives; blank
lines within the contents are always treated as part of the contents.
This is a universal feature of Pod.
Note also that in the following specifications, a "blank line" is a line
that is either empty or that contains only whitespace characters. That
is, a blank line matches the Perl 6 pattern: C</^^ \h* $$/>. Pod uses
blank lines as delimiters, rather than empty lines, to minimize unpleasant
surprises when stray spaces or tabs mysteriously turn up in hitherto
empty lines.
=head3 Paragraph blocks
Paragraph blocks are introduced by a C<=for> marker and terminated by
the next Pod directive or the first blank line (which is I<not>
considered to be part of the block's contents). The C<=for> marker is
followed by the name of the block and optional configuration
information. The general syntax is:
=begin code :allow< R >
=for R<BLOCK_TYPE> R<OPTIONAL CONFIG INFO>
= R<OPTIONAL EXTRA CONFIG INFO>
R<BLOCK DATA>
=end code
For example:
=begin code
=for table :caption<Table of Contents>
Constants 1
Variables 10
Subroutines 33
Everything else 57
=for Name :required
= :width(50)
The applicant's full name
=for Contact :optional
The applicant's contact details
=end code
=head3 Abbreviated blocks
Abbreviated blocks are introduced by an C<'='> sign in the
first column, which is followed immediately by the typename of the
block. The rest of the line is treated as block data, rather than as
configuration. The content terminates at the next Pod directive or the
first blank line (which is not part of the block data). The general
syntax is:
=begin code :allow< R >
=R<BLOCK_TYPE> R<BLOCK DATA>
R<MORE BLOCK DATA>
=end code
For example:
=begin code
=table
Constants 1
Variables 10
Subroutines 33
Everything else 57
=Name The applicant's full name
=Contact The applicant's contact details
=end code
Note that abbreviated blocks cannot specify configuration information. If
configuration is required, use a C<=for> or C<=begin>/C<=end> instead.
=head3 Declarator blocks
The fourth form of Pod block differs from the first three in that it
does not specify an explicit typename. Instead, it obtains its identity
and purpose from the Perl 6 source code to which it is attached;
specifically, from some nearby declarator.
Declarator blocks are introduced by a special Perl comment: either C<#=>
or C<#|>, which must be immediately followed by either by a space or an
opening bracket. If followed by a space, the block is terminated by the
end of line; if followed by one or more opening brackets, the block is
terminated by the matching sequence of closing brackets.
That is, declarator Pod blocks are syntactically like ordinary Perl 6
single-line comments and embedded comments. The general syntax is:
=begin code :allow< R >
#| R<BLOCK DATA TO END OF LINE>
#|{ R<BLOCK DATA>
R<MORE BLOCK DATA>
}
#= R<BLOCK DATA TO END OF LINE>
#={ R<BLOCK DATA>
R<MORE BLOCK DATA>
}
=end code
except that the bracketed forms may use I<any> valid Perl 6 bracket delimiter
(including repeated opening brackets), as described in Synopsis 2.
Declarator Pod blocks must either precede or immediately follow a valid
Perl 6 declarator, and are then said to be "attached" to it. They are
primarily intended to simplify the documentation of code interfaces.
Declarator blocks that start with C<#|> attach to the declarator immediately
after them (separated only by whitespace). Declarator blocks that start with
C<#=> attach to the declarator declared at the start of the line immediately
before them. In all other respects they act just like comments (i.e. they are
themselves whitespace as far as ambient source code is concerned). This means
multiple declarator blocks can be specified in a row and will all attach to the
same declarator.
For example:
=begin code
#| Base class for comms necromancy hierarchy
class Magic::Necrotelecomnicon {
has $.elemental; #= Source of all power
has $!true_name; # Source of all self-protection (not documented)
method cast(#|{ A spell } Spell $s)
#= Initiate a specified spell normally
#= (do not use for class 7 spells)
{
do_raw_magic($s);
}
method kast( #= Initiate a specified spell abnormally
Spell $s #= The spell to be abnormally initiated
) {
do_raw_magic($s, :alternative);
}
#| This subroutine does the real work
sub do_raw_magic (
Spell $s, #= Which spell to invoke
*%options #= How to invoke it
) {...}
}
sub fu (Any $bar)
#=[ This text stored in C<&fu.WHY>, not in C<$bar.WHY>,
(because C<sub fu> is the declarator
at the I<start> of the preceding line)
]
multi sub baz(Int $count, Str $name)
#=[ This text stored in C<&baz:(Int,Str).WHY>
(i.e. the C<.WHY> of the variant, not of the entire multisub)
]
#| Attaches to the specific parameterized role, rather than the role group itself
role R[::T] {}
role R {}
=end code
A declarator can have multiple leading and/or trailing Pod comments, in
which case they are concatenated with an intermediate newline when
their object's C<.WHY> return value is stringified:
#| This is a special chainsaw
#| (Why, you ask?)
my SwissArmy $chainsaw #= (It has a rocket launcher!)
say $chainsaw.WHY; # prints: This is a special chainsaw
# (Why, you ask?)
# (It has a rocket launcher!)
The individual leading and trailing Pod comments can be retrieved
via the returned Pod object's C<.leading> and C<.trailing> methods:
say $chainsaw.WHY.leading; # prints: This is a special chainsaw
(Why, you ask?)
say $chainsaw.WHY.trailing; # prints: (It has a rocket launcher!)
The Pod object representing each Declarator block is still appended to
the current surrounding Pod object (e.g. to C<$=pod> at the top level).
Each such block representation is an object of class
C<Pod::Block::Declarator>, and has a C<.WHEREFORE> method that returns
the code object or metaobject created by the declarator to which the
documentation is attached.
In other words, C<.WHY> and C<.WHEREFORE> are inverse operations:
=code
.WHY
----------------------------
| |
| v
----------------- -----------------
| Declared code | | Documentation |
| object | | object |
----------------- -----------------
^ |
| |
----------------------------
.WHEREFORE
When the L<default C<DOC INIT> block|#How Pod is parsed and processed>
renders these Pod objects, it automatically includes information about
the declarator as well. For instance, the earlier Necrotelecomnicon
example might produce something like:
=begin output
Name: Magic::Necrotelecomnicon:
Desc: Base class for comms necromancy hierarchy
Attrs:
.elemental : Source of all power
Methods:
.cast(Spell $s) : Initiate a specified spell normally
.kast(Spell $s) : Initiate a specified spell abnormally
Subroutines:
do_raw_magic( : This subroutine does the real work
Spell $s, : Which spell to invoke
*%options : How to invoke it
)
=end output
Note, however, that the exact rendering used for declarator blocks is
implementation dependent, and may also be pre-empted explicitly by some
L<C<DOC> configuration statement|#How Pod is parsed and processed>
within the document, such as:
DOC use Pod::Markovian;
or:
DOC INIT {
use Pod::Eiffelish::Long;
say eiffelish_long($=pod);
exit;
}
=head3 Block equivalence
The first three block specifications (delimited, paragraph, and
abbreviated) are treated identically by the underlying documentation
model, so you can use whichever form is most convenient for a particular
documentation task. In the descriptions that follow, the abbreviated
form will generally be used, but should be read as standing for all
three forms equally.
For example, although L<#Headings> shows only:
=begin code
=head1 Top Level Heading
=end code
this automatically implies that you could also write that block as:
=begin code
=for head1
Top Level Heading
=end code
or:
=begin code
=begin head1
Top Level Heading
=end head1
=end code
Declarator blocks are distinct from these three forms. They do not have
typenames of their own, but rather take their meaning and identity from
the declared object or type to which they are attached. In general, they
are used specifically to describe that declarand.
=head3 Standard configuration options
Pod predefines a small number of standard configuration options that can be
applied uniformly to any built-in block type. These include:
=begin defn
C<:nested>
This option specifies that the block is to be nested within its current
context. For example, nesting might be applied to block quotes, to textual
examples, or to commentaries. In addition the L<C<=code>|#Code blocks>,
L<C<=item>|#Lists>, L<C<=input>|#I/O blocks>, and L<C<=output>|#I/O blocks>
blocks all have implicit nesting.
Nesting of blocks is usually rendered by adding extra indentation to the
block contents, but may also be indicated in other ways:
by boxing the contents, by changing the font or size of the nested text,
or even by folding the text (so long as a visible placeholder is provided).
Occasionally it is desirable to nest content by more than one level:
=begin code
=begin para :nested
=begin para :nested
=begin para :nested
"We're going deep, deep, I<deep> undercover!"
=end para
=end para
=end para
=end code
This can be simplified by giving the C<:nested> option a positive integer
value:
=begin code :allow<B>
=begin para B<:nested(3)>
"We're going deep, deep, I<deep> undercover!"
=end para
=end code
You can also give the option a value of zero, to defeat any implicit
nesting that might normally be applied to a paragraph. For example, to
specify a block of code that should appear I<without> its usual
nesting:
=begin code :allow<B V>
=comment Don't nest this code block in the usual way...
B<=begin code :nested(0)>
1 2 3 4 5 6
123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
|------|-----------------------|---------------------------|
line instruction comments
number code
V<=end code>
=end code
Note that C<:!nested> could also be used for this purpose:
=begin code
=Z<>begin code :!nested
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<:numbered>
This option specifies that the block is to be numbered. The most common
use of this option is to create L<numbered headings|#Numbered headings> and
L<ordered lists|#Ordered lists>, but it can be applied to any block.
