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defmodule Phoenix.Controller do
import Plug.Conn
alias Plug.Conn.AlreadySentError
require Logger
require Phoenix.Endpoint
@unsent [:unset, :set]
@moduledoc """
Controllers are used to group common functionality in the same
(pluggable) module.
For example, the route:
get "/users/:id", MyAppWeb.UserController, :show
will invoke the `show/2` action in the `MyAppWeb.UserController`:
defmodule MyAppWeb.UserController do
use MyAppWeb, :controller
def show(conn, %{"id" => id}) do
user = Repo.get(User, id)
render(conn, "show.html", user: user)
end
end
An action is a regular function that receives the connection
and the request parameters as arguments. The connection is a
`Plug.Conn` struct, as specified by the Plug library.
## Options
When used, the controller supports the following options:
* `:namespace` - sets the namespace to properly inflect
the layout view. By default it uses the base alias
in your controller name
* `:log` - the level to log. When false, disables controller
logging
## Connection
A controller by default provides many convenience functions for
manipulating the connection, rendering templates, and more.
Those functions are imported from two modules:
* `Plug.Conn` - a collection of low-level functions to work with
the connection
* `Phoenix.Controller` - functions provided by Phoenix
to support rendering, and other Phoenix specific behaviour
If you want to have functions that manipulate the connection
without fully implementing the controller, you can import both
modules directly instead of `use Phoenix.Controller`.
## Plug pipeline
As with routers, controllers also have their own plug pipeline.
However, different from routers, controllers have a single pipeline:
defmodule MyAppWeb.UserController do
use MyAppWeb, :controller
plug :authenticate, usernames: ["jose", "eric", "sonny"]
def show(conn, params) do
# authenticated users only
end
defp authenticate(conn, options) do
if get_session(conn, :username) in options[:usernames] do
conn
else
conn |> redirect(to: "/") |> halt()
end
end
end
The `:authenticate` plug will be invoked before the action. If the
plug calls `Plug.Conn.halt/1` (which is by default imported into
controllers), it will halt the pipeline and won't invoke the action.
### Guards
`plug/2` in controllers supports guards, allowing a developer to configure
a plug to only run in some particular action:
plug :authenticate, [usernames: ["jose", "eric", "sonny"]] when action in [:show, :edit]
plug :authenticate, [usernames: ["admin"]] when not action in [:index]
The first plug will run only when action is show or edit. The second plug will
always run, except for the index action.
Those guards work like regular Elixir guards and the only variables accessible
in the guard are `conn`, the `action` as an atom and the `controller` as an
alias.
## Controllers are plugs
Like routers, controllers are plugs, but they are wired to dispatch
to a particular function which is called an action.
For example, the route:
get "/users/:id", UserController, :show
will invoke `UserController` as a plug:
UserController.call(conn, :show)
which will trigger the plug pipeline and which will eventually
invoke the inner action plug that dispatches to the `show/2`
function in the `UserController`.
As controllers are plugs, they implement both `init/1` and
`call/2`, and it also provides a function named `action/2`
which is responsible for dispatching the appropriate action
after the plug stack (and is also overridable).
### Overriding `action/2` for custom arguments
Phoenix injects an `action/2` plug in your controller which calls the
function matched from the router. By default, it passes the conn and params.
In some cases, overriding the `action/2` plug in your controller is a
useful way to inject arguments into your actions that you would otherwise
need to fetch of the connection repeatedly. For example, imagine if you
stored a `conn.assigns.current_user` in the connection and wanted quick
access to the user for every action in your controller:
def action(conn, _) do
args = [conn, conn.params, conn.assigns.current_user]
apply(__MODULE__, action_name(conn), args)
end
def index(conn, _params, user) do
videos = Repo.all(user_videos(user))
# ...
end
def delete(conn, %{"id" => id}, user) do
video = Repo.get!(user_videos(user), id)
# ...
end
## Rendering and layouts
One of the main features provided by controllers is the ability
to perform content negotiation and render templates based on
information sent by the client. Read `render/3` to learn more.
