A PostgreSQL foreign data wrapper for Redis
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README.md

Redis FDW for PostgreSQL 9.1+

This PostgreSQL extension implements a Foreign Data Wrapper (FDW) for the Redis key/value database: http://redis.io/

This code was originally experimental, and largely intended as a pet project for Dave to experiment with and learn about FDWs in PostgreSQL. It has now been extended for production use by Andrew.

By all means use it, but do so entirely at your own risk! You have been warned!

Building

To build the code, you need the hiredis C interface to Redis installed on your system. You can checkout the hiredis from https://github.com/redis/hiredis or it might be available for your OS as it is for Fedora, for example.

Once that's done, the extension can be built with:

PATH=/usr/local/pgsql91/bin/:$PATH make USE_PGXS=1
sudo PATH=/usr/local/pgsql91/bin/:$PATH make USE_PGXS=1 install

(assuming you have PostgreSQL 9.1 in /usr/local/pgsql91).

Make necessary changes for 9.2 and later.

You will need to have the right branch checked out to match the PostgreSQL release you are building against, as the FDW API has changed from release to release.

Dave has tested the original on Mac OS X 10.6 only, and Andrew on Fedora and Suse. Other *nix's should also work. Neither of us have tested on Windows, but the code should be good on MinGW.

Limitations

  • There's no such thing as a cursor in Redis in the SQL sense, nor MVCC, which leaves us with no way to atomically query the database for the available keys and then fetch each value. So, we get a list of keys to begin with, and then fetch whatever records still exist as we build the tuples.

  • We can only push down a single qual to Redis, which must use the TEXTEQ operator, and must be on the 'key' column.

  • There is no support for non-scalar datatypes in Redis such as lists, for PostgreSQL 9.1. There is such support for later releases.

  • Redis has acquired cursors as of Release 2.8. This is used in all the mainline branches from REL9_2_STABLE on, for operations which would otherwise either scan the entire Redis database in a single sweep, or scan a single, possible large, keyset in a single sweep. Redis Releases prior to 2.8 are maintained on the REL9_x_STABLE_pre2.8 branches.

  • Redis cursors have some significant limitations. The Redis docs say:

    A given element may be returned multiple times. It is up to the application to handle the case of duplicated elements, for example only using the returned elements in order to perform operations that are safe when re-applied multiple times.

    The FDW makes no attempt to detect this situation. Users should be aware of the possibility.

Usage

The following parameters can be set on a Redis foreign server:

address: The address or hostname of the Redis server. Default: 127.0.0.1

port: The port number on which the Redis server is listening. Default: 6379

The following parameters can be set on a Redis foreign table:

database: The numeric ID of the Redis database to query. Default: 0

(9.2 and later) tabletype: can be 'hash', 'list', 'set' or 'zset' Default: none, meaning only look at scalar values.

(9.2 and later) tablekeyprefix: only get items whose names start with the prefix Default: none

(9.2 and later) tablekeyset: fetch item names from the named set Default: none

(9.2 and later) singleton_key: get all the values in the table from a single named object. Default: none, meaning don't just use a single object.

You can only have one of tablekeyset and tablekeyprefix, and if you use singleton_key you can't have either.

Structured items are returned as array text, or, if the value column is a text array as an array of values. In the case of hash objects this array is an array of key, value, key, value ...

Singleton key tables are returned as rows with a single column of text in the case of lists sets and scalars, rows with key and value text columns for hashes, and rows with a value text columns and an optional numeric score column for zsets.

The following parameter can be set on a user mapping for a Redis foreign server:

password: The password to authenticate to the Redis server with. Default:

Insert, Update and Delete

PostgreSQL acquired support for modifying foreign tables in release 9.3, and now the Redis Foreign Data Wrapper supports these too, for 9.3 and later PostgreSQL releases. There are a few restriction on this:

  • only INSERT works for singleton key list tables, due to limitations in the Redis API for lists.
  • INSERT and UPDATE only work for singleton key ZSET tables if they have the priority column
  • non-singleton non-scalar tables must have an array type for the second column

Example

CREATE EXTENSION redis_fdw;

CREATE SERVER redis_server
    FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER redis_fdw
    OPTIONS (address '127.0.0.1', port '6379');

CREATE FOREIGN TABLE redis_db0 (key text, val text)
    SERVER redis_server
    OPTIONS (database '0');

CREATE USER MAPPING FOR PUBLIC
    SERVER redis_server
    OPTIONS (password 'secret');

CREATE FOREIGN TABLE myredishash (key text, val text[])
    SERVER redis_server
    OPTIONS (database '0', tabletype 'hash', tablekeyprefix 'mytable:');

INSERT INTO myredishash (key, val)
   VALUES ('mytable:r1,'{prop1,val1,prop2,val2}');

UPDATE myredishash
    SET val = '{prop3,val3,prop4,val4}'
    WHERE key = 'mytable:r1';

DELETE from myredishash
    WHERE key = 'mytable:r1';

CREATE FOREIGN TABLE myredis_s_hash (key text, val text)
    SERVER redis_server
    OPTIONS (database '0', tabletype 'hash',  singleton_key 'mytable');

INSERT INTO myredis_s_hash (key, val)
   VALUES ('prop1','val1'),('prop2','val2');

UPDATE myredis_s_hash
    SET val = 'val23'
    WHERE key = 'prop1';

DELETE from myredis_s_hash
    WHERE key = 'prop2';

Testing

The tests for 9.2 and later assume that you have access to a redis server on the localmachine with no password, and uses database 15, which must be empty, and that the redis-cli program is in the PATH when it is run. The test script checks that the database is empty before it tries to populate it, and it cleans up afterwards.

Authors

Dave Page dpage@pgadmin.org

Andrew Dunstan andrew@dunslane.net