The numbering conventions for headings and lists are specified in those
sections, but it is up to individual renderers to decide how to display
any numbering associated with other types of blocks.
Note that numbering is never explicit; it is always implied by context.
=end defn
=begin defn
C<:formatted>
This option specifies that the contents of the block should be treated as if
they had one or more L<formatting codes|#Formatting codes> placed around them.
For example, instead of:
=begin code
=for comment
The next para is both important and fundamental,
so doubly emphasize it...
=begin para
B<I<
Warning: Do not immerse in water. Do not expose to bright light.
Do not feed after midnight.
>>
=end para
=end code
you can just write:
=begin code :allow<B>
=begin para B<:formatted<B I>>
Warning: Do not immerse in water. Do not expose to bright light.
Do not feed after midnight.
=end para
=end code
The internal representations of these two versions are exactly the same,
except that the second one retains the C<:formatted> option information
as part of the resulting block object.
Like all formatting codes, codes applied via a C<:formatted> are
inherently cumulative. For example, if the block itself is already
inside a formatting code, that formatting code will still apply, in
addition to the extra "basis" and "important" formatting specified by
C<:formatted<B I>>.
=end defn
=begin defn
C<:like>
This option specifies that a block or config has the same formatting
properties as the type named by its value. This is useful for creating
related L<configurations|#Block pre-configuration> or for making
user-defined synonyms for existing types. For example:
=begin code
=config head2 :like<head1> :formatted<I>
=config Subhead :like<head2>
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<:allow>
This option expects a list of formatting codes that are to be recognized
within any C<V<>> codes that appear in (or are implicitly applied to)
the current block. The option is most often used on C<=code> blocks to
allow mark-up within those otherwise verbatim blocks, though it can be
used in I<any> block that contains verbatim text. See L<#Formatting
within code blocks>.
=end defn
=begin defn
C<:margin>
This option specifies a character that indicates the left margin of the
contents of the block. Normally this left margin is determined by the column
at which the C<=> of the opening block-delimiter occurs. For example:
=begin code
=head1 Indenting Pod blocks
=begin para
This text is flush with the (virtual) left margin of
the Pod block because that margin is implicitly specified
by the C<=> of the C<=begin>
=end para
=end code
However, by using the C<:margin> option it is possible to specify a
character that acts like an explicit margin when it occurs as the first
non-whitespace character on any line within the block. For example:
=begin code
=head1 Indenting Pod blocks
=begin para :margin<|>
|This text is flush with the (virtual) left margin of
|the Pod block because that margin is explicitly marked
|by the C<|>, as specified by the block's C<:margin<|>> option.
=end para
=end code
The virtual margin can even be to the left of the opening delimiter, which can
be convenient to guide subsequent indentations. For example:
=begin code
sub foo {
V<=begin> pod :margin<|>
|=head1 Hey Look: Indented Pod!
|
|You can indent Pod in Perl 6
|which makes code look cleaner
|when documentation is interspersed
|
| my $this is Code;
|
|=end pod
...
}
=end code
When a C<:margin> option is used, each subsequent line (until the
corresponding closing delimiter is encountered) simply has any text matching
C</^^ \s* $margin_char/> automatically removed. This may include a line that
then becomes the closing delimiter, as in the above example.
Any line from which such a margin marker is removed automatically resets
the implicit margin for subsequent lines of the block, setting it to the
length of the "marginalized" indent that was just removed. This implicit
margin is then used until the next line with an explicit margin marker
is encountered, or the block terminates.
=end defn
=head2 Block types
Pod offers notations for specifying a wide range of standard block types...
=head3 Headings
Pod provides an unlimited number of levels of heading, specified by the
C<=head>R<N> block marker. For example:
=begin code
=head1 A Top Level Heading
=head2 A Second Level Heading
=head3 A third level heading
=head86 A "Missed it by I<that> much!" heading
=end code
While Pod parsers are required to recognize and distinguish all levels
of heading, Pod renderers are only required to provide distinct
I<renderings> of the first four levels of heading (though they may, of
course, provide more than that). Headings at levels without distinct
renderings would typically be rendered like the lowest distinctly
rendered level.
=head4 Numbered headings
You can specify that a heading is numbered using the C<:numbered> option. For
example:
=begin code
=for head1 :numbered
The Problem
=for head1 :numbered
The Solution
=for head2 :numbered
Analysis
=for head3
Overview
=for head3
Details
=for head2 :numbered
Design
=for head1 :numbered
The Implementation
=end code
which would produce:
=begin nested :formatted<B>
1. The Problem
2. The Solution
=begin nested
2.1. Analysis
=begin nested
Overview
Details
=end nested
2.2: Design
=end nested
3. The Implementation
=end nested
It is usually better to preset a numbering scheme for each heading
level, in a series of L<configuration blocks|#Block pre-configuration>:
=begin code :allow<B Z>
B<=config head1 :numbered
Z<>=config head2 :numbered
Z<>=config head3 :!numbered>
=head1 The Problem
=head1 The Solution
=head2 Analysis
=head3 Overview
=head3 Details
=head2 Design
=head1 The Implementation
=end code
Alternatively, as a short-hand, if the first whitespace-delimited word
in a heading consists of a single literal C<#> character, the C<#> is
removed and the heading is treated as if it had a C<:numbered> option:
=begin code
=head1 # The Problem
=head1 # The Solution
=head2 # Analysis
=head3 Overview
=head3 Details
=head2 # Design
=head1 # The Implementation
=end code
Note that, even though renderers are not required to distinctly render
more than the first four levels of heading, they I<are> required to
correctly honour arbitrarily nested numberings. That is:
=begin code
=head6 # The Rescue of the Kobayashi Maru
=end code
should produce something like:
=nested
B<2.3.8.6.1.9. The Rescue of the Kobayashi Maru>
=head3 Ordinary paragraph blocks
Ordinary paragraph blocks consist of text that is to be formatted into
a document at the current level of nesting, with whitespace
squeezed, lines filled, and any special L<inline mark-up|#Formatting codes>
applied.
Ordinary paragraphs consist of one or more consecutive lines of text,
each of which starts with a non-whitespace character at (virtual) column
1. The paragraph is terminated by the first blank line or block
directive. For example:
=begin code
=head1 This is a heading block
This is an ordinary paragraph.
Its text will be squeezed and
short lines filled. It is terminated by
the first blank line.
This is another ordinary paragraph.
Its text will also be squeezed and
short lines filled. It is terminated by
the trailing directive on the next line.
=head2 This is another heading block
This is yet another ordinary paragraph,
at the first virtual column set by the
previous directive
=end code
Within a C<=pod>, C<=item>, C<=defn>, C<=nested>, C<=finish>, or
L<semantic|#Semantic blocks> block, ordinary paragraphs do not require
an explicit marker or delimiters, but there is also an explicit C<para>
marker (which may be used anywhere):
=begin code :allow<B>
B<=para>
This is an ordinary paragraph.
Its text will be squeezed and
short lines filled.
=end code
and likewise the longer C<=for> and C<=begin>/C<=end> forms. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
B<=begin para>
This is an ordinary paragraph.
Its text will be squeezed and
short lines filled.
This is I<still> part of the same paragraph,
which continues until an...
B<=end para>
=end code
As the previous example implies, when any form of explicit C<para> block
is used, any whitespace at the start of each line is removed during rendering.
In addition, within a delimited C<=begin para>/C<=end para> block, any
blank lines are preserved.
=head3 Code blocks
Code blocks are used to specify pre-formatted text (typically source
code), which should be rendered without rejustification, without
whitespace-squeezing, and without recognizing any inline formatting
codes. Code blocks also have an implicit L<nesting|#Nesting blocks>
associated with them. Typically these blocks are used to show examples
of code, mark-up, or other textual specifications, and are rendered
using a fixed-width font.
A code block may be implicitly specified as one or more lines of text,
each of which starts with a whitespace character at the block's virtual
left margin. The implicit code block is then terminated by a blank line.
For example:
=begin code
This ordinary paragraph introduces a code block:
$this = 1 * code('block');
$which.is_specified(:by<indenting>);
=end code
Implicit code blocks may only be used within C<=pod>, C<=item>, C<=defn>,
C<=nested>, C<=finish>, or L<semantic|#Semantic blocks> blocks.
There is also an explicit C<=code> block (which can be specified within
I<any> other block type, not just C<=pod>, C<=item>, etc.):
=begin code :allow<B>
The C<loud_update()> subroutine adds feedback:
B<=begin code>
sub loud_update ($who, $status) {
say "$who -> $status";
silent_update($who, $status);
}
B<=end code>
=end code
As the previous example demonstrates, within an explicit C<=code> block
the code can start at the (virtual) left margin. Furthermore, lines that
start with whitespace characters after that margin have subsequent
whitespace preserved exactly (in addition to the implicit nesting of the
code). Explicit C<=code> blocks may also contain empty lines.
=head4 Formatting within code blocks
Although C<=code> blocks automatically disregard all L<formatting
codes|#Formatting codes>, occasionally you may still need to specify
some formatting within a code block. For example, you may wish
to emphasize a particular keyword in an example (using a C<B<>> code). Or
you may want to indicate that part of the example is metasyntactic
(using the C<R<>> code). Or you might need to insert a non-ASCII
character (using the C<E<>> code).
