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WebRTC: a working example

This is a simple working example of WebRTC technology, without unnecessary 3rd party dependencies. It allows 2 devices to exchange audio and video streams. Tested on Mozilla Firefox 74, Android 5.1, and Android 9.

Full description of how this example works can be found in this blog post (general explanation and web app) and in this blog post (React Native setup and mobile app).

Dependencies

The signaling server uses Python3 with aiohttp and python-socketio modules.

The web application uses socket.io-client version 4.2.0, released under MIT license, which can be downloaded from here. The script is added to this repository, so you don't have to download it separately or install it with npm.

The mobile application uses React Native with this module. The repository contains only Android configuration, but extending it with iOS should not be difficult.

Setup

Docker Compose

Thanks to grebtsew, starting the signaling server, the TURN server, and the web application (all described below) can be easily done with a single command:

docker-compose up -d

This setup should also work on public servers.

Signaling server

cd signaling
pip install -r requirements.txt
python server.py

This will start a websocket server at localhost:9999.

TURN server

You will not need this for localhost testing. However, if you are going to use this example over a public network, then you have to setup your own TURN server on a publicly available IP address. On Ubuntu-based OS it can be done like this:

sudo apt install coturn
turnserver -a -o -v -n --no-dtls --no-tls -u username:credential -r realmName

This will start a TURN server at {YOUR_SERVER_IP}:3478.

To check if your TURN server setup is correct, you can use this validator. To test the example above you should input the following values:

  • STUN or TURN URI: turn:{YOUR_SERVER_IP}:3478
  • TURN username: test
  • TURN password: test

Click "Add Server", remove other servers, and select "Gather candidates". If you get a component of type relay, that means your setup is working.

Web application

You just need to host the files from web directory. Any HTTP server will do, for example:

cd web
python -m http.server 7000

Then you can access the application in your browser: localhost:7000.

Mobile application

You need to setup React Native on your machine by following these instructions. Take note of your Android SDK location, you will need it later. WebRTC doesn't work with Expo or emulators, so you will have to run it on a physical phone. Connect the phone to the computer and enable USB debugging. Edit mobile/src/webrtc-utils.js file to point to an actual signaling server (and an actual TURN server, if you want to communicate over a non-local network). Then run these commands:

cd mobile
npm install
npx react-native start

In a new terminal session (also in the mobile directory) run:

export ANDROID_SDK_ROOT=/path/to/your/Android/Sdk
npx react-native run-android

The application should now be installed on your phone. You can test it with another mobile device or with the web application. Press the "Connect" button to start the WebRTC connection.