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Oricutron 1.2
(c)2009-2014 Peter Gordon (
This is a work in progress.
Current status
6502: 100% done (apart from any unknown bugs :)
VIA: 95% done.
AY: 99% done.
Video: 100% done
Tape: 99% done (.TAP, .ORT and .WAV supported)
Disk: Reading/Writing sectors works. No track read/write.
Peter Gordon
Additional Programming
Francois Revol
Alexandre Devert
Stefan Haubenthal
Kamel Biskri
Christian from defence-force forum
Amiga & Windows ports
Peter Gordon
BeOS/Haiku port
Francois Revol
macOS port
Francois Revol
Kamel Biskri
Patrice Torguet
MorphOS & AROS ports
Stefan Haubenthal
Linux port
Francois Revol
Alexandre Devert
Pandora port
ACIA & Pravetz disk support
CH376 support
Offset (cpc) & Jede
Thanks to DBug and Twilighte for letting me distribute their demos and
games with Oricutron.
Thanks to DBug, Twilighte, Chema, kamelito, Yicker, JamesD, Algarbi, ibisum,
jede, thrust26 and everyone else for their help and feedback!
AVI export notes
The AVI export uses the MRLE codec. Your favourite player might not support
it, but MPlayer plays it, ffmpeg converts it and you can upload it directly
to youtube.
Note that the MRLE codec shows up some endian-issues on the Amiga OS4 port
of MPlayer, so it will sound crappy and have wrong colours until those bugs
are fixed :-(
Command line
You can specify certain options on the command line. All options have
both short and long versions. For example:
--machine blah
Is the same thing. Note that the short version doesn't have a space, but
the long version does.
Here are all the options:
-m / --machine = Specify machine type. Valid types are:
"atmos" or "a" for Oric atmos
"oric1" or "1" for Oric-1
"o16k" for Oric-1 16k
"telestrat" or "t" for Telestrat
"pravetz", "pravetz8d" or "p" for Pravetz 8D
-d / --disk = Specify a disk image to use in drive 0
-t / --tape = Specify a tape image to use
-k / --drive = Specify a disk drive controller. Valid types are:
"microdisc" or "m" for Microdisc
"jasmin" or "j" for Jasmin
-s / --symbols = Load symbols from a file
-f / --fullscreen = Run oricutron fullscreen
-w / --window = Run oricutron in a window
-R / --rendermode = Render mode. Valid modes are:
"soft" for software rendering
"opengl" for OpenGL
-b / --debug = Start oricutron in the debugger
-r / --breakpoint = Set a breakpoint (See NOTE2)
-h / --help = Print command line help and quit
--turbotape on|off = Enable or disable turbotape
--lightpen on|off = Enable or disable lightpen
--vsynchack on|off = Enable or disable VSync hack
--scanlines on|off = Enable or disable scanline simulation
--serial_address N = Set serial card base address to N (default is $31C)
where N is decimal or hexadecimal within the range of $31c..$3fc
(i.e. 796, 0x31c, $31C represent the same value)
--serial <type> = Set serial card back-end emulation:
'none' - no serial
'loopback' - for testing - all TX data is returned to RX
'modem[:port]' - emulates com port with attached modem,
only minimal AT command set is supported and
data is redirected to TCP. Default port is 23 (telnet)
'com:115200,8,N,1,<device>' - use real or virtual <device> on host as emulated ACIA.
Baudrate, data bits, parity and stop bits can be set as needed
ex.: Windows: 'com:115200,8,N,1,COM1'
Linux: 'com:19200,8,N,1,/dev/ttyS0'
NOTE: If you are not sure what machine or drive type is required for a disk or
tape image, just pass the filename without any options and Oricutron will
try and autodetect for you.
NOTE2: List with many breakpoints can be loaded from command line. Use default switches -r or --breakpoint,
but instead of an address, specify filename prefixed with ':'. The file is plain text file, which contains
desired breakpoint-addresses - one per line using the same syntax as in the monitor. Breakpoints can be set
with absolute addresses or with symbols (loaded with command line switches -s or --symbols).