You can specify a list of formatting codes that should still be
recognized within a code block using the C<:allow> option. The value of
the C<:allow> option must be a list of the (single-letter) names of one
or more formatting codes. Those codes will then remain active inside the
code block. For example:
=begin code
=begin code :allow< B R >
sub demo {
B<say> 'Hello R<name>';
}
=end code
=end code
would be rendered:
=begin code :allow< B R >
sub demo {
B<say> 'Hello R<name>';
}
=end code
Note that the use of the C<:allow> option also makes it possible
for verbatim L<formatting codes|#Formatting codes> (such as C<C<>>
and C<V<>>) to L<contain other codes as well|#Pre-configuring formatting codes>.
=head3 I/O blocks
Pod also provides blocks for specifying the input and output of programs.
The C<=input> block is used to specify pre-formatted keyboard input,
which should be rendered without rejustification or squeezing of whitespace.
The C<=output> block is used to specify pre-formatted terminal or file
output which should also be rendered without rejustification or
whitespace-squeezing.
Note that, like C<=code> blocks, both C<=input> and C<=output> blocks have an
implicit level of nesting. They are also like C<=code> blocks in that they
are typically rendered in a fixed-width font, though ideally all three blocks
would be rendered in distinct font/weight combinations (for example: regular
serifed for code, bold sans-serif for input, and regular sans-serif for
output).
Unlike C<=code> blocks, both C<=input> and C<=output> blocks honour any
nested formatting codes. This is particularly useful since a sample of
input will often include prompts (which are, of course, output).
Likewise a sample of output may contain the occasional interactive
component. Pod provides L<special formatting codes|#Example specifiers>
(C<K<>> and C<T<>>) to indicate embedded input or output, so you can use
the block type that indicates the overall purpose of the sample (i.e. is
it demonstrating an input operation or an output sequence?) and then use
the "contrasting" formatting code within the block.
For example, to include a small amount of input in a sample of output
you could use the C<K<>> formatting code:
=begin code :allow<B>
=begin output
Name: Baracus, B.A.
Rank: Sgt
Serial: 1PTDF007
Do you want additional personnel details? B<K<y>>
Height: 180cm/5'11"
Weight: 104kg/230lb
Age: 49
Print? B<K<n>>
=end output
=end code
=head3 Lists
Lists in Pod are specified as a series of contiguous C<=item> blocks. No
special "container" directives or other delimiters are required to
enclose the entire list. For example:
=begin code
The seven suspects are:
=item Happy
=item Dopey
=item Sleepy
=item Bashful
=item Sneezy
=item Grumpy
=item Keyser Soze
=end code
List items have one implicit level of nesting:
=begin nested
The seven suspects are:
=item Happy
=item Dopey
=item Sleepy
=item Bashful
=item Sneezy
=item Grumpy
=item Keyser Soze
=end nested
Lists may be multi-level, with items at each level specified using the
C<=item1>, C<=item2>, C<=item3>, etc. blocks. Note that C<=item> is just
an abbreviation for C<=item1>. For example:
=begin code
=item1 Animal
=item2 Vertebrate
=item2 Invertebrate
=item1 Phase
=item2 Solid
=item2 Liquid
=item2 Gas
=item2 Chocolate
=end code
which would be rendered something like:
=for para :nested
E<bull> Animal
=for para :nested(2)
E<ndash> Vertebrate
=for para :nested(2)
E<ndash> Invertebrate
=for para :nested
E<bull> Phase
=for para :nested(2)
E<ndash> Solid
=for para :nested(2)
E<ndash> Liquid
=for para :nested(2)
E<ndash> Gas
=for para :nested(2)
E<ndash> Chocolate
Pod parsers must issue a warning if a "level-R<N+1>" C<=item> block
(e.g. an C<=item2>, C<=item3>, etc.) appears anywhere except where there
is a preceding "level-R<N>" C<=item> in the same surrounding block. That
is, an C<=item3> should only be specified if an C<=item2> appears
somewhere before it, and that C<=item2> should itself only appear if
there is a preceding C<=item1>.
Note that item blocks within the same list are not physically nested.
That is, lower-level items should I<not> be specified inside
higher-level items:
=begin code
=comment WRONG...
=begin item1 --------------
The choices are: |
=item2 Liberty ==< Level 2 |==< Level 1
=item2 Death ==< Level 2 |
=item2 Beer ==< Level 2 |
=end item1 --------------
=end code
=begin code
=comment CORRECT...
=begin item1 ---------------
The choices are: |==< Level 1
=end item1 ---------------
=item2 Liberty ==================< Level 2
=item2 Death ==================< Level 2
=item2 Beer ==================< Level 2
=end code
=head4 Ordered lists
An item is part of an ordered list if the item has a C<:numbered>
configuration option:
=begin code
=for item1 :numbered
Visito
=for item2 :numbered
Veni
=for item2 :numbered
Vidi
=for item2 :numbered
Vici
=end code
This would produce something like:
=begin nested
1. Visito
=begin nested
1.1. Veni
1.2. Vidi
1.3. Vici
=end nested
=end nested
although the numbering scheme is entirely at the discretion of the
renderer, so it might equally well be rendered:
=begin nested
1. Visito
=begin nested
1a. Veni
1b. Vidi
1c. Vici
=end nested
=end nested
or even:
=begin nested
A: Visito
=begin nested
E<nbsp;nbsp>(i) Veni
E<nbsp>(ii) Vidi
(iii) Vici
=end nested
=end nested
Alternatively, if the first word of the item consists of a single C<#>
character, the item is treated as having a C<:numbered> option:
=begin code
=item1 # Visito
=item2 # Veni
=item2 # Vidi
=item2 # Vici
=end code
To specify an I<unnumbered> list item that starts with a literal C<#>, either
make the octothorpe verbatim:
=begin code :allow<B>
=item B<V<#>> introduces a comment
=end code
or explicitly mark the item itself as being unnumbered:
=begin code :allow<B>
=for item B<:!numbered>
# introduces a comment
=end code
The numbering of successive C<=item1> list items increments
automatically, but is reset to 1 whenever any other kind of non-ambient
Pod block appears between two C<=item1> blocks. For example:
=begin code
The options are:
=item1 # Liberty
=item1 # Death
=item1 # Beer
The tools are:
=item1 # Revolution
=item1 # Deep-fried peanut butter sandwich
=item1 # Keg
=end code
would produce:
=begin nested
The options are:
=begin nested
=para 1. Liberty
=para 2. Death
=para 3. Beer
=end nested
The tools are:
=begin nested
=para 1. Revolution
=para 2. Deep-fried peanut butter sandwich
=para 3. Keg
=end nested
=end nested
The numbering of nested items (C<=item2>, C<=item3>, etc.) only resets
(to 1) when the higher-level item's numbering either resets or increments.
To prevent a numbered C<=item1> from resetting after a non-item block,
you can specify the C<:continued> option:
=begin code :allow<B>
=for item1
# Retreat to remote Himalayan monastery
=for item1
# Learn the hidden mysteries of space and time
I<????>
=for item1 B<:continued>
# Prophet!
=end code
which produces:
=begin nested
=para 1. Retreat to remote Himalayan monastery
=para 2. Learn the hidden mysteries of space and time
=para I<????>
=para 3. Prophet!
=end nested
=head4 Unordered lists
List items that are not C<:numbered> are treated as defining unordered
lists. Typically, such lists are rendered with bullets. For example:
=begin code
=item1 Reading
=item2 Writing
=item3 'Rithmetic
=end code
might be rendered:
=for para :nested(1)
E<bull;nbsp;nbsp>Reading
=for para :nested(2)
E<mdash;nbsp;nbsp>Writing
=for para :nested(3)
E<curren;nbsp;nbsp>'Rithmetic
As with numbering styles, the bulletting strategy used for different levels
within a nested list is entirely up to the renderer.
=head4 Multi-paragraph list items
Use the delimited form of the C<=item> block to specify items that
contain multiple paragraphs. For example:
=begin code
Let's consider two common proverbs:
=begin item :numbered
I<The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain.>
This is a common myth and an unconscionable slur on the Spanish
people, the majority of whom are extremely attractive.
=end item
=begin item :numbered
I<The early bird gets the worm.>
In deciding whether to become an early riser, it is worth
considering whether you would actually enjoy annelids
for breakfast.
=end item
As you can see, folk wisdom is often of dubious value.
=end code
which produces:
=begin nested
=config item :numbered
Let's consider two common proverbs:
=begin item
I<The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain.>
This is a common myth and an unconscionable slur on the Spanish
people, the majority of whom are extremely attractive.
=end item
=begin item
I<The early bird gets the worm.>
In deciding whether to become an early riser, it is worth
considering whether you would actually enjoy annelids
for breakfast.
=end item
As you can see, folk wisdom is often of dubious value.
=end nested
=head4 Definition lists
To create term/definition lists, use a C<=defn> block. This is
similar in effect to an C<=item> block, in that a series of C<=defn>
blocks implicitly defines a list (but which might then be rendered into
HTML using C«<DL>...</DL>» tags, rather than C«<UL>...</UL>» tags)
The first non-blank line of content is treated as a term being defined,
and the remaining content is treated as the definition for the term.
For example:
=begin code
=defn MAD
Affected with a high degree of intellectual independence.
=defn MEEKNESS
Uncommon patience in planning a revenge that is worth while.
=defn
MORAL
Conforming to a local and mutable standard of right.
Having the quality of general expediency.
=end code
Like other kinds of list items, definitions can be numbered, using either an
option or a leading C<#>:
=begin code :allow<B>
=for defn B<:numbered>
SELFISH
Devoid of consideration for the selfishness of others.
