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1 % Perl 6 Tablets Appendix G - Glossary
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2
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3 Here you find short explanations to most of the computer science terms,
4 used in the tablets. These contain also links to specific syntax details,
5 that relate to that term. Thatswhy this page is the ideal entry point for
6 questions like: "Can I do *functional programming* in Perl 6?" or
7 "What kind of *iterators* are present and how they are spelled?"
8
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9 <a id="nav-top"/>
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10 **Navigation: [A](#a) [B](#b) [C](#c) [D](#d) [E](#e)
11 [F](#f) [G](#g) [H](#h) [I](#i) [J](#j) [K](#k) [L](#l)
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12 [M](#m#) [N](#n) [O](#o) [P](#p) [Q](#q) [R](#r) [S](#s)
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13 [T](#t#) [U](#u) [V](#v) [W](#w) [X](#x) [Y](#y) [Z](#z)**
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14
15
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16 # [A](#nav-top)
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17
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18 <a id="ALAP"/>
19 **ALAP** *(as late as possible)* &mdash; within a given execution phase
20 ([compile time](#compile-time) or [run time](#run-time))
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21
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22 <a id="and"/>
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23 **and** &mdash;
24 logical operation that has only the result **True** if both operands
25 (incoming information) are also true, otherwise result is **False**
26 following operator working with that logic:
27 [**|**](appendix-a-index.html#junctive-and),
28 [**||**](appendix-a-index.html#logical-and),
29 [**+|**](appendix-a-index.html#numeric-and),
30 [**?|**](appendix-a-index.html#boolean-and),
31 [**~|**](appendix-a-index.html#string-and),
32 [**all**](appendix-a-index.html#all),
33 [**and**](appendix-a-index.html#and)
34 [**andthen**](appendix-a-index.html#andthen) &mdash;
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35 other logical operations are [*or*](#or), [*xor*](#xor), [*not*](#not)
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36
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37 <a id="argument"/>
38 **argument** &mdash; another word for *[parameter](#parameter)*
39
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40 <a id="ASAP"/>
41 **ASAP** *(as soon as possible)* &mdash; within a given execution phase
42 (*[compile time](#compile-time)* or [run time](#run-time))
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43
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44 <a id="ASCII"/>
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45 **ASCII** &mdash;
46 short name of an american body that sets standards, but in computer science
47 its often synonym for a particular standard that enumerates 127 character,
48 95 of them are visible the rest are control character, e.g. "begin a new line",
49 its basically A-Z, a-z, 0-9 and some extra symbols like \$, \%, \&,
50 what you find on your keyboard and what an american typically needs,
51 to enable the rest of the world more fully there is [*unicode*](#unicode)
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52
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53 <a id="AST"/>
54 **AST** *(abstract syntax tree)* &mdash; tree like data structure, in which
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55 source code is transformed, while [parsing](#parsing) it
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56
57
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58 # [B](#nav-top)
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59
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60 <a id="backtracking"/>
61 **backtracking** &mdash;
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62 while searching for a [*regex pattern*](#regex) in a string,
63 perl has to keep track how far this string matched so far,
64 while comparing letter by letter from left to right.
