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package App::Ack;
use warnings;
use strict;
=head1 NAME
App::Ack - A container for functions for the ack program
=head1 VERSION
Version 2.15_02
$VERSION = '2.15_02';
$COPYRIGHT = 'Copyright 2005-2015 Andy Lester.';
our $fh;
$fh = *STDOUT;
our %types;
our %type_wanted;
our %mappings;
our %ignore_dirs;
our $is_filter_mode;
our $output_to_pipe;
our $dir_sep_chars;
our $is_cygwin;
our $is_windows;
use File::Spec 1.00015 ();
# These have to be checked before any filehandle diddling.
$output_to_pipe = not -t *STDOUT;
$is_filter_mode = -p STDIN;
$is_cygwin = ($^O eq 'cygwin');
$is_windows = ($^O eq 'MSWin32');
$dir_sep_chars = $is_windows ? quotemeta( '\\/' ) : quotemeta( File::Spec->catfile( '', '' ) );
If you want to know about the F<ack> program, see the F<ack> file itself.
No user-serviceable parts inside. F<ack> is all that should use this.
=head2 remove_dir_sep( $path )
This functions removes a trailing path separator, if there is one, from its argument
sub remove_dir_sep {
my $path = shift;
$path =~ s/[$dir_sep_chars]$//;
return $path;
=head2 warn( @_ )
Put out an ack-specific warning.
sub warn {
return CORE::warn( _my_program(), ': ', @_, "\n" );
=head2 die( @_ )
Die in an ack-specific way.
sub die {
return CORE::die( _my_program(), ': ', @_, "\n" );
sub _my_program {
require File::Basename;
return File::Basename::basename( $0 );
=head2 filetypes_supported()
Returns a list of all the types that we can detect.
sub filetypes_supported {
return keys %mappings;
sub _get_thpppt {
my $y = q{_ /|,\\'!.x',=(www)=, U };
$y =~ tr/,x!w/\nOo_/;
return $y;
sub _thpppt {
my $y = _get_thpppt();
App::Ack::print( "$y ack $_[0]!\n" );
exit 0;
sub _bar {
my $x;
$x = <<'_BAR';
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%~",!:".#:!=!:!,!:"+!:!~!:!.!,!~!,!.#,!.!,$:"~!,":"~!=! */!
return App::Ack::__pic($x);
sub _cathy {
my $x = <<'CATHY';
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return App::Ack::__pic($x);
sub __pic {
my($compressed) = @_;
$compressed =~ s/(.)(.)/$1x(ord($2)-32)/eg;
App::Ack::print( $compressed );
exit 0;
=head2 show_help()
Dumps the help page to the user.
sub show_help {
my $help_arg = shift || 0;
return show_help_types() if $help_arg =~ /^types?/;
App::Ack::print( <<"END_OF_HELP" );
Search for PATTERN in each source file in the tree from the current
directory on down. If any files or directories are specified, then
only those files and directories are checked. ack may also search
STDIN, but only if no file or directory arguments are specified,
or if one of them is "-".
Default switches may be specified in ACK_OPTIONS environment variable or
an .ackrc file. If you want no dependency on the environment, turn it
off with --noenv.
Example: ack -i select
-i, --ignore-case Ignore case distinctions in PATTERN
--[no]smart-case Ignore case distinctions in PATTERN,
only if PATTERN contains no upper case.
Ignored if -i is specified
-v, --invert-match Invert match: select non-matching lines
-w, --word-regexp Force PATTERN to match only whole words
-Q, --literal Quote all metacharacters; PATTERN is literal
Search output:
--lines=NUM Only print line(s) NUM of each file
-l, --files-with-matches Only print filenames containing matches
-L, --files-without-matches Only print filenames with no matches
--output=expr Output the evaluation of expr for each line
(turns off text highlighting)
-o Show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
Same as --output='\$&'
--passthru Print all lines, whether matching or not
--match PATTERN Specify PATTERN explicitly.
-m, --max-count=NUM Stop searching in each file after NUM matches
-1 Stop searching after one match of any kind
-H, --with-filename Print the filename for each match (default:
on unless explicitly searching a single file)
-h, --no-filename Suppress the prefixing filename on output
-c, --count Show number of lines matching per file
--[no]column Show the column number of the first match
-A NUM, --after-context=NUM Print NUM lines of trailing context after
matching lines.
-B NUM, --before-context=NUM Print NUM lines of leading context before
matching lines.
-C [NUM], --context[=NUM] Print NUM lines (default 2) of output context.
--print0 Print null byte as separator between filenames,
only works with -f, -g, -l, -L or -c.
-s Suppress error messages about nonexistent or
unreadable files.
File presentation:
--pager=COMMAND Pipes all ack output through COMMAND. For
example, --pager="less -R". Ignored if output
is redirected.
--nopager Do not send output through a pager. Cancels
any setting in ~/.ackrc, ACK_PAGER or
--[no]heading Print a filename heading above each file's
results. (default: on when used interactively)
--[no]break Print a break between results from different
files. (default: on when used interactively)
--group Same as --heading --break
--nogroup Same as --noheading --nobreak
--[no]color Highlight the matching text (default: on unless
output is redirected, or on Windows)
--[no]colour Same as --[no]color
--color-lineno=COLOR Set the color for filenames, matches, and line
--flush Flush output immediately, even when ack is used
non-interactively (when output goes to a pipe or
File finding:
-f Only print the files selected, without
searching. The PATTERN must not be specified.
-g Same as -f, but only select files matching
--sort-files Sort the found files lexically.