oricutron tapes/tape_image.tap
oricutron disks/disk_image.dsk
oricutron --machine atmos --tape "tape files/foo.tap" --symbols "my files/symbols"
oricutron -m1 -tBUILD/foo.tap -sBUILD/symbols -b
oricutron --drive microdisc --disk demos/barbitoric.dsk --fullscreen
oricutron -ddemos/barbitoric.dsk -f
oricutron --turbotape off tapes/hobbit.tap
oricutron -s myproject.sym -r :myprojectbp.txt
In emulator
F1 - Bring up the menu
F2 - Go to debugger/monitor
F3 - Reset button (NMI)
F4 - Hard reset
Shift+F4 - Jasmin reset
F5 - Toggle FPS
F6 - Toggle warp speed
F7 - Save all modified disks
Shift+F7 - Save all modified disks to new disk images
F8 - Toggle fullscreen
F9 - Save tape output
F10 - Start/Stop AVI capture
F11 - Copy text screen to clipboard (BeOS, Linux & Windows)
F12 - Paste (BeOS, Linux & Windows)
Help - Show guide (Amiga, MorphOS and AROS)
AltGr - Additional modifier
In menus
Cursors - Navigate
Enter - Perform option
Backspace - Go back
Escape - Exit menus
(or use the mouse)
In Debugger/Monitor
F1 - Go to the menu
F2 - Return to the emulator
F3 - Toggle console/debug output/memwatch
F4 - Toggle VIA/AY/disk information
F9 - Reset cycle count
F10 - Step over code
F11 - Step over code without tracing into
F12 - Skip instruction
In the console:
Up/Down - Command history
In memwatch:
Up/Down - Scroll (+shift for page up/down)
Page Up/Page Down - Page up/down
Hex digits - Enter address
S - Toggle split mode
Tab - Switch windows in split mode
Monitor instructions
In the monitor, number arguments are decimal by default, or prefixed with $ for
hex or % for binary. Pretty much everything is output in hex.
In most places where you can enter a number or address, you can pass a CPU or
VIA register. (VIA registers are prefixed with V, e.g. VDDRA). Anywhere you can
pass an address, you can also use a symbol.
? - Help
a <addr> - Assemble
bc <bp id> - Clear breakpoint
bcm <bp id> - Clear mem breakpoint
bl - List breakpoints
blm - List mem breakpoints
bs <addr> [zc] - Set breakpoint
bsm <addr> [rwc] - Set mem breakpoint
bz - Zap breakpoints
bzm - Zap mem breakpoints
d <addr> - Disassemble
df <addr> <end> <file>- Disassemble to file
m <addr> - Dump memory
mm <addr> <value> - Modify memory
mw <addr> - Memory watch at addr
nl <file> - Load snapshot
ns <file> - Save snapshot
r <reg> <val> - Set <reg> to <val>
q, x or qm - Quit monitor
qe - Quit emulator
sa <name> <addr> - Add or move user symbol
sk <name> - Kill user symbol
sc - Symbols not case-sensitive
sC - Symbols case-sensitive
sl <file> - Load user symbols
sx <file> - Export user symbols
sz - Zap user symbols
wm <addr> <len> <file>- Write mem to disk
There are two types of breakpoints. "Normal" breakpoints trigger when the CPU
is about to execute an instruction at the breakpoint address. "Memory" breakpoints
trigger when the breakpoint address is accessed or modified.
Normal breakpoints can use 'z' and/or 'c' modifiers.
bs $0c00 <-- Break when the CPU is about to execute code at $0c00
bs $0c00 z <-- Break when the CPU is about to execute code at $0c00
and set cycles counter to 0
bs $0c00 zc <-- Set cycles counter to 0 and continues
bs $0c00 c <-- Continues execution (i.e. disabled breakpoint)
Main purpose of this modifiers is to make cycle counting easier.
If symbols are loaded, they can be used instead of absolute addresses.
There are three ways a memory breakpoint can be triggered; when the CPU is about
to read the address (r), and the CPU is about to write the address (w), or after the
value at the address changes for any reason (c).
You specify which ways you'd like the breakpoint to trigger when you set the memory
bsm $0c00 r <-- Break when the CPU is about to read from $0c00
bsm $0c00 rw <-- Break when the CPU is about to access $0c00
bsm $0c00 c <-- Break after then contents of $0c00 change
bsm $0c00 rwc <-- Break just before the CPU accesses $0c00, or just after it
changes for any reason.
International Keyboards under Linux and macOS
There are lots of problems with some international keyboards under Linux
and macOS. The best way to cope with them is to install an UK or US
keyboard definition and to switch to it *before* starting oricutron.
Under macOS you can do that in the "System Preferences", "Keyboard", "Input
sources". Click on the + and search for the UK or US keyboard.