65 Thus there have to be pointer that wander from left to right.
66 Backtracking refers just to the ability of this pointer to wander
67 back leftward a bit and try another possibility after a part of a
68 pattern didn't match
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69
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70 <a id="binding"/>
71 **[binding](tablet-3-variables#binding)** &mdash;
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72 making two variables share the same content by pointing to same
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73 memory location, done i Perl 6 with
74 [**:=**](appendix-a-index.html#runtime-binding-op)
75 and [**::=**](appendix-a-index.html#compiletime-binding-op)
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76
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77 <a id="block"/>
78 **block** &mdash;
79 syntactically just a piece of code inside curly brackets
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80 (**{}**), when [evaluated](#evaluation) it becomes an
81 object of the type **[Block](appendix-a-index.html#block-type)**
82
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83 <a id="bool-context"/>
84 **boolean context** &mdash;
85 [Bool](appendix-a-index.html#Bool-type)
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86 [ops](tablet-4-operators.html#bool-context)
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87
88 # [C](#nav-top)
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89
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90 <a id="capture"/>
91 **capture** &mdash;
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92 arguments of a specific function call,
93 stored in objects of the type [Capture](#Capture-type)
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94
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95 <a id="closure"/>
96 **closure** &mdash;
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97 routines whose state (content of all local variables) is
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98 completely preserved until the next execution,
99 mostly used as a fancy alias for a *[block](#block)*
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100
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101 <a id="codepoint"/>
102 **codepoint** &mdash;
103 *[unicode](#unicode)*
104
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105 <a id="coderef"/>
106 **coderef** &mdash;
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107 [*reference*] to an executable [*block*](#block) of code ([*routine*](#routine)),
108 in Perl 6 there are just [objects](#object) representing a routine that can be
109 [attributes](#attribute) of other objects
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110
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111 <a id="compilation"/>
112 **compilation** &mdash;
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113 reading the human written source code and make it an
114 executable (piece of) program
115
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116 <a id="compile-time"/>
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117 **compile time** &mdash;
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118 time when Perl converts source code to executable form (bytecode),
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119 is always before *[run time](#run-time)*
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120 even if code can be compiled via **[eval](appendix-a-index.html#eval)** and
121 **[evalfile](appendix-a-index.html#evalfile)** when the program is
122 already runnung, to run code at the begin of compile time use
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123 **[BEGIN](appendix-a-index.html#BEGIN-phaser)** and
124 **[CHECK](appendix-a-index.html#CHECK-phaser)** to run at the end of
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125 compile time for that unit (mostly the file or the to be **eval**ed string)
126
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127 <a id="context"/>
128 **context** &mdash;
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129 when executing a function or operator Perl considers the
130 expression from which the call was to return a
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131 [scalar](appendix-a-index.html#Scalar-type) or other kind of result
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132
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133 <a id="context-variable"/>
134 **context variable** &mdash;
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135 name for **[$\_](appendix-a-index.html#context-var)**,
136 which is used by built in Perl functions as an implicit
137 parameter and as memory of the last result
138
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139 <a id="currying"/>
140 **currying** &mdash;
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141 creating a *[subroutine](routine)* that calls another with certain
142 *[parameter](#parameter)* to be predefined
143
144
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145 # [D](#nav-top)
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146
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147 <a id="declarative-programming"/>
148 **declarative programming** &mdash; programming paradigm that expresses the
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149 logic of a computation without describing its control flow
150
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151 <a id="delegation"/>
152 **delegation** &mdash;
153
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154 <a id="design-by-contract"/>
155 **design by contract** &mdash; programming style in which parameters and
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156 return values from routines must meet conditions; A signature is
157 considered contract in Perl 6
158
159
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160 # [E](#nav-top)
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161
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162 <a id="e"/>
163 **e** *(euler number)* &mdash;
164 about 2.7182818284, fundamental mathematical constant,
165 important to the commands
166 **[exp](appendix-a-index.html#exp)** and **[log](appendix-a-index.html#log)**
167
168
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169 <a id="encoding"/>
170 **encoding** &mdash;
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171
172
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173 <a id="evaluation"/>
174 **evaluation** &mdash;
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175 transforming something, that it gets ready for practical usage -
176 sometimes means that just replacing in a piece of code all variables with there
177 current content, cometimes more like interpreting or compiling something;
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178 inside quotes and [regexes](#regex) ot has the first meaning,
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179 the command **[eval](appendix-a-index.html#eval)** and
180 **[evalfile](appendix-a-index.html#evalfile)**does the second
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181
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182 <a id="expression"/>
183 **expression** &mdash;
184
185
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186 # [F](#nav-top)
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187
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188 <a id="functional-programming"/>
189 **functional programming** &mdash;
190 exclusively function based programming
191 style, [strongly supported](appendix-d-delta.html#functional-programming)
