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Mastering PostgreSQL Administration

Bruce Momjian

Most of this stuff I knew already, so the notes are short.


  • local -- Unix sockets
    • Significantly faster than going through host
  • host -- TCP/IP, both SSL and non-SSL
  • hostssl -- only SSL
    • Can delay connection startup by 25-40%
  • hostnossl -- never SSL

Template databases

  • You can use template databases to make a standard DB for when you create new ones. For example, if you want to always have a certain function or table, put it in template1. This works with extensions and contrib like pg_crypto.

Data directory

  • xxx_fsm files are freespace map
  • pg_xlog is the WAL log directory
  • pg_clog is compressed status log

Config file settings

  • shared_buffers should be 25% of total RAM for dedicated DB servers. Don't go over 40-50% or machine will starve. Also, overhead of that many buffers is huge.
  • If you can get five minutes of your working set into shared_buffers, you're golden.
  • Going over a couple hundred connections, it's worth it to look at a pooler.

Analyzing activity

  • Heavily-used tables
  • Unnecessary indexes
  • Additional indexes
  • Index usage
  • TOAST usage
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