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Talk to a PCE-174 logging luxmeter in Python
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README.md

PCE-174 light meter communication

This script implements the serial communication protocol used by the PCE-174 logging light meter.

The PCE-174 appears to be identical to/compatible with the Extech HD450 and HD400 light meters. The user manual for the Extech version of the instrument is quite a bit better than the PCE version, so try and find it online...

The meter features 99 registers of manual storage memory plus stand alone logging capabilities. Data can be retrieved via a USB interface.

See protocol.md for a detailed description of the communication protocol.

Status

Compared to v0.6, the command structure has changed! Commands are no longer compatible with older releases. I believe it's much cleaner now, but that's my opinion.

The script can send commands to control the instrument and request data from it:

  • Live data: the current reading
  • Saved data: the 99 registers for manually saved values
  • Logging data: entire logging sessions stored in instrument memory
  • Also, tethered logging is supported. I.e. the program keeps requesting live-data from the instrument.

All functionality that can be derived from the manufacturer protocol documentation has been implemented. It is possible, however, that there are undocumented functions that I haven't found.

I have tested all commands and they seem to do what I intended. However, I did not systematically test invalid input. I also didn't implement any error handling so you will be presented with Python's error traceback when something goes wrong.

Feedback and bug reports are welcome.

Known issues

Software issues

  • Mysteriously, the up and down commands do not seem to work in setup mode. This implicates, that you cannot set date, time or sampling
  • The values for apo are often in disagreement with the apo icon on the display. I have no idea what is going on, here. Any hints are welcome. I also found command codes that toggle the apo icon (see protocol.md) but I do not trust that they actually change apo mode. Therefore, the code for the set apo {on|off} command is currently commented out.
  • Timing in tethered logging (log) is not accurate – in fact, all I did was to sleep for the number of seconds specified in -I between samples. I think that's good enough in most situations.
  • The instrument encodes many things in BCD. Some BCD values cannot be represented exactly in binary representation. E.g. 110.3 turns into 110.30000000000001.

Firmware/instrument issues

  • In standalone logging mode, the instrument does not honor rel mode but rather records absolute values. This is kind of inconsistent as the rel flag is recorded. However, tethered logging carried out by this program does treat rel mode as expected – so don't confuse the two.
  • Sometimes the instrument stores invalid data like seconds >59. This causes data processing to fail. You can still use raw, hex or construct format but repr and csv do not work in those cases... This is a bug in the instruments firmware – there is nothing I can do about it.
  • The weekday recorded by the instrument does not necessarily match the recorded date: weekday is a number between 1 and 7 and can be set manually in setup. If you need the true weekday I recommend computing it from date.

Credits

Github user FRISAK tested this with an Extech HD450 and also contributed some changes to code and documentation.

Compatibility

This program has been successfully tested with both a PCE-174 and Extech HD450 light meter unter Linux.

The program was developed under Linux but it should work under Windows and MacOS as well. However, this is untested. Please let me know if you have tried this and I'll at least update this statement.

Connecting to a computer

The light meter has a mini USB port. Upon connection to the computer the instrument identifies as a CP2102 USB to UART bridge (device ID 10c4:ea60).

On my Debian Linux system, it is recognized out of the box; under Windows you may need to install the respective driver (from the web or the Windows software CD that comes with the instrument). Mac anyone?

Serial communication parameters are 9600bps8N1.

On Linux, you may need to configure your user account to have access to /dev/ttyUSB0 (or similar). Alternatively you can run using sudo.

Dependencies

You need Python 3 for this to work.

The program uses the construct library for parsing binary data which has undergone major redesign during the switch to v2.8 that lead to loss of backwards compatibility. Accordingly, versions of construct <2.8 will not work! Development and testing was carried out with v2.9.

You can find the construct library and documentation here:

https://github.com/construct/construct

https://construct.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

If it is not provided by your distribution just install a local version:

pip install construct

It is also necessary to install pyserial, as follows:

pip install pyserial

Usage

To communicate with the light meter connect through USB and run the command like this:

usage: pce174.py [-h] [-p PORT] [-f {csv,repr,construct,raw,hex}]
                 [-i SAMPLINGINT] [-n SAMPLENO] [-F FILE] [-s SEP]
                 [command] [args [args ...]]