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192 by Perl 6, considered as a branch of Declarative Programming
193
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194 # G
195
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196 <a id="grapheme"/>
197 **grapheme** &mdash;
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198 a *[unicode](#unicode)* graphical character like a japanese kanji that may be
199 composed out of several [codepoints](#codepoint)
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200
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201 # [H](#nav-top)
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202
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203 <a id="hash"/>
204 **hash** &mdash;
205 [**Hash**](appendix-a-index.html#Hash-type)
206
207 <a id="hash-context"/>
208 **hash context** &mdash;
209 [hash](#hash)
210
211
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212 # [I](#nav-top)
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213
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214 <a id="invocant"/>
215 **invocant** &mdash; *[routine](#routine)* or term that called
216 the piece of code of issue
217
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218 <a id="item-context"/>
219 **scalar context** &mdash;
220 was called in Perl 5 [scalar context](#scalar-context)
221
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222 <a id="iteration"/>
223 **iteration** &mdash;
224 repeated executing of a term or *[block](#block)*, enforced by
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225 [iterators](appendix-b-grouped.html#loops)
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226
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227 # [J](#nav-top)
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228
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229 <a id="junction"/>
230 **junction** &mdash; a type of value that holds a logical combination of
231 several values, example: (A and B) or C, creat them with
232 [junctive ops](tablet-4-operators.html#)
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233
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234 # [K](#nav-top)
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235
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236 # [L](#nav-top)
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237
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238 <a id="list-contex"/>
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239 **list context** &mdash;
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240 [Array](appendix-a-index.html#Array-type)
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241
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242 <a id="LTM"/>
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243 **LTM** *(longest token matching)* &mdash;
244 when searching a pattern with alternatives (sub|substr)
245 the search will continue after finding the pattern 'sub'
246 because of looking for the longest alternative
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247
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248 <a id="lvalue"/>
249 **lvalue** &mdash;
250 when searching a pattern with alternatives (sub|substr)
251 the search will continue after finding the pattern 'sub'
252 because of looking for the longest alternative
253
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254 # [M](#nav-top)
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255
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256 <a id="metaoperator"/>
257 **[metaoperator](appendix-b-grouped.html#metaoperators)** &mdash;
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258 operators that alter the meaning or expand the scope of other normal operators,
259 [a listing of them](appendix-b-grouped.html#metaoperators)
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260
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261 <a id="metaprogramming"/>
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262 **metaprogramming** &mdash;
263
264 <a id="MMD"/>
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265 **MMD** *(multimethod dispatch)* &mdash;
266 technique where several *[routines](#routine)* can have the same name,
267 but different *[signatures](#signature)*, when the name is called - the
268 suitable routine is seleted via *MMD* &mdash;
269 see also: **[multi](appendix-a-index.html#multi)**
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270
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271 # [N](#nav-top)
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272
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273 <a id="named-capure"/>
274 **named capure** &mdash;
275
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276 <a id="named-parameter"/>
277 **named parameter** &mdash;
278
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279 <a id="not"/>
280 **not** &mdash;
281 logical operation that changes a true into false and vice versa,
282 following operator working with that logic:
283 [**!()**](appendix-a-index.html#negation-op), [**not**](appendix-a-index.html#not) &mdash;
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284 other logical operations are: [*and*](#and), [*or*](#or), [*xor*](#xor)
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285
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286 <a id="numeric-context"/>
287 **numeric context** &mdash;
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288 [Num](appendix-a-index.html#Num-type)
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289
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290 # [O](#nav-top)
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291
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292 <a id="object"/>
293 **object** &mdash; [*OOP*](#OOP)
294
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295 <a id="OOP"/>
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296 **OOP** *(object oriented orogramming)* &mdash;
297 programming paradigm (style), that arranges data and functions
298 that belong together into so called objects
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299
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300 <a id="or"/>
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301 **or** &mdash;
302 logical operation that has a the result **True** if at least one of two
303 operands (incoming information) is also true, otherwise result is **False**
304 following operator working with that logic:
305 [**|**](appendix-a-index.html#junctive-or),
306 [**||**](appendix-a-index.html#logical-or),
307 [**//**](appendix-a-index.html#defined-or),
308 [**+|**](appendix-a-index.html#numeric-or),
309 [**?|**](appendix-a-index.html#boolean-or),
310 [**~|**](appendix-a-index.html#string-or),
311 [**any**](appendix-a-index.html#any),
312 [**or**](appendix-a-index.html#or)
313 [**orelse**](appendix-a-index.html#orelse),
314 [**err**](appendix-a-index.html#err) &mdash;
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315 other logical operations are: [*and*](#and), [*xor*](#xor), [*not*](#not)
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316
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317
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318 # [P](#nav-top)
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319
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320 <a id="parameter"/>
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321 **parameter** &mdash;
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322 value passed to a method or *[subroutine](routine)*,