--show-types Show which types each file has.
--files-from=FILE Read the list of files to search from FILE.
-x Read the list of files to search from STDIN.
File inclusion/exclusion:
--[no]ignore-dir=name Add/remove directory from list of ignored dirs
--[no]ignore-directory=name Synonym for ignore-dir
--ignore-file=filter Add filter for ignoring files
-r, -R, --recurse Recurse into subdirectories (default: on)
-n, --no-recurse No descending into subdirectories
--[no]follow Follow symlinks. Default is off.
-k, --known-types Include only files of types that ack recognizes.
--type=X Include only X files, where X is a recognized
--type=noX Exclude X files.
See "ack --help-types" for supported filetypes.
File type specification:
Files with the given FILTERARGS applied to the
given FILTER are recognized as being of type
TYPE. This replaces an existing definition for
type TYPE.
Files with the given FILTERARGS applied to the
given FILTER are recognized as being type TYPE.
--type-del TYPE Removes all filters associated with TYPE.
--[no]env Ignore environment variables and global ackrc
files. --env is legal but redundant.
--ackrc=filename Specify an ackrc file to use
--ignore-ack-defaults Ignore default definitions included with ack.
--create-ackrc Outputs a default ackrc for your customization
to standard output.
--help, -? This help
--help-types Display all known types
--dump Dump information on which options are loaded
from which RC files
--[no]filter Force ack to treat standard input as a pipe
(--filter) or tty (--nofilter)
--man Man page
--version Display version & copyright
--thpppt Bill the Cat
--bar The warning admiral
--cathy Chocolate! Chocolate! Chocolate!
Exit status is 0 if match, 1 if no match.
ack's home page is at
The full ack manual is available by running "ack --man".
This is version $VERSION of ack. Run "ack --version" for full version info.
=head2 show_help_types()
Display the filetypes help subpage.
sub show_help_types {
App::Ack::print( <<'END_OF_HELP' );
The following is the list of filetypes supported by ack. You can
specify a file type with the --type=TYPE format, or the --TYPE
format. For example, both --type=perl and --perl work.
Note that some extensions may appear in multiple types. For example,
.pod files are both Perl and Parrot.
my @types = filetypes_supported();
my $maxlen = 0;
for ( @types ) {
$maxlen = length if $maxlen < length;
for my $type ( sort @types ) {
next if $type =~ /^-/; # Stuff to not show
my $ext_list = $mappings{$type};
if ( ref $ext_list ) {
$ext_list = join( '; ', map { $_->to_string } @{$ext_list} );
App::Ack::print( sprintf( " --[no]%-*.*s %s\n", $maxlen, $maxlen, $type, $ext_list ) );
sub show_man {
require Pod::Usage;
-input => $App::Ack::orig_program_name,
-verbose => 2,
-exitval => 0,
=head2 get_version_statement
Returns the version information for ack.
sub get_version_statement {
require Config;
my $copyright = get_copyright();
my $this_perl = $Config::Config{perlpath};
if ($^O ne 'VMS') {
my $ext = $Config::Config{_exe};
$this_perl .= $ext unless $this_perl =~ m/$ext$/i;
my $ver = sprintf( '%vd', $^V );
return <<"END_OF_VERSION";
ack ${VERSION}
Running under Perl $ver at $this_perl
This program is free software. You may modify or distribute it
under the terms of the Artistic License v2.0.
=head2 print_version_statement
Prints the version information for ack.
sub print_version_statement {
App::Ack::print( get_version_statement() );
=head2 get_copyright
Return the copyright for ack.
sub get_copyright {
return $COPYRIGHT;
# print*() subs added in order to make it easy for a third party
# module (such as App::Wack) to redefine the display methods
# and show the results in a different way.
sub print { print {$fh} @_; return; }
sub print_first_filename { App::Ack::print( $_[0], "\n" ); return; }
sub print_blank_line { App::Ack::print( "\n" ); return; }
sub print_separator { App::Ack::print( "--\n" ); return; }
sub print_filename { App::Ack::print( $_[0], $_[1] ); return; }
sub print_line_no { App::Ack::print( $_[0], $_[1] ); return; }
sub print_column_no { App::Ack::print( $_[0], $_[1] ); return; }
sub print_count {
my $filename = shift;
my $nmatches = shift;
my $ors = shift;
my $count = shift;
my $show_filename = shift;
if ($show_filename) {
App::Ack::print( $filename );
App::Ack::print( ':', $nmatches ) if $count;
else {
App::Ack::print( $nmatches ) if $count;
App::Ack::print( $ors );
sub print_count0 {
my $filename = shift;
my $ors = shift;
my $show_filename = shift;
if ($show_filename) {
App::Ack::print( $filename, ':0', $ors );
else {
App::Ack::print( '0', $ors );
sub set_up_pager {
my $command = shift;
return if App::Ack::output_to_pipe();
my $pager;
if ( not open( $pager, '|-', $command ) ) {
App::Ack::die( qq{Unable to pipe to pager "$command": $!} );
$fh = $pager;
=head2 output_to_pipe()
Returns true if ack's input is coming from a pipe.
sub output_to_pipe {
return $output_to_pipe;
=head2 exit_from_ack
Exit from the application with the correct exit code.
Returns with 0 if a match was found, otherwise with 1. The number of matches is
handed in as the only argument.
sub exit_from_ack {
my $nmatches = shift;
my $rc = $nmatches ? 0 : 1;
exit $rc;
Copyright 2005-2015 Andy Lester.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the Artistic License v2.0.
1; # End of App::Ack