Under Ubuntu you can do that in the System menu, select Preferences, and
then select Keyboard. In the Keyboard Preferences dialog, select the
Layouts tab, and click Add.
For a better solution look under "Visual Keyboard" down here.
Visual Keyboard
Oricutron can display a visual keyboard which also adds a keyboard mapping redefinition feature.
It's accessible through a submenu called "Keyboard options".
In the submenu you can find:
- a toggle that shows/hides the visual keyboard (you can click on the keyboard keys to enter key presses/releases) ;
- a toggle that gets you in the key mapping definition mode (you can then click on a visual keyboard key ; press a real key on your keyboard and the mapping will work) ;
- a toggle that allows mod keys (ctrl, shift, funct) to be sticky (ie you first click on a key to press it and then either re-click it to release it or click on another key and it will generate a modded key press - e.g. a Ctrl-T instead of T - and then auto release the key) ;
- an option to save a keyboard mapping (.kma file) ;
- an option to load a keyboard mapping ;
- an option that resets the keyboard mapping to the default one.
You can also add the following in your oricutron.cfg to autoload a keyboard
mapping (here Test.kma in the keymap directory found in Oricutron's directory):
; automatically load a keyboard mapping file
autoload_keyboard_mapping = 'keymap/Test.kma'
Other options let you display the keyboard and activate sticky mod keys automatically:
show_keyboard = yes
sticky_mod_keys = yes
Serial card (ACIA) emulation
Oricutron can emulate ACIA at address #31C (standard address for Telestrat).
The emulation works for Oric, Atmos, Telestrat and Pravetz and can be used
together with any disk type.
The emulated ACIA communicates with the out-side world trough back-ends.
Back-ends can be configured from 'oricutron.cfg' or from command line
(see default 'oricutron.cfg' for usage).
Back-ends are:
- none - disables ACIA support
- loopback - every transmitted byte is returned to receive buffer (for testing purposes)
- com - Oricutron uses any real or virtual COM port in the host machine and communicates with the hardware attached to this serial port
- modem - unites ACIA with attached modem linked to internet with server and client sockets
In 'modem' mode are available folowing 'AT' commands:
AT - returns 'OK'
ATZ - initialize the modem
AT&F - initialize the modem
ATS0=0 - disable auto answering (close sever socket)
ATS0=1 - enable auto answering (open sever socket and start listening on selected port (default is telnet port 23))
ATA - same as 'ATS0=1'
ATS0? - returns 'AUTOANSWER OFF' or 'AUTOANSWER ON' depend on current sever socket state
ATH0 - disconnect currently connected sockets
+++ - if connected switches to command mode
ATO - returns from command mode to online
ATD ip:port - connects as client to ip:port. 'ip' can be any host name (ex.:localhost) or the real IP (ex.: on LAN or in Internet. ATDP and ATDT are alternative for compatibility.
CH376 card emulation
Oricutron runs ch376 chip. This chip is able to read a sdcard and a usbkey
(and USB port). This chip handles FAT32. usbdrive/ folder is the CH376
emulation folder. It means that when we asked ch376 to read usbkey, it
reads in this folder. Please note, that read/write are emulated (see below for emulated ch376 command ). Please note that emulation runs only in
telestrat mode. Atmos can run this chip, but the rom had not been release yet (and the card with the rom).
Orix ( works with this chip mainly. Don't modify ch376
emulation: contact Jede ( Because this emulation is used
also in ACE emulator (cpc emulation). Offset and me are trying to keep the
same emulation. It's easier to work together than alone.
CH376 command emulated :
- CH376_CMD_FILE_ERASE (not emulated under linux)
- CH376_CMD_DIR_CREATE (not emulated under linux)
Known bug :
Under windows, API's file does not send "." and ".." entries when we read the content on the folder. It's a problem because ch376 chip send these
entries, when we ask to this chip to read the content of a directory.
If someone wants to emulate CH376_CMD_DIR_CREATE and CH376_CMD_FILE_ERASE. It's easy to do : it justs need to copy WIN32 function and replace DeleteFile
and CreateDir with rm() and mkdir(). But it's not done because we are not able to test it.
CH376 emulation added for :
CH376_CMD_FILE_ERASE suppress a file
CH376_CMD_DIR_CREATE create folder
ROM patch files
For detailed usage see included '.pch' files in roms subdirectory.
Additionaly unlimited number of binary patches can be added:
where XXXX,YYYY,ZZZZ - are hex addresses relative to ROM start address
(i.e. to set byte at C000 to 00 use: $0000:00)
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