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323 mostly as part of the signature
324
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325 <a id="parsetree"/>
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326 **parsetree** &mdash;
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327 hierarchical data representing the logical structure
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328 of a program, also called *[AST](#AST)*
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329
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330 <a id="parsing"/>
331 **parsing** &mdash;
332
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333 <a id="phaser"/>
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334 **[phaser](appendix-b-grouped.html#closure-traits)** &mdash;
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335 Perl 6 term for specially named (due a prefix statement) subblocks withe special
336 [*runtimes*](#run-time) aka [*closure traits*](appendix-b-grouped#closure-traits) &mdash;
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337 example: **[BEGIN](appendix-a-index.html#BEGIN-phaser)**
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338
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339 <a id="pipe"/>
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340 **pipe** &mdash; connection between 2 processes, move data (mostly only in
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341 one direction) without buffering, can also mean just the connection of
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342 several commands via **[==\>](appendix-a-index.html#equal-equal-greater-op)** and alike
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343
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344 <a id="POD"/>
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345 **[POD](tablet-2-basic-syntax.html#pod)**
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346 *(Plain Old Documentation)* &mdash;
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347 a markup language to embeded documentation into Perl source code,
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348 has in Perl 6 the ability to store data into special variables
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349 like **[\$=pod](appendix-a-index.html#pod-pod-var)** to be retrieved later,
350 all pod-directives start with a equal sign - more details are written in the
351 [basics tablet](tablet-2-basic-syntax.html#pod)
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352
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353 <a id="pointy-block"/>
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354 **pointy block** &mdash;
355 a block that is given readonly *[parameters](parameter)* with
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356 **[-\>](appendix-a-index.html#arrow-op)** or rw parameters with
357 **[<-\>](appendix-a-index.html#lower-minus-greater-op)**
358
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359 <a id="property"/>
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360 **property** &mdash; metadata of a variable set at [run time](#run-time)
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361
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362 # [Q](#nav-top)
363
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364
365 <a id="quasiquoting"/>
366 **quasiquoting** &mdash;
367
368
369 <a id="quote-protection"/>
370 **quote protection** &mdash;
371 Perl 5 and 6 have the nice [**qw**](appendix-a-index.html#qw-op) operator,
372 thats splits a string into words according to the whitespace between words,
373 if you wish a word to contain whitespace, you have to put it in quotes:
374 `<<these are "three words">>`, this mechanism is called quote protection
375 and is provided by the adverb [**:ww**](appendix-a-index.html#ww-adverb)
376 aka [**:quotewords**](appendix-a-index.html#quotewords-adverb) which is included
377 in [**\<\< \>\>**](appendix-a-index.html#double-angle-brackets-op),
378 the adverb [**:w**](appendix-a-index.html#w-adverb) aka
379 [**:words**](appendix-a-index.html#words-adverb) which support **qw** as well as
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380 [**< >**](appendix-a-index.html#angle-brackets-op) don't provide this service,
381 that might also be known to shell users: `<these are 'four words'>`
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382
383
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384 <a id="quoting"/>
385 **quoting** &mdash;
386
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387
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388 # [R](#nav-top)
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389
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390 <a id="reference"/>
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391 **reference** *(or pointer)* &mdash;
392 address of a specific location in the computers memory,
393 officially there are no references in Perl 6,
394 but there are several container types that can hold other container of values,
395 and there is [binding](#binding)
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396
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397 <a id="regex"/>
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398 **regex** *(regular expression)* &mdash;
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399 in Perl 5 its a pattern matching notation,
400 in Perl 6 a whole rearranged language that does the same,
401 a [whole page](tablet-9-regexes.html) is dedicated just about that subject
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402
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403 <a id="reify">
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404 **reify** &mdash;
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405
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406 <a id="routine"/>
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407 **routine** &mdash;
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408 [block](#block) of code callable by name,
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409 can have a *[signature](#signature)* and a return type,
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410 when block is [compiled](#compilation) it becomes an object of the type
411 **[SoftRoutine](appendix-a-index.html#softroutine-type)**
412 or **[HardRoutine](appendix-a-index.html#hardroutine-type)**
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413
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414 <a id="run-time"/>
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415 **run time** &mdash; time when execution hits a certain part of the program,
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416 after *[compile time](#compile-time)*
417
418
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419 # [S](#nav-top)
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420
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421 <a id="scalar-context"/>
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422 **scalar context** &mdash;
423 is a [*context*](#context) of the [Scalar type](appendix-a-index.html#Scalar-type),
424 but is now called [*item context*](#item-context)
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425
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426 <a id="scope"/>
427 **scope** &mdash;
428 area within which an identifier (like a variable) is usable,
429 normally the current [block](#block)
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430
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431 <a id="sigil"/>
432 **sigil** &mdash; character that serves as a prefix to categorize the
