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Add initial draft of S07-lists.pod, the new Synopsis 7.

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1 parent a1a0394 commit 89b9891ea16cbabd2beccf5decc50a770cd2fbb6 @pmichaud pmichaud committed
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+=encoding utf8
+=head1 TITLE
+Synopsis 7: Lists and Iteration
+=head1 AUTHORS
+ Patrick R. Michaud <
+=head1 VERSION
+ Created: 12 July 2012
+ Last Modified: 12 July 2012
+ Version: 1
+=head1 Overview
+Lists and arrays have always been one of Perl's fundamental data types,
+and Perl 6 is no different. However, lists in Perl 6 have been greatly
+extended to accommodate lazy lists, infinite lists, lists of mutable
+and immutable elements, typed lists, flattening behaviors, and so on.
+So where lists and arrays in Perl 5 tended to be finite sequences of
+scalar values, in Perl 6 we have additional dimensions of behavior
+that must be addressed.
+=head2 The C<List> type
+The C<List> class is the base class for dealing with other types of
+lists, including C<Array>. To the programmer, a C<List> is a potentially
+lazy and infinite sequence of elements. A C<List> is mutable, in that
+one can manipulate the sequence via operations such as C<push>, C<pop>,
+C<shift>, C<unshift>, C<splice>, etc. A C<List>'s elements may be
+either mutable or immutable.
+C<List> objects are C<Positional>, meaning they can be bound to
+array variables and support the postfix C<.[]> operator.
+Lists are also lazy, in that the elements of a C<List> may
+come from generator functions (called C<Iterator>s) that produce
+elements on demand.
+=head2 The C<Array> type
+An C<Array> is simply a C<List> in which all of the elements are held
+in scalar containers. This allows assignment to the elements of the
+=head2 The C<Parcel> type
+The comma operator (C<< infix:<,> >>) creates C<Parcel> objects.
+These should not be confused with lists; a C<Parcel> represents
+a raw syntactic sequence of elements. A C<Parcel> is immutable,
+although the elements of a C<Parcel> may be either mutable or
+The name "Parcel" is derived from the phrase "parenthesis cell",
+since many C<Parcel> objects appear inside of parentheses.
+However, except for the empty parcel, it's the comma operator
+that creates C<Parcel> objects.
+ () # empty Parcel
+ (1) # an Int
+ (1,2) # a Parcel with two Ints
+ (1,) # a Parcel with one Int
+A C<Parcel> is also C<Positional>, and uses flattening context for
+list operations such as C<.[]> and C<.elems>. See "Flattening contexts"
+=head2 Flattening contexts, the C<Iterable> type
+C<List> and C<Parcel> objects can have other container objects
+as elements. In some contexts we want to interpolate the values
+of container objects into the surrounding C<List> or C<Parcel>,
+while in other contexts we want any subcontainers to be preserved.
+Such interpolation is known as "flattening".
+The C<Iterable> type is performed by container and generator objects
+that will interpolate their values in flattening contexts. Both
+C<List> and C<Parcel> are C<Iterable>. C<Iterable> implies support
+for C<.iterator>, which returns an object capable of producing the
+elements of the C<Iterable>.
+Objects held in scalar containers are never interpolated in
+flattening context, even if the object is C<Iterable>.
+ my @a = 3,4,5;
+ for 1,2,@a { ... } # five iterations
+ my $s = @a;
+ for 1,2,$s { ... } # three iterations
+Here, both C<$s> and C<@a> refer to the same underlying C<Array> object,
+but the presence of the scalar container prevents C<$s> from being
+flattened into the C<for> loop. The C<.list> or C<.flat> method
+may be used to restore the flattening behavior:
+ for 1,2,$s.list { ... } # five iterations
+ for 1,2,@($s) { ... } # five iterations
+Conversely, the C<.item> or C<$()> contextualizer can be used to
+prevent an C<Iterable> from being interpolated:
+ my @b = 1,2,@a; # @b has five elements
+ my @c = 1,2,@a.item; # @c has three elements
+ my @c = 1,2,$(@a); # same thing
+=head2 Iterators
+An C<Iterator> is an object that is able to generate or produce
+elements of a list (called "reification"). Because a single
+C<Iterator> may be directly or indirectly referenced by
+multiple container objects simultaneously, C<Iterator>s provide
+an immutable view of the sequence of elements produced, leaving
+it up to containers to provide any mutability.