=defn B<#> SUCCESS
The one unpardonable sin against one's fellows.
=end code
=head3 Nesting blocks
Any block can be nested by specifying a C<:nested> option on it:
=begin code :allow<B>
=begin para B<:nested>
We are all of us in the gutter,E<NL>
but some of us are looking at the stars!
=end para
=end code
However, qualifying each nested paragraph individually quickly becomes
tedious if there are many in a sequence, or if multiple levels of
nesting are required:
=begin code :allow<B>
=begin para B<:nested>
We are all of us in the gutter,E<NL>
but some of us are looking at the stars!
=end para
=begin para B<:nested(2)>
-- Oscar Wilde
=end para
=end code
So Pod provides a C<=nested> block that marks all its contents as being
nested:
=begin code :allow<B>
B<=begin nested>
We are all of us in the gutter,E<NL>
but some of us are looking at the stars!
B<=begin nested>
-- Oscar Wilde
B<=end nested>
B<=end nested>
=end code
Nesting blocks can contain any other kind of block, including implicit
paragraph and code blocks. Note that the relative physical indentation
of the blocks plays no role in determining their ultimate nesting.
The preceding example could equally have been specified:
=begin code :allow<B>
B<=begin nested>
We are all of us in the gutter,E<NL>
but some of us are looking at the stars!
B<=begin nested>
-- Oscar Wilde
B<=end nested>
B<=end nested>
=end code
=head3 Tables
Simple tables can be specified in Pod using a C<=table> block.
The table may be given an associated description or title using the
C<:caption> option.
Columns are separated by two or more consecutive whitespace characters
(double-space),
or by a vertical line (C<|>) or a border intersection (C<+>), either of
which must be separated from any content by at least one whitespace
character. Note that only one column separator type is allowed in a single line,
but different lines are allowed to use different visible column separator types
(that style is not recommended). Using a mixture of visible and non-visible
column separator types in a table is an error.
Rows can be specified in one of two ways: either one row per line, with
no separators; or multiple lines per row with explicit horizontal
separators (whitespace, intersections (C<+>), or horizontal lines: C<->,
C<=>, C<_>) between I<every> row. Either style can also have an
explicitly separated header row at the top. If rows are using the
two-whitespace-character separator, the row cells should be carefully
aligned to ensure the table is interpreted as the user intended.
Each individual table cell is separately formatted, as if it were a
nested C<=para>. Note that table rows are expected to have the same number
of cells.
This means you can create tables compactly, line-by-line:
=begin code
=table
The Shoveller Eddie Stevens King Arthur's singing shovel
Blue Raja Geoffrey Smith Master of cutlery
Mr Furious Roy Orson Ticking time bomb of fury
The Bowler Carol Pinnsler Haunted bowling ball
=end code
or line-by-line with multi-line headers:
=begin code
=table
Superhero | Secret |
| Identity | Superpower
==============|=================|================================
The Shoveller | Eddie Stevens | King Arthur's singing shovel
Blue Raja | Geoffrey Smith | Master of cutlery
Mr Furious | Roy Orson | Ticking time bomb of fury
The Bowler | Carol Pinnsler | Haunted bowling ball
=end code
or with multi-line headers I<and> multi-line data:
=begin code
=begin table :caption('The Other Guys')
Secret
Superhero Identity Superpower
============= =============== ===================
The Shoveller Eddie Stevens King Arthur's
singing shovel
Blue Raja Geoffrey Smith Master of cutlery
Mr Furious Roy Orson Ticking time bomb
of fury
The Bowler Carol Pinnsler Haunted bowling ball
=end table
=end code
=head3 Named blocks
Blocks whose names contain at least one uppercase and one lowercase
letter are assumed to be destined for specialized renderers or parser
plug-ins. For example:
=begin code
=begin Xhtml
<object type="video/quicktime" data="onion.mov">
=end Xhtml
=end code
or:
=begin code
=Image http://www.perlfoundation.org/images/perl_logo_32x104.png
=end code
Named blocks are converted by the Pod parser to block objects;
specifically, to objects of a subclass of the standard
C<Pod::Block::Named> class.
For example, the blocks of the previous example would be converted to
objects of the classes C<Pod::Block::Named::Xhtml> and
C<Pod::Block::Named::Image> respectively. Both of those classes
would be automatically created as subclasses of the
C<Pod::Block::Named> class (unless they were already defined in a module
loaded via some prior L<C<DOC use>|#How Pod is parsed and processed>.
The resulting object's C<.typename> method retrieves the short name of
the block type: C<'Xhtml'>, C<'Image'>, etc. The object's C<.config>
method retrieves the list of configuration options (if any). The
object's C<.contents> method retrieves a list of the block's
verbatim contents.
Named blocks for which no explicit class has been defined or loaded are
usually not rendered by the standard renderers.
Note that all block names consisting entirely of lowercase or entirely of
uppercase letters are reserved. See L<#Semantic blocks>.
=head3 Pod comments
All Pod blocks are intrinsically Perl 6 comments, but
D<Pod comments|Pod comment> are comments that Pod renderers ignore too.
That is, they are Pod blocks that are never to be rendered by any
renderer. They are, of course, still included in any internal Pod
representation, and are accessible via the Pod API...and via the
C<$=pod> variable within a Perl 6 program.
Comments are useful for meta-documentation (documenting the documentation):
=begin code
=comment Add more here about the algorithm
=end code
and for temporarily removing parts of a document:
=begin code :allow<B>
=item # Retreat to remote Himalayan monastery
=item # Learn the hidden mysteries of space and time
=item # Achieve enlightenment
B<=begin comment>
=item # Prophet!
B<=end comment>
=end code
Note that, since the Perl interpreter never executes embedded Pod
blocks, C<comment> blocks can also be used as an alternative form of
nestable block comments in Perl 6:
=begin code
=begin comment
for @files -> $file {
shell("rm -rf $file");
}
=end comment
=end code
=head3 The C<=finish> block
The C<=finish> block is special in that all three of its forms
(L<delimited|#Delimited blocks>, L<paragraph|#Paragraph blocks>, and
L<abbreviated|#Abbreviated blocks>) are terminated only by the end of the
current file. That is, neither C<=finish> nor C<=for finish> are terminated by the
next blank line, and C<=end finish> has no effect within a C<=begin finish> block.
A warning is issued if an explicit C<=end finish> appears within a document.
An C<=finish> block indicates the end-point of any ambient material within
the document. This means that the parser will treat all the remaining
text in the file as Pod, even if it is not inside an explicit block. In
other words, apart from its special end-of-file termination behaviour,
an C<=finish> block is in all other respects identical to a C<=pod> block.
=head3 Data blocks
Named Pod blocks whose typename is C<data> are the Perl 6 equivalent of
the Perl 5 C<__DATA__> section. The difference is that C<=data> blocks are
just regular Pod blocks and may appear anywhere within a source file, and as
many times as required.
There is a corresponding variable, C<$=data>, from which each C<=data> block
can be retrieved. C<$=data> holds an object that does both the Associative
and Positional roles.
Each C<=data> block can be given a C<:key> option, to name it. The contents
of any C<=data> block with a key are accessible (as a single string) via
the Associative aspect of C<$=data> object. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
=begin data :key<Virtues>
Laziness
Impatience
Hubris
=end data
say 'The three virtues are:';
say $=data<Virtues>;
=end code
The contents of any C<=data> block that does not have a C<:key> are
accessible (as a single string) via the Positional aspect of
C<$=data>. Unkeyed C<=data> blocks are stored in the same order
they appear in the file. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
say 'The second anti_Virtue is: ', $=data[1];
=data Industry
=data Patience
=data Humility
=end code
Note that, as the preceding example illustrates, because Pod is a
compile-time phenomenon, it is possible to specify C<=data> blocks
I<after> the point in the source where their contents will be used
(provided they're not being used in a C<BEGIN>, of course).
When C<$=data> itself is stringified, it returns the concatenation of all
the unkeyed C<=data> blocks the parser has seen.
C<=data> blocks are never rendered by the standard Pod renderers.
=head3 Semantic blocks
All uppercase block typenames are reserved for specifying standard
documentation, publishing, source components, or meta-information of a
compunit it needs to be able to be selected for loading. In particular, all the
standard components found in Perl and manpage documentation have
reserved uppercase typenames.
Standard semantic blocks include:
=begin code
=NAME
=AUTHOR
=VERSION
=CREATED
=EMULATES
=EXCLUDES
=SYNOPSIS
=DESCRIPTION
=USAGE
=INTERFACE
=METHOD
=SUBROUTINE
=OPTION
=DIAGNOSTIC
=ERROR
=WARNING
=DEPENDENCY
=BUG
=SEE-ALSO
=ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
=COPYRIGHT
=DISCLAIMER
=LICENCE
=LICENSE
=TITLE
=SECTION
=CHAPTER
=APPENDIX
=TOC
=INDEX
=FOREWORD
=SUMMARY
=end code
The plural forms of each of these keywords are also reserved, and are
aliases for the singular forms.
Most of these blocks would typically be used in their full delimited forms:
=begin code
=begin SYNOPSIS
use Magic::Parser;
my Magic::Parser $parser .= new();
my $tree = $parser.parse($fh);
=end SYNOPSIS
=end code
Semantic blocks can be considered to be variants of the C<=head1> block
in most respects (and most renderers will treat them as such). The main
difference is that, in a C<=head1> block, the heading is the contents of
the block; whereas, in a semantic block, the heading is derived from the
typename of the block itself and the block contents are instead treated as
the C<=para> or C<=code> block(s) belonging to the heading.
