Polly is a .NET 3.5 / 4.0 / 4.5 / PCL library that allows developers to express transient exception handling policies such as Retry, Retry Forever, Wait and Retry or Circuit Breaker in a fluent manner.
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README.md

Polly

Polly is a .NET 3.5 / 4.0 / 4.5 / PCL (Profile 259) library that allows developers to express transient exception handling policies such as Retry, Retry Forever, Wait and Retry or Circuit Breaker in a fluent manner.

NuGet version Build status

Installing via NuGet

Install-Package Polly

You can install the Strongly Named version via:

Install-Package Polly-Signed

Usage

Step 1 : Specify the type of exceptions you want the policy to handle

// Single exception type
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()

// Single exception type with condition
Policy
  .Handle<SqlException>(ex => ex.Number == 1205)

// Multiple exception types
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .Or<ArgumentException>()

// Multiple exception types with condition
Policy
  .Handle<SqlException>(ex => ex.Number == 1205)
  .Or<ArgumentException>(ex => x.ParamName == "example")

Step 2 : Specify how the policy should handle those exceptions

Retry

// Retry once
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .Retry()

// Retry multiple times
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .Retry(3)

// Retry multiple times, calling an action on each retry 
// with the current exception and retry count
Policy
    .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
    .Retry(3, (exception, retryCount) =>
    {
        // do something 
    });

// Retry multiple times, calling an action on each retry 
// with the current exception, retry count and context 
// provided to Execute()
Policy
    .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
    .Retry(3, (exception, retryCount, context) =>
    {
        // do something 
    });

Retry forever

// Retry forever
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .RetryForever()

// Retry forever, calling an action on each retry with the 
// current exception
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .RetryForever(exception =>
  {
        // do something       
  });

// Retry forever, calling an action on each retry with the
// current exception and context provided to Execute()
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .RetryForever((exception, context) =>
  {
        // do something       
  });

Retry and Wait

// Retry, waiting a specified duration between each retry
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .WaitAndRetry(new[]
  {
    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1),
    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2),
    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(3)
  });

// Retry, waiting a specified duration between each retry, 
// calling an action on each retry with the current exception
// and duration
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .WaitAndRetry(new[]
  {
    1.Seconds(),
    2.Seconds(),
    3.Seconds()
  }, (exception, timeSpan) => {
    // do something    
  }); 

// Retry, waiting a specified duration between each retry, 
// calling an action on each retry with the current exception, 
// duration and context provided to Execute()
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .WaitAndRetry(new[]
  {
    1.Seconds(),
    2.Seconds(),
    3.Seconds()
  }, (exception, timeSpan, context) => {
    // do something    
  });

// Retry a specified number of times, using a function to 
// calculate the duration to wait between retries based on 
// the current retry attempt (allows for exponential backoff)
// In this case will wait for
//  2 ^ 1 = 2 seconds then
//  2 ^ 2 = 4 seconds then
//  2 ^ 3 = 8 seconds then
//  2 ^ 4 = 16 seconds then
//  2 ^ 5 = 32 seconds
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .WaitAndRetry(5, retryAttempt => 
	TimeSpan.FromSeconds(Math.Pow(2, retryAttempt)) 
  );

// Retry a specified number of times, using a function to 
// calculate the duration to wait between retries based on 
// the current retry attempt, calling an action on each retry 
// with the current exception, duration and context provided 
// to Execute()
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .WaitAndRetry(
    5, 
    retryAttempt => TimeSpan.FromSeconds(Math.Pow(2, retryAttempt)), 
    (exception, timeSpan, context) => {
      // do something
    }
  );

Circuit Breaker

// Break the circuit after the specified number of exceptions
// and keep circuit broken for the specified duration
Policy
  .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
  .CircuitBreaker(2, TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1));

For more information on the Circuit Breaker pattern see:

Step 3 : Execute the policy

// Execute an action
var policy = Policy
              .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
              .Retry();

policy.Execute(() => DoSomething());

// Execute an action passing arbitrary context data
var policy = Policy
    .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
    .Retry(3, (exception, retryCount, context) =>
    {
        var methodThatRaisedException = context["methodName"];
		Log(exception, methodThatRaisedException);
    });

policy.Execute(
	() => DoSomething(),
	new Dictionary<string, object>() {{ "methodName", "some method" }}
);