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433 following name, most prominent in Perl are the variable
434 [sigils](appendix-b-grouped.html#sigils)
435 : **[$](appendix-a-index.html#dollar-sigil)**,
436 **[@](appendix-a-index.html#at-sigil)** and
437 **[%](appendix-a-index.html#percent-sigil)**
438
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439 <a id="signature"/>
440 **signature** &mdash; function parameters (left-hand side of a binding),
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441 surrounded by round parentheses in the definition of a *[routine](#routine)*
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442
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443 <a id="slang"/>
444 **slang** &mdash;
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445 sublanguages of Perl 6, quoting or *[regular expression](#regular expression)*
446 are completely independent languages, the grammar to parse them is mostly stored
447 in [special variables](appendix-b-grouped.html#slang-variables)
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448 with the [twigil](#twigil) **\~**,
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449 **[\$\~MAIN](appendix-a-index.html#MAIN-lang-var)** (main language),
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450 you can change or alter them by using the keyword
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451 **[augment](appendix-a-index.html#augment)**
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452 or **[supersede](appendix-a-index.html#supersede)**
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453
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454 <a id="slice"/>
455 **slice** &mdash;
456 part of an array or list
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457
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458 <a id="slurpy-array"/>
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459 **slurpy array** &mdash;
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460 array parameter that receives all (slurps) all optional
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461 *[subroutine](#routine)* arguments
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462
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463 <a id="smartmatch"/>
464 **smartmatch** &mdash;
465 *[~~](appendix-a-index.html#smartmatch-op)*
466
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467 <a id="string-context"/>
468 **string context** &mdash;
469 [Str](appendix-a-index.html#Str-type)
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470 [ops](tablet-4-operators.html#string-context)
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471
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472 <a id="subroutine"/>
473 **subroutine** &mdash; much used, Perl 5-ish term for [routine](#routine)
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474
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475 <a id="subrule"/>
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476 **subrule** &mdash;
477 piece of a *[regular expression](#regex)* that has a name,
478 its findings are stored under that name,
479 some of them were used so often, that their built into to language as
480 [predefined subrules](appendix-b-grouped.html#subrules)
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481
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482 # [T](#nav-top)
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483
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484 <a id="term"/>
485 **term** &mdash;
486
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487 <a id="topicalizer"/>
488 **topicalizer** &mdash;
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489 every keyword that sets the **[$\_](appendix-a-index.html#context-var)**
490 variable, like *[given](appendix-a-index.html#given)*
491 and *[for](appendix-a-index.html#for)*
492
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493 <a id="trait"/>
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494 **trait** &mdash;
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495 additional property of a variable, defined at *[compile time](#compile-time)*,
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496 see **[but](appendix-a-index.html#but)**, what other languages call
497 *trait* Perl calls [role](#role)
498
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499 <a id="twigil"/>
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500 **[twigil](appendix-b-grouped.html#twigils)** &mdash;
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501 second(ary) *[sigil](#sigil)* indicating a special property of a variable,
502 [(more details here)](tablet-3-variables#twigils)
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503
504
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505 # [U](#nav-top)
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506
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507 <a id="unicode"/>
508 **unicode** &mdash;
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509 format to save text in, that can contain almost any letter or symbol known to men,
510 not just *[ASCII](#ASCII)*, its [fully supported](appendix-d-delta.html#unicode)
511 by Perl 6, which means any part of a a program might use any character or symbol,
512 strange names that start with UTF are most probably Unicode formats
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513
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514 # [V](#nav-top)
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515
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516 # [W](#nav-top)
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517
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518 # [X](#nav-top)
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519
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520 <a id="xor"/>
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521 **xor** *(eXclusive OR)* &mdash;
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522 logical operation that has a the result **True** if only one of two
523 operands (incoming information) is also true, otherwise result is **False**,
524 following operator working with that logic:
525 [**\^**](appendix-a-index.html#junctive-xor),
526 [**\^\^**](appendix-a-index.html#logical-xor),
527 [**+\^**](appendix-a-index.html#numeric-xor),
528 [**?\^**](appendix-a-index.html#boolean-xor),
529 [**~\^**](appendix-a-index.html#string-xor),
530 [**one**](appendix-a-index.html#one),
531 [**xor**](appendix-a-index.html#xor) &mdash;
532 other logical operations are: [*and*](#and), [*or*](#or), [*not*](#not)
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533
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534
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535 # [Y](#nav-top)
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536
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537 <a id="yadda-operator"/>
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538 **[yadda operator](operators.html#yadda)** &mdash;
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539 placeholder for later to be written code inside a [routine](#routine),
540 because empty ones are forbidden, comes in 3 flavours:
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541 **[...](appendix-a-index.html#dot-yadda-op)** (fail),
542 **[???](appendix-a-index.html#question-mark)** (warn) and
543 **[!!!](appendix-a-index.html#exclamation-mark)** (die)
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544
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545 # [Z](#nav-top)
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