The use of these special blocks is not required; you can still just write:
=begin code
=head1 SYNOPSIS
=begin code
use Magic::Parser
my Magic::Parser $parser .= new();
my $tree = $parser.parse($fh);
=end code
=end code
However, using the keywords adds semantic information to the
documentation, which may assist various renderers, summarizers, coverage
tools, document refactorers, and other utilities. This is because a
semantic block I<encloses> the text it controls (unlike a C<=head1>,
which merely precedes its corresponding text), so using semantic blocks
produces a more explicitly structured document.
Note that there is no requirement that semantic blocks be rendered in
a particular way (or at all). Specifically, it is not necessary to
preserve the capitalization of the keyword. For example, the
C<=SYNOPSIS> block of the preceding example might be rendered like so:
=begin nested
B<3.E<nbsp;nbsp>I<Synopsis>>
=begin code
use Perl6::Magic::Parser;
my $rep = Perl6::Magic::Parser.parse($fh, :all_pod);
=end code
=end nested
=head2 Formatting codes
Formatting codes provide a way to add inline mark-up to a piece of text
within the contents of (most types of) Pod block (including all
L<declarator blocks|#Declarator blocks>). Formatting codes are
themselves a type of block, and may nest other formatting codes.
other type of block (most often, other formatting codes). In particular,
you can nest comment blocks in the middle of a formatting code:
=begin code :allow<B V>
V<B><I shall say this loudly
B<Z<and repeatedly>>
and with emphasis.>
=end code
All Pod formatting codes consist of a single capital letter followed
immediately by a set of angle brackets. The brackets contain the text or
data to which the formatting code applies. You can use a set of single
angles (C«<...>»), a set of double angles (C<«...»>), or multiple
single-angles (C«<<<...>>>»).
Within angle delimiters, you cannot use sequences of the same angle
characters that are longer than the delimiters:
=begin code :allow<B>
=comment
These are errors...
C< $fooB«<<»barB«>>» >
The Perl 5 heredoc syntax was: C< B«<<»END_MARKER >
=end code
You I<can> use sequences of angles that are the same length as
the delimiters, but they must be balanced. For example:
C< $foo<bar> >
C<< $foo<<bar>> >>
If you need an unbalanced angle, either use different delimiters:
=begin code :allow<B>
CB<«>$foo < $barB<»>
The Perl 5 heredoc syntax was: CB<«> <<END_MARKER B<»>
=end code
or delimiters with more consecutive angles than your text contains:
=begin code :allow<B>
CB«<<»$foo < $barB«>>»
The Perl 5 heredoc syntax was: CB«<<<» <<END_MARKER B«>>>»
=end code
A formatting code ends at the matching closing angle bracket(s), or at
the end of the enclosing block or formatting code in which the opening
angle bracket was specified, whichever comes first (this includes paragraph
and abbreviated blocks, ending with blank a line). Pod parsers are
required to issue a warning whenever a formatting code is terminated by
the end of an outer block rather than by its own delimiter (unless the
user explicitly disables the warning).
=head3 Significance indicators
Pod provides three formatting codes that flag their contents with
increasing levels of significance:
=item
The C<U<>> formatting code specifies that the contained text is
B<unusual> or distinctive; that it is of I<minor significance>. Typically
such content would be rendered in an underlined style.
=item
The C<I<>> formatting code specifies that the contained text is
B<important>; that it is of I<major significance>. Such content would
typically be rendered in italics or in C< <em>...</em> > tags
=item
The C<B<>> formatting code specifies that the contained text is the
B<basis> or focus of the surrounding text; that it is of I<fundamental
significance>. Such content would typically be rendered in a bold style or
in C< <strong>...</strong> > tags.
=head3 Definitions
The C<D<>> formatting code indicates that the contained text is a
B<definition>, introducing a term that the adjacent text
elucidates. It is the inline equivalent of a C<=defn> block.
For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
There ensued a terrible moment of B<D<coyotus interruptus>>: a brief
suspension of the effects of gravity, accompanied by a sudden
to-the-camera realization of imminent downwards acceleration.
=end code
A definition may be given synonyms, which are specified after a vertical bar
and separated by semicolons:
=begin code :allow<B>
A B<D<formatting code|formatting codes;formatters>> provides a way
to add inline mark-up to a piece of text.
=end code
A definition would typically be rendered in italics or C< <dfn>...</dfn> >
tags and will often be used as a link target for subsequent instances of the
term (or any of its specified synonyms) within a hypertext.
=head3 Example specifiers
Pod provides formatting codes for specifying inline examples of input,
output, code, and metasyntax:
=begin item
The C<T<>> formatting code specifies that the contained text is
B<terminal output>; that is: something that a program might print out.
Such content would typically be rendered in a T<fixed-width font> or with
C< <samp>...</samp> > tags. The contents of a C<T<>> code are always
L<space-preserved | #Space-preserving text> (as if they had an implicit
C<S<...>> around them). The C<T<>> code is the inline equivalent of the
C<=output> block.
=end item
=begin item
The C<K<>> formatting code specifies that the contained text is
B<keyboard input>; that is: something that a user might type in. Such
content would typically be rendered in a K<fixed-width font> (preferably a
different font from that used for the C<T<>> formatting code) or with
C< <kbd>...</kbd> > tags. The contents of a C<K<>> code are always
L<space-preserved| #Space-preserving text>. The C<K<>> code is the
inline equivalent of the C<=input> block.
=end item
=begin item
The C<C<>> formatting code specifies that the contained text is B<code>;
that is, something that might appear in a program or specification. Such
content would typically be rendered in a C<fixed-width font> (preferably
a different font from that used for the C<T<>> or C<K<>> formatting
codes) or with C< <code>...</code> > tags. The contents of a C<C<>> code
are L<space-preserved| #Space-preserving text> and L<verbatim| #Verbatim text>.
The C<C<>> code is the inline equivalent of the C<=code> block.
To include other formatting codes in a C<C<>> code, you can lexically
L<reconfigure|#Block pre-configuration> it:
=begin code :allow<B>
=begin para
B<=config C<> :allow<E I>>
Perl 6 makes extensive use of the C<B<E<laquo>>> and C<B<E<raquo>>>
characters, for example, in a hash look-up:
C<%hashB<I<E<laquo>>>keyB<I<E<raquo>>>>
=end para
=end code
To enable entities in I<every> C<C<...>> put a C<=config C<> :allow<E>>
at the top of the document
=end item
=begin item
The C<R<>> formatting code specifies that the contained text is a
B<replaceable item>, a placeholder, or a metasyntactic variable. It is
used to indicate a component of a syntax or specification that should
eventually be replaced by an actual value. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
The basic C<ln> command is: C<ln> B<R<source_file> R<target_file>>
=end code
or:
=begin code :allow<B>
Then enter your details at the prompt:
=for input
Name: B<R<your surname>>
ID: B<R<your employee number>>
Pass: B<R<your 36-letter password>>
=end code
Typically replaceables would be rendered in R<fixed-width italics> or with
C< <var>...</var> > tags. The font used should be the same as that used for
the C<C<>> code, unless the C<R<>> is inside a C<K<>> or C<T<>> code (or
the equivalent C<=input> or C<=output> blocks), in which case their
respective fonts should be used.
=end item
=head3 Verbatim text
The C<V<>> formatting code treats its entire contents as being B<verbatim>,
disregarding every apparent formatting code within it. For example:
The B<V< V<> >> formatting code disarms other codes
such as V< I<>, C<>, B<>, and M<> >.
Note, however that the C<V<>> code only changes the way its
contents are parsed, I<not> the way they are rendered. That is, the
contents are still wrapped and formatted like plain text, and the
effects of any formatting codes surrounding the C<V<>> code
are still applied to its contents. For example the previous example
is rendered:
=nested
The B<V< V<> >> formatting code disarms other codes
such as V< I<>, C<>, B<>, and M<> >.
You can prespecify formatting codes that remain active within
a C<V<>> code, using the L<C<:allow>|#Formatting within code blocks>
option.
=head3 Inline comments
The C<Z<>> formatting code indicates that its contents constitute a
B<zero-width comment>, which should not be rendered by any renderer.
For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
The "exeunt" command B<Z<Think about renaming this command?>> is used
to quit all applications.
=end code
In Perl 5 POD, the C<Z<>> code was widely used to break up text that would
otherwise be considered mark-up:
=begin code :allow<B>
In Perl 5 POD, the ZB<Z<>><> code was widely used to break up text
that would otherwise be considered mark-up.
=end code
That technique still works, but it's now easier to accomplish the same goal
using a verbatim formatting code:
=begin code :allow<B>
In Perl 5 POD, the B«V<V<Z<>>>» code was widely used to break up text
that would otherwise be considered mark-up.
=end code
Moreover, the C<C<>> code automatically treats its contents as being
verbatim, which often eliminates the need for the C<V<>> as well:
=begin code :allow<B>
In Perl 5 POD, the B«V<C<Z<>>>» code was widely used to break up text
that would otherwise be considered mark-up.
=end code
The C<Z<>> formatting code is the inline equivalent of a
L<C<=comment> block|#Comments>.