It is also important not to confuse `Phoenix.Controller.render/3`
with `Phoenix.View.render/3`. The former expects
a connection and relies on content negotiation while the latter is
connection-agnostic and typically invoked from your views.
"""
defmacro __using__(opts) do
quote bind_quoted: [opts: opts] do
import Phoenix.Controller
# TODO v2: No longer automatically import dependencies
import Plug.Conn
use Phoenix.Controller.Pipeline, opts
plug :put_new_layout, {Phoenix.Controller.__layout__(__MODULE__, opts), :app}
plug :put_new_view, Phoenix.Controller.__view__(__MODULE__)
end
end
@doc """
Registers the plug to call as a fallback to the controller action.
A fallback plug is useful to translate common domain data structures
into a valid `%Plug.Conn{}` response. If the controller action fails to
return a `%Plug.Conn{}`, the provided plug will be called and receive
the controller's `%Plug.Conn{}` as it was before the action was invoked
along with the value returned from the controller action.
## Examples
defmodule MyController do
use Phoenix.Controller
action_fallback MyFallbackController
def show(conn, %{"id" => id}, current_user) do
with {:ok, post} <- Blog.fetch_post(id),
:ok <- Authorizer.authorize(current_user, :view, post) do
render(conn, "show.json", post: post)
end
end
end
In the above example, `with` is used to match only a successful
post fetch, followed by valid authorization for the current user.
In the event either of those fail to match, `with` will not invoke
the render block and instead return the unmatched value. In this case,
imagine `Blog.fetch_post/2` returned `{:error, :not_found}` or
`Authorizer.authorize/3` returned `{:error, :unauthorized}`. For cases
where these data structures serve as return values across multiple
boundaries in our domain, a single fallback module can be used to
translate the value into a valid response. For example, you could
write the following fallback controller to handle the above values:
defmodule MyFallbackController do
use Phoenix.Controller
def call(conn, {:error, :not_found}) do
conn
|> put_status(:not_found)
|> put_view(MyErrorView)
|> render(:"404")
end
def call(conn, {:error, :unauthorized}) do
conn
|> put_status(403)
|> put_view(MyErrorView)
|> render(:"403")
end
end
"""
defmacro action_fallback(plug) do
Phoenix.Controller.Pipeline.__action_fallback__(plug)
end
@doc """
Returns the action name as an atom, raises if unavailable.
"""
@spec action_name(Plug.Conn.t) :: atom
def action_name(conn), do: conn.private.phoenix_action
@doc """
Returns the controller module as an atom, raises if unavailable.
"""
@spec controller_module(Plug.Conn.t) :: atom
def controller_module(conn), do: conn.private.phoenix_controller
@doc """
Returns the router module as an atom, raises if unavailable.
"""
@spec router_module(Plug.Conn.t) :: atom
def router_module(conn), do: conn.private.phoenix_router
@doc """
Returns the endpoint module as an atom, raises if unavailable.
"""
@spec endpoint_module(Plug.Conn.t) :: atom
def endpoint_module(conn), do: conn.private.phoenix_endpoint
@doc """
Returns the template name rendered in the view as a string
(or nil if no template was rendered).
"""
@spec view_template(Plug.Conn.t) :: binary | nil
def view_template(conn) do
conn.private[:phoenix_template]
end
@doc """
Sends JSON response.
It uses the configured `:json_library` under the `:phoenix`
application for `:json` to pick up the encoder module.
## Examples
iex> json(conn, %{id: 123})
"""
@spec json(Plug.Conn.t, term) :: Plug.Conn.t
def json(conn, data) do
response = Phoenix.json_library().encode_to_iodata!(data)
send_resp(conn, conn.status || 200, "application/json", response)
end
@doc """
A plug that may convert a JSON response into a JSONP one.
In case a JSON response is returned, it will be converted
to a JSONP as long as the callback field is present in
the query string. The callback field itself defaults to
"callback", but may be configured with the callback option.
