The principal purpose of this application note is to describe a technique for measuring the relative phase of a pair of sinsusoidal signals over the full range of 2π radians (360°). This is known as quadrature detection; while ancient history to radio engineers the method may be unfamiliar to those from a programming background.
1.1 Measurement of relative timing and phase of analog signals
As of 11th April 2018 the Pyboard firmware has been enhanced to enable multiple
ADC channels to be read in response to a timer tick. At each tick a reading is
taken from each ADC in quick succession. This enables the relative timing or
phase of signals to be measured. This is facilitated by the static method
ADC.read_timed_multi which is documented
The ability to perform such measurements substantially increases the potential application areas of the Pyboard, supporting precision measurements of signals into the ultrasonic range. Applications such as ultrasonic rangefinders may be practicable. With two or more microphones it may be feasible to produce an ultrasonic active sonar capable of providing directional and distance information for multiple targets.
I have used it to build an electrical network analyser which yields accurate gain and phase (+-3°) plots of signals up to 40KHz.
2.1 Measurements of relative timing
ADC.read_timed_multi reads each ADC in turn. This implies a delay
between each reading. This was estimated at 1.8μs on a Pyboard V1.1. This value
can be used to compensate any readings taken.
2.2 Phase measurements
2.2.1 The quadrature detector
The principle of a phase sensitive detector (applicable to linear and sampled data systems) is based on multiplying the two signals and low pass filtering the result. This derives from the prosthaphaeresis formula:
sin a sin b = (cos(a-b) - cos(a+b))/2
ω = angular frequency in rad/sec
t = time
ϕ = phase
this can be written:
sin ωt sin(ωt + ϕ) = 0.5(cos(-ϕ) - cos(2ωt + ϕ))
The first term on the right hand side is a DC component related to the relative phase of the two signals. The second is an AC component at twice the incoming frequency. So if the product signal is passed through a low pass filter the right hand term disappears leaving only 0.5cos(-ϕ).
Where the frequency is known the filtering may be achieved simply by averaging over an integer number of cycles.
For the above to produce accurate phase measurements the amplitudes of the two signals must be normalised to 1. Alternatively the amplitudes may be measured and the DC phase value divided by their product.
Because cos ϕ = cos -ϕ this can only detect phase angles over a range of π radians. To achieve detection over the full 2π range a second product detector is used with one signal phase-shifted by π/2. This allows a complex phasor (phase vector) to be derived, with one detector providing the real part and the other the imaginary one.
In a sampled data system where the frequency is known, the phase shifted signal may be derived by indexing into one of the sample arrays. To achieve this the signals must be sampled at a rate of 4Nf where f is the frequency and N is an integer >= 1. In the limiting case where N == 1 the index offset is 1; this sampling rate is double the Nyquist rate.
In practice phase compensation may be required to allow for a time delay between sampling the two signals. If the delay is T and the frequency is f, the phase shift θ is given by
θ = 2πfT
Conventionally phasors rotate anticlockwise for leading phase. A time delay implies a phase lag i.e. a negative phase or a clockwise rotation. If λ is the phasor derived above, the adjusted phase α is given by multiplying by a phasor of unit magnitude and phase -θ:
α = λ(cos θ - jsin θ)
For small angles (i.e. at lower frequencies) this approximates to
α ~= λ(1 - jθ)
2.2.2 A MicroPython implementation
The example below, taken from an application, uses quadrature detection to
accurately measure the phase difference between an outgoing sinewave produced
DAC.write_timed and an incoming response signal. For application reasons
DAC.write_timed runs continuously. Its output feeds one ADC and the incoming
signal feeds another. The ADC's are fed from matched hardware anti-aliasing
filters; the matched characteristic ensures that any phase shift in the filters
Because the frequency is known the ADC sampling rate is chosen so that an integer number of cycles are captured. Thus averaging is used to remove the double frequency component.
demod() returns the phase difference in radians. The sample
arrays are globals
freq arg is the ADC sampling
frequency and is used to provide phase compensation for the delay mentioned in
nsamples is the number of samples per cycle of the sinewave. As
described above it can be any integer multiple of 4.
from math import sqrt, pi, sin, cos import cmath _ROOT2 = sqrt(2) # Return RMS value of a buffer, removing DC. def amplitude(buf): buflen = len(buf) meanin = sum(buf)/buflen return sqrt(sum((x - meanin)**2 for x in buf)/buflen) def demod(freq, nsamples): sum_norm = 0 sum_quad = 0 # quadrature pi/2 phase shift buflen = len(bufin) assert len(bufout) == buflen, 'buffer lengths must match' meanout = sum(bufout)/buflen # ADC samples are DC-shifted meanin = sum(bufin)/buflen # Remove DC offset, calculate RMS and convert to peak value (sine assumption) # Aim: produce sum_norm and sum_quad in range -1 <= v <= +1 peakout = amplitude(bufout) * _ROOT2 peakin = amplitude(bufin) * _ROOT2 # Calculate phase delta = int(nsamples // 4) # offset for pi/2 for x in range(buflen): v0 = (bufout[x] - meanout) / peakout v1 = (bufin[x] - meanin) / peakin s = (x + delta) % buflen # + pi/2 v2 = (bufout[s] - meanout) / peakout sum_norm += v0 * v1 # Normal sum_quad += v2 * v1 # Quadrature sum_norm /= (buflen * 0.5) # Factor of 0.5 from the trig formula sum_quad /= (buflen * 0.5) c = sum_norm + 1j * sum_quad # Create the complex phasor # Apply phase compensation measured at 1.8μs theta = 2 * pi * freq * 1.8e-6 c *= cos(theta) - 1j * sin(theta) return cmath.phase(c)
Note that the phase compensation figure of 1.8μs is based on empirical
measurement on a Pyboard 1.x. The easiest way to measure the time difference
between samples is to measure the phase error between identical fast sinewaves.
This was done by feeding the same signal into both ADC's (with compensation
disabled) and measuring the reported phase difference. Then
T = θ/(2πf) where f is the signal frequency.