=head4 Comments as category markers
Most Pod renderers will provide a mechanism that allows particular Pod
blocks to be explicitly excluded or included if they match a particular
pattern. For example, a renderer might be instructed to omit any block
that contains the pattern C</CONFIDENTIAL/>. Corresponding "invisibility
markers" can then be placed inside C<Z<>> comments within any block that
should not normally be displayed. For example:
=for code :allow<B>
class Widget is Bauble
{
has $.things; #= a collection of other stuff
#={ Z<CONFIDENTIAL>
This variable needs to be replaced for political reasons
}
}
=head3 Links
The C<L<>> code is used to specify all kinds of links, filenames, citations,
and cross-references (both internal and external).
A link specification consists of a I<scheme specifier> terminated by a
colon, followed by an I<external address> (in the scheme's preferred
syntax), followed by an I<internal address> (again, in the scheme's syntax).
All three components are optional, though at least one must be present in
any link specification.
Usually, in schemes where an internal address makes sense, it will be
separated from the preceding external address by a C<#>, unless the
particular addressing scheme requires some other syntax. When new
addressing schemes are created specifically for Pod it is strongly
recommended that C<#> be used to mark the start of internal addresses.
Standard schemes include:
=begin defn
C<http:> and C<https:>
A standard web URL. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
This module needs the LAME library
(available from L<B<http://www.mp3dev.org/mp3/>>)
=end code
If the link does not start with C<//> it is treated as being relative to
the location of the current document:
=begin code :allow<B>
See also: L<B<http:tutorial/faq.html>> and
L<B<http:../examples/index.html>>
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<file:>
A filename on the local system. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
Next, edit the global config file (that is, either
L<B<file:/usr/local/lib/.configrc>> or L<B<file:~/.configrc>>).
=end code
Filenames that don't begin with a C</> or a C<~> are relative
to the current document's location:
=begin code :allow<B>
Then, edit the local config file (that is, either
L<B<file:.configrc>> or L<B<file:CONFIG/.configrc>>.
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<mailto:>
An email address. Typically, activating this type of link invokes a mailer.
For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
Please forward bug reports to L<B<mailto:devnull@rt.cpan.org>>
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<man:>
A link to the system manpages. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
This module implements the standard
Unix L<B<man:find(1)>> facilities.
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<doc:>
A link to some other documentation, typically a module or part of the
core documentation; things that would normally be read with C<perl --doc>.
For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
You may wish to use L<B<doc:Data::Dumper>> to
view the results. See also: L<B<doc:perldata>>.
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<defn:>
A link to the L<block-form|#Definition lists> or L<inline|#Definitions>
definition of the specified term within the current document. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
He was highly prone to B<D<lexiphania>>: an unfortunate proclivity
for employing grandiloquisms (for example, words such as "proclivity",
"grandiloquism", and indeed "lexiphania").
B<=defn glossoligation>
Restraint of the tongue (voluntary or otherwise)
=end code
and later, to link back to the definition
=begin code :allow<B>
To treat his chronic L<B<defn:lexiphania>> the doctor prescribed an
immediate L<B<defn:glossoligation>> or, if that proved ineffective,
a complete cephalectomy.
=end code
=end defn
=begin defn
C<isbn:> and C<issn:>
The International Standard Book Number or International Standard
Serial Number for a publication. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
The Perl Journal was a registered
serial publication (L<B<issn:1087-903X>>)
=end code
=end defn
To refer to a specific section within a webpage, manpage, or Pod
document, add the name of that section after the main link, separated by
a C<#>. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
Also see: L<man:bash(1)B<#Compound Commands>>,
L<doc:perlsynB<#For Loops>>, and
L<http://dev.perl.org/perl6/syn/S04.htmlB<#The_for_statement>>
=end code
To refer to a section of the current document, omit the external address:
=begin code :allow<B>
This mechanism is described under L<doc:B<#Special Features>> below.
=end code
The scheme name may also be omitted in that case:
=begin code :allow<B>
This mechanism is described under L<B<#Special Features>> below.
=end code
Normally a link is presented as some rendered version of the link
specification itself. However, you can specify an alternate
presentation by prefixing the link with the desired text and a
vertical bar. Whitespace is not significant on either side of the bar.
For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
This module needs the L<B<LAME library|>http://www.mp3dev.org/mp3/>.
You could also write the code
L<B<in Latin |> doc:Lingua::Romana::Perligata>
His L<B<lexiphanic|>defn:lexiphania>> tendencies were, alas, incurable.
=end code
=head3 Placement links
A second kind of linkE<mdash>the C<P<>> or B<placement link>E<mdash>works
in the opposite direction. Instead of directing focus out to another
document, it allows you to assimilate the contents of another document
into your own.
In other words, the C<P<>> formatting code takes a URI and (where possible)
inserts the contents of the corresponding document inline in place of the
code itself.
C<P<>> codes are handy for breaking out standard elements of
your documentation set into reusable components that can then be
incorporated directly into multiple documents. For example:
=COPYRIGHT
P<file:/shared/docs/std_copyright.pod>
=DISCLAIMER
P<http://www.MegaGigaTeraPetaCorp.com/std/disclaimer.txt>
might produce:
=begin nested
B<Copyright>
This document is copyright (c) MegaGigaTeraPetaCorp, 2006. All rights reserved.
B<Disclaimer>
ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY IS IMPLIED. NOT EVEN OF ANY KIND. WE HAVE SOLD
YOU THIS SOFTWARE WITH NO HINT OF A SUGGESTION THAT IT IS EITHER USEFUL
OR USABLE. AS FOR GUARANTEES OF CORRECTNESS...DON'T MAKE US LAUGH! AT
SOME TIME IN THE FUTURE WE MIGHT DEIGN TO SELL YOU UPGRADES THAT PURPORT
TO ADDRESS SOME OF THE APPLICATION'S MANY DEFICIENCIES, BUT NO PROMISES
THERE EITHER. WE HAVE MORE LAWYERS ON STAFF THAN YOU HAVE TOTAL
EMPLOYEES, SO DON'T EVEN *THINK* ABOUT SUING US. HAVE A NICE DAY.
=end nested
If a renderer cannot find or access the external data source for a
placement link, it must issue a warning and render the URI directly in
some form, possibly as an outwards link. For example:
=begin nested
B<Copyright>
See: L<std_copyright.pod|file:/shared/docs/std_copyright.pod>
B<Disclaimer>
See: L<http://www.MegaGigaTeraPetaCorp.com/std/disclaimer.txt>
=end nested
You can use any of the following URI forms (see L<#Links>) in a
placement link:
=item C<http:> and C<https:>
=item C<file:>
=item C<man:>
=item C<doc:>
=item C<toc:>
The C<toc:> form is a special pseudo-scheme that inserts a table of contents
in place of the C<P<>> code. After the colon, list the block types that you
wish to include in the table of contents. For example, to place a table of
contents listing only top- and second-level headings:
P<toc: head1 head2>
To place a table of contents that lists the top four levels of headings, as
well as any tables:
P<toc: head1 head2 head3 head4 table>
To place a table of diagrams (assuming a user-defined C<Diagram> block):
P<toc: Diagram>
Note also that, for C<P<toc:...>>, all L<semantic blocks|#Semantic
blocks> are treated as equivalent to C<head1> headings, and the
C<=item1>/C<=item> equivalence is preserved.
A document may have as many C<P<toc:...>> placements as necessary.
=head3 Alias placements
A variation on placement codes is the C<A<>> code, which is replaced
by the contents of the named alias or object specified within its delimiters.
For example:
=begin code
=alias PROGNAME Earl Irradiatem Eventually
=alias VENDOR 4D Kingdoms
=alias TERMS_URL L<http://www.4dk.com/eie>
The use of A<PROGNAME> is subject to the terms and conditions
laid out by A<VENDOR>, as specified at A<TERMS_URL>.
=end code
Any compile-time Perl 6 object that starts with a sigil is automatically
available within an alias placement as well. Unless the object is already
a string type, it is converted to a string during document-generation by
implicitly calling C<.perl> on it.
So, for example, a document can refer to its own filename (as
C<A<$?FILE>>), or to the subroutine inside which the specific Pod is nested
(as C<A<&?ROUTINE>>), or to the current class (as C<A<$?CLASS>>).
Similarly, the value of any program constants defined with sigils can be
easily reproduced in documentation:
=begin code
# Actual code...
constant Num $GROWTH_RATE = 1.6;
=pod
=head4 Standard Growth Rate
The standard growth rate is assumed to be A<$GROWTH_RATE>.
=end code
Non-mutating method calls on these objects are also allowed, so a
document can reproduce the surrounding subroutine's signature
(C<A<&?ROUTINE.signature>>) or the type of a constant
(C<A<$GROWTH_RATE.WHAT>>).
See L<#Aliases> for further details of the aliasing macro mechanism.
=head3 Space-preserving text
Any text enclosed in an C<S<>> code is formatted normally, except that
every whitespace character in itE<mdash>including any newlineE<mdash>is
preserved. These characters are also treated as being non-breaking
(except for the newlines, of course). For example:
The emergency signal is: S<
dot dot dot dash dash dash dot dot dot>.
would be formatted like so:
=nested
The emergency signal is:E<0x85>
dotE<nbsp>dotE<nbsp>dotE<nbsp>E<nbsp>E<nbsp>dashE<nbsp>dashE<nbsp>dashE<nbsp>E<nbsp>E<nbsp>E<nbsp>dotE<nbsp>dotE<nbsp>dot.
rather than:
=nested
The emergency signal is: dot dot dot dash dash dash dot dot dot.