// Execute a function returning a result
var policy = Policy
              .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
              .Retry();

var result = policy.Execute(() => DoSomething());

// Execute a function returning a result passing arbitrary context data
var policy = Policy
    .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
    .Retry(3, (exception, retryCount, context) =>
    {
        object methodThatRaisedException = context["methodName"];
        Log(exception, methodThatRaisedException)
    });

var result = policy.Execute(
    () => DoSomething(),
    new Dictionary<string, object>() {{ "methodName", "some method" }}
);

// You can of course chain it all together
Policy
  .Handle<SqlException>(ex => ex.Number == 1205)
  .Or<ArgumentException>(ex => ex.ParamName == "example")
  .Retry()
  .Execute(() => DoSomething());

Post Execution Steps

Using the ExecuteAndCapture method you can capture the result of executing a policy.

var policyResult = Policy
              .Handle<DivideByZeroException>()
              .Retry()
              .ExecuteAndCapture(() => DoSomething());
/*              
policyResult.Outcome - whether the call succeeded or failed         
policyResult.FinalException - the final exception captured, will be null if the call succeeded
policyResult.ExceptionType - was the final exception an exception the policy was defined to handle (like DivideByZeroException above) or an unhandled one (say Exception). Will be null if the call succeeded.
policyResult.Result - if executing a func, the result if the call succeeded or the type's default value

Asynchronous Support (.NET 4.5 and PCL Only)

You can use Polly with asynchronous functions by using the asynchronous methods

  • RetryAsync
  • RetryForeverAsync
  • WaitAndRetryAsync
  • CircuitBreakerAsync
  • ExecuteAsync
  • ExecuteAndCaptureAsync

In place of their synchronous counterparts

  • Retry
  • RetryForever
  • WaitAndRetry
  • CircuitBreaker
  • Execute
  • ExecuteAndCapture

For example

await Policy
  .Handle<SqlException>(ex => ex.Number == 1205)
  .Or<ArgumentException>(ex => ex.ParamName == "example")
  .RetryAsync()
  .ExecuteAsync(() => DoSomethingAsync());

SynchronizationContext

Note: By default, continuation and retry will not run on captured synchronization context. To change this behavior use .ExecuteAsync(...) overloads taking a boolean continueOnCapturedContext parameter.

Cancellation support

Async policy execution supports cancellation using .ExecuteAsync(...) overloads taking a CancellationToken. Cancellation cancels Policy actions such as further retries or waits between retries. The delegate taken by the relevant .ExecuteAsync(...) overloads also takes a cancellation token input parameter, to pass to calls within the delegate supporting cancellation. For example:

// Try several times to retrieve from a uri, but support cancellation at any time.
CancellationToken cancellationToken = // ...
var policy = Policy.Handle<Exception>().WaitAndRetryAsync(new[] { TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1), TimeSpan.FromSeconds(5), TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10) });
var response = await policy.ExecuteAsync(ct => httpClient.GetAsync(uri, ct), cancellationToken);

3rd Party Libraries

Acknowledgements

  • lokad-shared-libraries - Helper assemblies for .NET 3.5 and Silverlight 2.0 that are being developed as part of the Open Source effort by Lokad.com (discontinued) | New BSD License
  • @michael-wolfenden - The creator and mastermind of Polly!
  • @ghuntley - Portable Class Library implementation.
  • @mauricedb - Async implementation.
  • @robgibbens - Added existing async files to PCL project
  • Hacko - Added extra NotOnCapturedContext call to prevent potential deadlocks when blocking on asynchronous calls
  • @ThomasMentzel - Added ability to capture the results of executing a policy via ExecuteAndCapture
  • @yevhen - Added full control of whether to continue on captured synchronization context or not
  • @reisenberger - Added full async cancellation support

Sample Projects

Polly-Samples contains practical examples for using various implementations of Polly. Please feel free to contribute to the Polly-Samples repository in order to assist others who are either learning Polly for the first time, or are seeking advanced examples and novel approaches provided by our generous community.

Instructions for Contributing

Please check out our Wiki for contributing guidelines. We are following the excellent GitHub Flow process, and would like to make sure you have all of the information needed to be a world-class contributor!

License

Licensed under the terms of the New BSD License