+=head3 The C<.reify> method
+The C<.reify($n)> method requests an C<Iterator> to return a C<Parcel>
+consisting of at least C<$n> reified elements, followed by any additional
+iterators needed for the remaining elements in the sequence. For example:
+ my $r = 10..50;
+ say $r.iterator.reify(5).perl; # (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15..50)
+Iterators are allowed to return more or fewer elements than requested
+by C<$n>; it's up to the caller to properly handle any shortage or
+excess. (In general an iterator is expected to always reify at
+least one element, however.) If C<$n> is C<*>, then the iterator
+is asked to generate elements according to whatever is most natural
+for the thing being iterated. For a C<Range> this might be a substantial
+number (or even all) of the elements of the range; for a filehandle
+it might read a single record; for a C<List> it may return only the
+non-lazy portion of the list.
+Once C<.reify> is called on an iterator, the iterator is expected
+to return the same results for all subsequent calls to C<.reify>.
+This is true even if the C<$n> argument is different from one call
+to the next. The general pattern is often something like:
+ class SomeIter is Iterator {
+ has $!reified;
+ method reify($n = 1) {
+ unless $!reified.defined {
+ # generate return Parcel and bind to $!reified
+ }
+ $!reified;
+ }
+ }
+=head3 The C<.infinite> method
+Because lists in Perl 6 can be lazy, they can also be infinite.
+Each C<Iterator> must provide an C<.infinite> method, which returns
+a value indicating the knowable finiteness of the iteration:
+ .infinite Meaning
+ ----------------------------------------------
+ True iteration is known to be infinite
+ False iteration is known to be finite
+ Mu finiteness isn't currently known
+As an example, C<Range> iterators can generally know finiteness simply
+by looking at the endpoint of the C<Range>. The iterator for the
+C<< infix:<...> >> sequence operator treats any sequence ending in
+C<*> as being "known infinite", all other C<...> sequences have unknown
+finiteness. In the general case it's not possible for loop iterators
+to definitively know if the sequence will be finite or infinite.
+(Conjecture: There will be a syntax or mechanism for the programmer
+to indicate that such sequences are to be treated as known finite
+or known infinite.)
+=head2 Levels of laziness
+Laziness is one of the primary virtues of a Perl programmer; it is
+also one of the virtues of Perl 6. However, it's also possible to
+succumb to false laziness, so there are times when Perl 6 chooses
+to be eager instead of lazy.
+Perl 6 defines four levels of laziness:
+=item Strictly Lazy
+Does not evaluate anything unless explicitly required by the caller,
+including not traversing non-lazy objects. This behavior generally
+occurs only by a pragma or by explicit lazy primitives.
+=item Mostly Lazy
+Try to obtain available elements without causing eager evaluation
+of other lazy objects. However, the implementation is allowed to
+do batching for efficiency. The programmer must not rely on
+circular side effects when the implementation is working ahead
+like this, or the results will be indeterminate. (However, this
+does not rule out pure I<definitional> circularity; earlier array
+values may be used in the definition of subsequent values.)
+=item Mostly Eager
+Obtain all leading items that are not known to be infinite.
+The remainder of the items are left for lazy evaluation.
+As with the "mostly lazy" case, the programmer must not depend
+on circular side effects in any situation where the implementation
+is allowed to work ahead. Note that there are no language-defined
+limits on the amount of conjectural evaluation allowed, up to the
+size of available memory; however, an implementation may allow
+the arbitrary limitation of workahead by use of pragmas.
+In any case there should be no profound semantic differences
+between "mostly lazy" and "mostly eager". These levels are
+primarily just hints to the implementation as to whether you are
+likely to want to use all the values in the list. Nothing
+transactional should be allowed to depend on the difference.
+=item Strictly Eager
+Obtain all items, failing immediately with an appropriate message
+if asked to evaluate any data structures known to be infinite.
+(Data structures that are effectively infinite but not provably
+so will likely exhaust memory instead.)
+=head2 The laziness level of some common operations
+=item List assignment; my @a = @something;
+In order to provide p5-like behavior in list assignment, it is performed
+at the Mostly Eager level. This means that if you do
+ my @a = foo();
+it will eagerly evaluate the return value from C<foo()> to place
+elements into C<@a>, stopping only when encountering something
+that is "known infinite" or upon reaching the end of the sequence.
+=item C<for>, C<map>, C<grep>, etc.
+The C<for> loop and looping routines such as C<map>, C<grep>, etc. are
+Mostly Lazy by default, but will be eager when evaluated in sink context.
+=item Slurpy parameters
+Slurpy parameters are Mostly Lazy.
+=item Feed operators
+The feed operator is strictly lazy, meaning that no operation
+should be performed before the user requests any element. That's how
+ my @a <== grep { ... } <== map { ... } <== grep { ... } <== 1, 2, 3
+is completely lazy, even if 1,2,3 is a fairly small known compact
+=head2 Common list operations

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