=head3 Entities
To include Unicode code points or HTML5 character references in a
Pod document, specify the required D<entity|entities> using the C<E<>> code.
If the C<E<>> contains a number, that number is treated as the decimal
Unicode value for the desired code point. For example:
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<171> and E<187>.
You can also use explicit binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal numbers
(using the Perl 6 notations for explicitly based numbers):
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<0b10101011> and E<0b10111011>.
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<0o253> and E<0o273>.
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<0d171> and E<0d187>.
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<0xAB> and E<0xBB>.
If the C<E<>> contains anything that is not a number, the contents are
interpreted as a Unicode character name (which is always uppercase), or
else as an HTML5 named character reference. For example:
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET>
and E<RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET>.
or, equivalently:
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<laquo> and E<raquo>.
Multiple consecutive entities (in any format) can be specified in a
single C<E<>> code, separated by semicolons:
Perl 6 makes considerable use of E<LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET;hellip;0xBB>.
=head3 Indexing terms
Anything enclosed in an C<X<>> code is an B<index entry>. The contents
of the code are both formatted into the document and used as the
(case-insensitive) index entry:
=begin code :allow<B>
An B<X<array>> is an ordered list of scalars indexed by number,
starting with 0. A B<X<hash>> is an unordered collection of scalar
values indexed by their associated string key.
=end code
You can specify an index entry in which the indexed text and the index
entry are different, by separating the two with a vertical bar:
=begin code :allow<B>
An B<X<array|arrays>> is an ordered list of scalars indexed by number,
starting with 0. A B<X<hash|hashes>> is an unordered collection of
scalar values indexed by their associated string key.
=end code
In the two-part form, the index entry comes after the bar and is
case-sensitive.
You can specify hierarchical index entries by separating indexing levels
with commas:
=begin code :allow<B>
An X<array|B<arrays, definition of>> is an ordered list of scalars
indexed by number, starting with 0. A X<hash|B<hashes, definition of>>
is an unordered collection of scalar values indexed by their
associated string key.
=end code
You can specify two or more entries for a single indexed text, by separating
the entries with semicolons:
=begin code :allow<B>
A X<hash|B<hashes, definition of; associative arrays>>
is an unordered collection of scalar values indexed by their
associated string key.
=end code
The indexed text can be empty, creating a "zero-width" index entry:
=begin code :allow<B>
B<X<|puns, deliberate>>This is called the "Orcish Manoeuvre"
because you "OR" the "cache".
=end code
=head3 Annotations
Anything enclosed in an C<N<>> code is an inline B<note>.
For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
Use a C<for> loop instead.B<N<The Perl 6 C<for> loop is far more
powerful than its Perl 5 predecessor.>> Preferably with an explicit
iterator variable.
=end code
Renderers may render such annotations in a variety of ways: as
footnotes, as endnotes, as sidebars, as pop-ups, as tooltips, as
expandable tags, etc. They are never, however, rendered as unmarked
inline text. So the previous example might be rendered as:
=nested
Use a C<for> loop instead.E<dagger> Preferably with an explicit iterator
variable.
and later:
=begin nested
B<Footnotes>
=para
E<dagger> The Perl 6 C<for> loop is far more powerful than its Perl 5
predecessor.
=end nested
=head3 Module-defined formatting codes
Modules loaded with a L<C<DOC use>|#How Pod is parsed and processed>
can define classes that implement new formatting codes, which can
then be specified using the C<M<>> code. An C<M<>> code must start with
a colon-terminated scheme specifier. The rest of the enclosed text is
treated as the (verbatim) contents of the formatting code. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
DOC use Pod::TT;
=head1 Overview of the B<M<TT: $CLASSNAME >> class
(version B<M<TT: $VERSION>>)
B<M<TT: get_description($CLASSNAME) >>
=end code
The C<M<>> formatting code is the inline equivalent of a
L<named block|#Named blocks>.
Internally an C<M<>> code is converted to an object derived from the
C<Pod::FormattingCode::Named> class. The name of the scheme becomes
the final component of the object's classname. For instance, the C<M<>>
code in the previous example would be converted to a
C<Pod::FormattingCode::Named::TT> object, whose C<.typename>
method retrieves the string C<"TT"> and whose C<.contents>
method retrieves a list of the formatting code's (verbatim,
unformatted) contents.
If the formatting code is unrecognized, the contents of the code (i.e.
everything after the first colon) would normally be rendered as
ordinary text.
=head2 Encoding
By default, Pod assumes that documents are Unicode, encoded in one
of the three common schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-32). The particular
scheme a document uses is autodiscovered by examination of the first few
bytes of the file (where possible). If the autodiscovery fails, UTF-8 is
assumed, and parsers may treat any non-UTF-8 bytes later in the
document as fatal errors.
At any point in a document, you can explicitly set or change the encoding
of its content using the C<=encoding> directive:
=begin code
=encoding ShiftJIS
=encoding Macintosh
=encoding KOI8-R
=end code
The specified encoding is used from the start of the I<next> line in
the document. If a second C<=encoding> directive is encountered, the
current encoding changes again after that line. Note, however, that
the second encoding directive must itself be encoded using the first
encoding scheme.
This requirement also applies to an C<=encoding> directive at the very
beginning of the file. That is, it must itself be encoded in
the default UTF-8, -16, or -32. However, as a special case, the
autodiscovery mechanism will (as far as possible) also attempt to
recognize "self-encoded" C<=encoding> directives that begin at the first
byte of the file. For example, at the start of a ShiftJIS-encoded file
you can specify C<=encoding ShiftJIS> in the ShiftJIS encoding.
An C<=encoding> directive affects any ambient code between the Pod
as well. That is, Perl 6 uses C<=encoding> directives to determine the
encoding of its source code as well as that of any documentation.
Note that C<=encoding> is a fundamental Pod directive, like C<=begin> or
C<=for>; it is I<not> an instance of an L<abbreviated block|#Abbreviated
blocks>. Hence there is no paragraph or delimited form of the C<=encoding>
directive (just as there is no paragraph or delimited form of C<=begin>).
=head2 Block pre-configuration
The C<=config> directive allows you to prespecify standard configuration
information that is applied to every block of a particular type.
For example, to specify particular formatting for different levels of
heading, you could preconfigure all the heading blocks with
appropriate formatting schemes:
=begin code
=config head1 :formatted<B U> :numbered
=config head2 :like<head1> :formatted<I>
=config head3 :formatted<U>
=config head4 :like<head3> :formatted<I>
=end code
The general syntax for configuration directives is:
=begin code :allow< R >
=config R<BLOCK_TYPE> R<CONFIG OPTIONS>
= R<OPTIONAL EXTRA CONFIG OPTIONS>
=end code
Like C<=encoding>, a C<=config> is a directive, not a block. Hence,
there is no paragraph or delimited form of the C<=config> directive.
Each C<=config> specification is lexically scoped to the surrounding
block in which it is specified.
Note that, if a particular block later explicitly specifies a
configuration option with the same key, that option overrides the
pre-configured option. For example, given the heading configurations in the
previous example, to specify a I<non>-basic second-level heading:
=begin code
=for head2 :formatted<I U>
Details
=end code
The C<:like> option causes the current formatting options for the
named block type to be (lexically) I<replaced> by the complete
formatting information of the block type specified as the C<:like>'s
value. That other block type must already have been preconfigured. Any
additional formatting specifications are subsequently added to that
config. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
=comment In the current scope make =head2 an "important" variant of =head1
=config head2 B<:like<head1>> :formatted<I>
=end code
Incidentally, this also means you can arrange for an explicit C<:formatted>
option to I<augment> an existing C<=config>, rather than replacing
it. Like so:
=begin code :allow<B>
=comment Mark this =head3 (but only this one) as being important
(in addition to the normal formatting)...
=head3 B<:like<head3>> :formatted<I>
=end code
=head3 Pre-configuring formatting codes
You can also lexically preconfigure a L<formatting code|#Formatting codes>,
by naming it with a pair of angles as a suffix. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
=comment Always allow E<> codes in any (implicit or explicit) V<> code...
B<=config V<> :allow<E>>
=end code
=begin code :allow<B>
=comment All inline code to be marked as important...
B<=config C<> :formatted<I>>
=end code
Note that, even though the formatting code is named using single-angles,
the preconfiguration applies regardless of the actual delimiters used on
subsequent instances of the code.
=head2 Aliases
The C<=alias> directive provides a way to define lexically scoped
synonyms for longer Pod sequences, (meta)object declarators from the
code, or even entire chunks of ambient source. These synonyms can then
be inserted into subsequent Pod using the
L<C<A<> formatting code>|#Alias placements>.
Note that C<=alias> is a fundamental Pod directive, like C<=begin> or
C<=for>; there are no equivalent paragraph or delimited forms.
There are two forms of C<=alias> directive: macro aliases and contextual
aliases. Both forms are lexically scoped to the surrounding Pod block.
=head3 Macro aliases
The simplest form of alias takes two arguments. The first is an
identifier (which is usually specified in uppercase, though this is
certainly not mandatory). The second argument consists of one or more
lines of replacement text.
This creates a lexically scoped Perl 6 macro that can be invoked during
document generation by placing the identifier (i.e. the first argument
of the alias) in an C<A<>> formatting code. This formatting code is then
replaced by the text returned by new macro.