Talk to a PCE-174 lightmeter/logger

positional arguments:
  command               command to send to instrument
  args                  arguments to command

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -p PORT               port to connect to (default:/dev/ttyUSB0)
  -f {csv,repr,construct,raw,hex}
                        specify output format for read commands (default:csv)
  -i SAMPLINGINT, --samplingint SAMPLINGINT
                        set sampling interval for tethered logging [s]
                        (default:1).
  -n SAMPLENO, --sampleno SAMPLENO
                        set number of samples for tethered logging [s]
                        (default: -1).
  -F FILE, --file FILE  parse previously saved raw data instead of reading
                        from the instrument
  -s SEP, --sep SEP     separator for csv (default:',')

Command summary

Simulating button presses on the instrument:

    press {units|light|load|range|apo|rec|setup|peak|rel|max|min|hold|off|up|down|left|right}
    press {REC|PEAK|REL|LOAD}

Button identifiers are case sensitive: 
    lower case: short press
    upper case: hold/long press

Getting status/mode information:

    get status
    get {date|weekday|time|unit|range|mode|apo|power|view|memstat|read_no}

Setting modes:

    set mode {normal|rel|min|max|pmin|pmax}
    set range {400|4k|40k|400k}      # for lux
    set range {40|400|4k|40k}        # for fc
    set unit {lux|fc}
    set apo {on|off}
    set view {time|day|year|sampling}

Valid `range` values depend on the current value of `unit` and will change
magically, when the unit is changed. I.e. always set `unit` before `range`.

Enter/exit setup mode
    
    setup

Reading data from the instrument:

    read {live|saved|logger}

Live logging - i.e. repeatedly reading live data:

    log

Below, all commands that are available as of now are described.

Simulate button presses

For conveniance, some key press commands are redundant in that they refer to the same button by differnt names (as printed on the button). You can generate button press events over usb using the press command:

> pce174.py press rel

Essentially, all buttons of the instrument are supported: units, light, load, range, apo, rec, setup, peak, rel, max, min, hold, off, up, down, left, right.

Some buttons have special functions when pressed long (hold). These events can be triggered by using the upper case version of the buttons: REC, PEAK, REL, LOAD

See instrument manual for what these buttons do.

Getting status information

In order to get the value of instrument parameters use the get command. The following parameters are supported: date, weekday, time, unit, range, mode, apo, power, view, memstat, read_no. E.g.:

> pce174.py get unit
lux

In addition, you can request the status which shows all of the above in human readable form:

> pce174.py get status
date:       2019-03-10
time:       15:55:40
unit:       lux
range:      400
mode:       normal
apo:        off
power:      ok
view:       time
memstat:    None
read_no:    1

All of the above is also included in the data returned by read live but if all you want is checking status, this command is more convenient.

Setting parameters

You can set parameters like rel or peak by pressing the respective buttons on the instrument and by emulating button presses as described above but this is suboptimal in a scripted environment, because you need to know the current state and then press the right buttons the correct number of times. To ease the process of setting things to the desired value the program can do this for you and figure out the details by itself.

To set unit and range use the following commands:

set unit {lux|fc}
set range {400|4k|40k|400k}      # valid ranges for lux
set range {40|400|4k|40k}        # valid ranges for fc

As the valid arguments to range depend on unit it is wise to set unit first. In addition, you can set the measurement mode with

set mode {normal|rel|min|max|pmin|pmax}

To set the desired view mode (what you see on the instrument display) use:

set view {time|day|year|sampling}

In theory, you can turn apo on and off with

set apo {on|off}

However, this does not work, and I am confused about the apo state in general so I have commented out this part of the code, for now.