The replacement text returned by the alias macro begins at the first
non-whitespace character after the alias's identifier, and continues to
the end of the line. You can extend the replacement text over multiple
lines by starting the following line(s) with an C<=> (at the same level
of indentation as the C<=alias> directive itself) followed by at least
one whitespace. Each addition line of replacement text uses the original
line's (virtual) left margin, as specified by the indentation of the
replacement text on the C<=alias> line.
For example:
=begin code
=alias PROGNAME Earl Irradiatem Evermore
=alias VENDOR 4D Kingdoms
=alias TERMS_URLS =item L<http://www.4dk.com/eie>
= =item L<http://www.4dk.co.uk/eie.io/>
= =item L<http://www.fordecay.ch/canttouchthis>
The use of A<PROGNAME> is subject to the terms and conditions
laid out by A<VENDOR>, as specified at:
A<TERMS_URL>
=end code
would produce:
=begin para :nested
The use of Earl Irradiatem Evermore is subject to the terms and
conditions laid out by 4D Kingdoms Inc, as specified at:
=item L<http://www.4dk.com/eie>
=item L<http://www.4dk.co.uk/eie.io/>
=item L<http://www.fordecay.ch/canttouchthis>
=end para
The advantage of using aliases is, obviously, that the same alias can be
reused in multiple places in the documentation. Then, if the replacement
text ever has to be changed, it need only be modified in a single place:
=begin code
=alias PROGNAME Count Krunchem Constantly
=alias VENDOR Last Chance Receivers Intl
=alias TERMS_URLS L<http://www.c11.com/generic_conditions>
=end code
=head3 Contextual aliases
If the C<=alias> directive is specified with only a single argument
(that is, with only its identifier), a D<contextual alias> is created. In
this form, the C<=alias> directive must be followed immediately (on the
next non-blank line) by ambient code.
The single argument is then used as the name of the alias being created,
and some portion of the following code is used as the value returned by the
alias macro.
Note that the code block following the C<=alias> line is still treated
as real code by the Perl 6 parser, but its contents are I<also> used to
create the replacement macro of the alias. This allows the developer to
reproduce chunks of actual source code directly in the documentation,
without having to copy it.
If the code following the one-argument C<=alias> directive begins with a
sequence of one or more repetitions of any opening bracket character,
the replacement macro returns a string containing everything from the
end of that opening sequence to just before the corresponding closing
bracket sequence. For example:
=begin code
# This is actual code...
sub hash_function ($key)
=alias HASHCODE
{
my $hash = 0;
for $key.split("") -> $char {
$hash = $hash*33 + $char.ord;
}
return $hash;
}
=begin pod
An ancient (but fast) hashing algorithm is used:
=begin code :allow<A>
A<HASHCODE>
=end code
=end pod
=end code
This would produce:
=begin nested
An ancient (but fast) hashing algorithm is used:
my $hash = 0;
for $key.split("") -> $char {
$hash *= 33;
$hash += $char.ord;
}
return $hash;
=end nested
Alternatively, if the C<=alias> directive is I<not> followed by an
opening bracket, it must be followed by a declarator (such as C<my>,
C<class>, C<sub>, etc.) The declared object then becomes the (read-only)
return value of the alias. For example:
=begin code :allow<B>
B<=alias CLASSNAME>
class Database::Handle {
B<=alias ATTR>
has IO $!handle;
B<=alias OPEN>
my Bool method open ($filename?) {...}
B<=alias DEFNAME>
constant Str DEFAULT_FILENAME = 'db.log';
=for para
Note that the B<A<OPEN.name>> method of class B<A<CLASSNAME>>
stores the resulting low-level database handle
in its private B<A<ATTR.name>> attribute. By default,
handles are opened to the file "B<A<DEFNAME>>".
}
=end code
This would produce:
=nested
Note that the C<open> method of class C<Database::Handle> stores the
resulting low-level database handle in its private C<$!handle>
attribute. By default, handles are opened to the file "C<db.log>".
=head1 How Pod is parsed and processed
Pod is just a collection of specialized forms of Perl 6 comment. Every
Perl 6 implementation must provide a special command-line flag that
locates, parses, and processes Pod to produce documentation. That flag
is K<--doc>.
Hence, to read Pod documentation you would type things like:
perl --doc perlrun
perl --doc DBI::DBD::Metadata
perl --doc ./lib/My/Module.pm
When the Perl 6 interpreter is run in this mode, it sets the compiler
hint C<$?DOC> to true. If the K<--doc> flag is given a value, that value
(with a C<but true> added) is placed in C<$?DOC>. This can be used to
specify, for example, the output format desired:
perl --doc=HTML perldelta > perldelta.html
Under K<--doc>, the interpreter runs in a special mode, parsing the
source code (including the Pod, as it always does) during compilation
and building the program's syntax tree. However, during parsing and
initialization under K<--doc>, the interpreter executes any
C<BEGIN>, C<CHECK>, and C<INIT> blocks (and equivalents, such as C<use>
statements and subroutine declarations) that are preceded by the special
prefix: C<DOC>
When the K<--doc> is I<not> specified on the commandline, blocks and
statements that are preceded by the C<DOC> prefix are not executed at all.
By default, once the C<DOC INIT> phase is complete, the interpreter then
calls a special default C<DOC INIT> block that walks the AST and
generates the documentation, guided by the content of the C<$?DOC> hint,
the C<$=pod> tree, and any C<DOC> blocks that have loaded Pod-related
handler code.
Because the conversion of documentation is just a variation on the
standard Perl 6 compilation process, the processing of any given file of
Pod can be modified from within that file itself by the appropriate
insertion of C<DOC> blocks. For example:
DOC use Pod::Markovian;
or:
DOC BEGIN {
use Pod::Literate;
if ($?DOC ~~ /short/) {
literate_sequence(<
NAME
AUTHOR
SYNOPSIS
COPYRIGHT
WARRANTY
DESCRIPTION
INTERFACE
DIAGNOSTICS
>);
}
else {
literate_sequence(:default);
}
You can even I<replace> the standard Pod processor with your own, so
long as you remember to exit before the default C<DOC INIT> can run:
DOC INIT {
use My::Pod::To::Text;
pod_to_text( $=pod );
exit(0);
}
The idea is that developers will be able to add their own documentation
mechanisms simply by loading a module (via a C<DOC use>) to augment or
override the default documentation behaviour. Such mechanisms can then
be built using code written in standard Perl 6 that accesses C<$=pod>,
as well as using the C<.WHY> and C<.WHEREFORE> introspection methods of
any constructs that have attached Pod blocks.
Note also that this mechanism means that, on many systems, you can
create a self-converting documentation file like so:
=begin code
#! /usr/bin/perl6 --doc
=begin pod
=head1 A document that can write itself
Executing this document from the commandline will automatically
convert it to a readable text representation.
=head2 Et cetera
...
=end pod
=end code
=begin SUMMARY
=head2 Directives
=begin table :nested
Directive Specifies
_________ ____________________________________________________
C<=begin> Start of an explicitly terminated block
C<=config> Lexical modifications to a block or formatting code
C<=encoding> Encoding scheme for subsequent text
C<=end> Explicit termination of a C<=begin> block
C<=for> Start of an implicitly (blank-line) terminated block
C<=alias> Define a Pod macro
=end table
=head2 Blocks
=begin table :nested
Block typename Specifies
______________ ___________________________________________________
C<=code> Verbatim pre-formatted sample source code
C<=comment> Content to be ignored by all renderers
C<=defn> Definition of a term
C<=head>R<N> I<N>th-level heading
C<=input> Pre-formatted sample input
C<=item> First-level list item
C<=item>R<N> I<N>th-level list item
C<=nested> Nest block contents within the current context
C<=output> Pre-formatted sample output
C<=para> Ordinary paragraph
C<=pod> No "ambient" blocks inside
C<=table> Simple rectangular table
C<=data> Perl 6 data section
C<=finish> No ambient blocks after this point
C<=>R<RESERVED> Semantic blocks (C<=SYNOPSIS>, C<=BUGS>, etc.)
C<=>R<Typename> User-defined block
=end table
=head2 Formatting codes
=config C<> :allow<R V>
=begin table :nested
Formatting code Specifies
_______________ ___________________________________________________
C<A<...>> Replaced by contents of specified macro/object
C<B<...>> Basis/focus of sentence (typically rendered bold)
C<C<...>> Code (typically rendered fixed-width)
C<D<...|...;...>> Definition (C<D<R<defined term>|R<synonym>;R<synonym>;...>>)
C<E<...;...>> Entity names or numeric codepoints (C<E<R<entity1>;R<entity2>;...>>)
C<I<...>> Important (typically rendered in italics)
C<K<...>> Keyboard input (typically rendered fixed-width)
C<L<...|...>> Link (C<L<R<display text>|R<destination URI>>>)
C<M<...:...>> Module-defined code (C<M<R<scheme>:R<contents>>>)
C<N<...>> Note (not rendered inline)
C<P<...>> Placement link
C<V<R><...>> Replaceable component or metasyntax
C<S<...>> Space characters to be preserved
C<T<...>> Terminal output (typically rendered fixed-width)
C<U<...>> Unusual (typically rendered with underlining)
C<V<V><...>> Verbatim (internal formatting codes ignored)
C<X<...|..,..;...>> Index entry (C<X<R<display text>|R<entry>,R<subentry>;...>>)
C<Z<...>> Zero-width comment (contents never rendered)
=end table
=end SUMMARY
=for AUTHOR
Damian Conway <L<C<damian@conway.org>|mailto:damian@conway.org>>
=comment vim: filetype=perl6
=end pod