Reading data from the instrument

The program supports all three different types of data stored in the instrument:

  1. Live data (read live) – i.e. the current reading
  2. Saved data (read saved) – i.e. the content of the 99 storage registers that one can manually store readings in
  3. Logger data (read logger) – i.e. all stand-alone logging sessions

In addition, you can perform tethered logging – i.e. the program polls live data repeatedly (log).

read live

This command reads live data from the instrument. I.e. the current readings. By default, the command returns comma separated data (CSV) to STDOUT. Example:

> pce174.py read live
date,weekday,time,value,rawvalue,unit,range,mode,hold,apo,power,view,memstat,mem_no,read_no
2019-03-10,7,17:18:32,14.600000000000001,14.600000000000001,lux,400,normal,cont,off,ok,sampling,None,6,1

The first row contains column headers with the following meaning:

Column Description
date Date in ISO-8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD)
weekday int (1-7) caution: does not necessarily match date
time Time (HH:MM:SS)
value Numerical value of reading
rawvalue raw numerical value
unit Unit of measurement (lux/fc)
range Measurement range used (40, 400, ... 4000k)
mode normal/Pmin/Pmax/min/max/rel
hold hold or continuous measurement? (hold/cont)
apo Auto-power-off (on/off)
power Power status (ok/low)
dispmode Active display mode (time/day/sampling/year)
memstat storing/viewing of data (None/store/recall)
mem_no Number of manually saved records in memory. (See read saved)
read_no Manual storage cursor position (in the 99 storage registers)

In normal mode, value and rawvalue are identical. In rel mode however, rawvalue contains the absolute reading (that would be measured without rel mode) and value is the relative reading as displayed on the screen.

The binary data from the instrument includes a numeric weekday field in the data which has a few issues: weekday is manually set – i.e. the instrument does not try to ensure that the weekday entry matches the date. If you need the weekday, better compute it from the date.

log

This command calls read live repeatedly to do tethered live logging. By default it will log every second until interrupted. You can set the logging interval with the -I option and limit the number of readings with -n. Negative values of -n / --sampleno mean that the program will keep logging until interrupted.

> pce174.py log
date,weekday,time,value,rawvalue,unit,range,mode,hold,apo,power,view,memstat,mem_no,read_no
2019-03-10,7,17:18:06,15.200000000000001,15.200000000000001,lux,400,rel,cont,off,ok,sampling,None,6,1
2019-03-10,7,17:18:07,18.3,18.3,lux,400,rel,cont,off,ok,sampling,None,6,1
2019-03-10,7,17:18:08,18.5,18.5,lux,400,rel,cont,off,ok,sampling,None,6,1
2019-03-10,7,17:18:10,18.5,18.5,lux,400,rel,cont,off,ok,sampling,None,6,1

As for read live, the first row contains the column headers in csv format. All other formats are simply written to STDOUT without any record separators.

read saved

This command reads a table of manually saved data from the instrument. By default, the command returns comma separated data (CSV) to STDOUT. Example:

> pce174.py read saved
pos,date,weekday,time,value,unit,range,mode,hold,apo,power,view,memstat
1,2019-03-04,1,15:00:57,0.0,lux,4k,max,cont,off,ok,time,mem
2,2019-03-04,1,15:56:58,0.0,lux,400,normal,cont,off,ok,time,mem
3,2019-03-04,1,15:56:59,0.0,lux,400,normal,cont,off,ok,time,mem
4,2019-03-10,7,13:45:39,0.0,lux,400,normal,cont,off,ok,time,mem
5,2019-03-10,7,13:45:42,0.0,lux,400,normal,cont,off,ok,time,mem
6,2019-03-10,7,13:45:46,0.0,lux,400,normal,cont,off,ok,time,mem

The first row contains column headers with the following meaning:

Column Description
pos Number of the storage position
date Date in ISO-8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD)
weekday int (1-7) caution: does not necessarily match date
time Time (HH:MM:SS)
value Numerical value
unit Unit of measurement (lux/fc)
range Measurement range used (40, 400, ... 400k)
mode normal/Pmin/Pmax/min/max/rel
hold Was hold active? (hold/cont)
apo Auto-power-off (on/off)
power Power status (ok/low)
dispmode Active display mode (time/day/sampling/year)
memstat storing/viewing of data (None/store/recall)

See read live for details on other formats and weekday handling.

read logger

This command reads logger data from the instrument. By default, the command returns comma separated data (CSV) to STDOUT. Example:

> pce174.py read logger
groupno,id,date,weekday,time,value,unit,range,mode,hold,apo
1,0,2019-03-10,7,17:22:00,8.700000000000001,lux,400,normal,cont,off
1,1,2019-03-10,7,17:22:02,8.4,lux,400,normal,cont,off
1,2,2019-03-10,7,17:22:04,8.4,lux,400,normal,cont,off
1,3,2019-03-10,7,17:22:06,8.200000000000001,lux,400,normal,cont,off
2,0,2019-03-10,7,17:22:35,9.0,lux,400,normal,cont,off
2,1,2019-03-10,7,17:22:37,8.9,lux,400,normal,cont,off
2,2,2019-03-10,7,17:22:39,8.700000000000001,lux,400,normal,cont,off

The first row contains column headers with the following meaning:

Column Description
groupno numerical id of the logging group [1, 2, ...]
id measurement number within the group [0, 1, ...]
date YYYY-MM-DD
weekday int (1-7) caution: does not necessarily match date
time HH:MM:SS
value measurement
unit Unit of measurement (lux/fc)
range Measurement range used (40, 400, ... 400k)
mode normal/Pmin/Pmax/min/max/rel
hold Was hold active? (hold/cont)
apo Auto-power-off (on/off)

See read live for details on other formats and weekday handling.

Data formats

Through the -f option you can choose from several output formats for the read XXX functions.

csv

This is the most useful format for most purposes, as it can easily be imported into other software. The first row is the header declaring the column names. The field separator is a comma (','), by default and can be chosen with the -s option. Lines are separated by a single newline character (\n).

repr

This format is the Python representation of the data. It is mostly useful for debugging and possibly for use in other python programs although in the latter case it's probably better to import the script as a module and use the data returned from the read_data function. See below for details.

construct

This is the container representation of the construct library. Probably only useful for debugging.

raw

This format simply writes the binary blob to STDOUT as it is received from the instrument.

hex

Similar to raw but transcribed to hex representation.

Saving raw data and parsing it later

If you write raw data blobs into a file you can later parse it:

pce174.py read saved -f raw > foo.dat
pce174.py read saved -F foo.dat
pce174.py read saved -F foo.dat -f repr

This may be useful, if you are not sure if you want the data in different formats, later or for debugging. Also, it may help for bug reports in order to reproduce the problem based on actual raw data.

Caution: this only works with raw data! If you forget to specify -f raw you will not be able to read it later.

As the different data types have incompatible formats you must use the correct argument to read.

Entering setup

To enter or exit setup mode use

pce174.py setup

This is not all that usefull as I haven't figured out how to make the up and down button press commands work in this mode. So you have to do the actual setup using the buttons on the instrument.

Usage as a module

You can import this script as a module and call its functions directly. This may be handy if you want to write your own software that needs access to the instrument.

Example session:

>>> import pce174 as p
>>> p.press_button("/dev/ttyUSB0", "light")
>>> dat = p.read_data("/dev/ttyUSB0", "live")
>>> dat
{'weekday': 1, 'date': '2019-03-11', 'value': 37.6, 'rawvalue': 37.6, 'memstat': None, 'read_no': 1, 'time': '21:43:50', 'hold': 'cont', 'mem_no': 11, 'unit': 'lux', 'view': 'time', 'range': '400', 'mode': 'normal', 'power': 'ok', 'apo': 'off'}
>>> p.getvar("/dev/ttyUSB0", "unit")
'lux'
>>> p.setvar("/dev/ttyUSB0", "unit", "fc")
>>> p.read_data("/dev/ttyUSB0", "live", outformat="csv")
'2019-03-11,1,21:47:38,3.5,3.5,fc,40,normal,cont,off,ok,time,None,11,1'
>>> dat2 = p.read_data("/dev/ttyUSB0", "saved")
>>> dat3 = p.read_data("/dev/ttyUSB0", "logger")

See pydoc and/or source code for function documentation.

Some useful things from the manual

Press REC + UNITS to enter setup.

Pulse min/max mode is able to detect short high/low peaks with a 10ms resolution. Normal min/max mode is much slower than that.

Manual value storage

Press REC to store current value in the next free position.

Long-Press REC + LOAD to clear the storage.

Press & hold LOAD to view stored values.

Data logger

To start/stop logging press & hold REC.

To clear logger memory, press REC + Power while the meter is off.

You can’t perform that action at this time.