In case there is no callback or the response is not encoded
in JSON format, it is a no-op.
Only alphanumeric characters and underscore are allowed in the
callback name. Otherwise an exception is raised.
## Examples
# Will convert JSON to JSONP if callback=someFunction is given
plug :allow_jsonp
# Will convert JSON to JSONP if cb=someFunction is given
plug :allow_jsonp, callback: "cb"
"""
@spec allow_jsonp(Plug.Conn.t, Keyword.t) :: Plug.Conn.t
def allow_jsonp(conn, opts \\ []) do
callback = Keyword.get(opts, :callback, "callback")
case Map.fetch(conn.query_params, callback) do
:error -> conn
{:ok, ""} -> conn
{:ok, cb} ->
validate_jsonp_callback!(cb)
register_before_send(conn, fn conn ->
if json_response?(conn) do
conn
|> put_resp_header("content-type", "application/javascript")
|> resp(conn.status, jsonp_body(conn.resp_body, cb))
else
conn
end
end)
end
end
defp json_response?(conn) do
case get_resp_header(conn, "content-type") do
["application/json;" <> _] -> true
["application/json"] -> true
_ -> false
end
end
defp jsonp_body(data, callback) do
body =
data
|> IO.iodata_to_binary()
|> String.replace(<<0x2028::utf8>>, "\\u2028")
|> String.replace(<<0x2029::utf8>>, "\\u2029")
"/**/ typeof #{callback} === 'function' && #{callback}(#{body});"
end
defp validate_jsonp_callback!(<<h, t::binary>>)
when h in ?0..?9 or h in ?A..?Z or h in ?a..?z or h == ?_,
do: validate_jsonp_callback!(t)
defp validate_jsonp_callback!(<<>>), do: :ok
defp validate_jsonp_callback!(_),
do: raise(ArgumentError, "the JSONP callback name contains invalid characters")
@doc """
Sends text response.
## Examples
iex> text(conn, "hello")
iex> text(conn, :implements_to_string)
"""
@spec text(Plug.Conn.t, String.Chars.t) :: Plug.Conn.t
def text(conn, data) do
send_resp(conn, conn.status || 200, "text/plain", to_string(data))
end
@doc """
Sends html response.
## Examples
iex> html(conn, "<html><head>...")
"""
@spec html(Plug.Conn.t, iodata) :: Plug.Conn.t
def html(conn, data) do
send_resp(conn, conn.status || 200, "text/html", data)
end
@doc """
Sends redirect response to the given url.
For security, `:to` only accepts paths. Use the `:external`
option to redirect to any URL.
## Examples
iex> redirect(conn, to: "/login")
iex> redirect(conn, external: "http://elixir-lang.org")
"""
def redirect(conn, opts) when is_list(opts) do
url = url(opts)
html = Plug.HTML.html_escape(url)
body = "<html><body>You are being <a href=\"#{html}\">redirected</a>.</body></html>"
conn
|> put_resp_header("location", url)
|> send_resp(conn.status || 302, "text/html", body)
end
defp url(opts) do
cond do
to = opts[:to] -> validate_local_url(to)
external = opts[:external] -> external
true -> raise ArgumentError, "expected :to or :external option in redirect/2"
end
end
@invalid_local_url_chars ["\\"]
defp validate_local_url("//" <> _ = to), do: raise_invalid_url(to)
defp validate_local_url("/" <> _ = to) do
if String.contains?(to, @invalid_local_url_chars) do
raise ArgumentError, "unsafe characters detected for local redirect in URL #{inspect to}"
else
to
end
end
defp validate_local_url(to), do: raise_invalid_url(to)
@spec raise_invalid_url(term()) :: no_return()
defp raise_invalid_url(url) do
raise ArgumentError, "the :to option in redirect expects a path but was #{inspect url}"
end
@doc """
Stores the view for rendering.
Raises `Plug.Conn.AlreadySentError` if `conn` is already sent.
"""
@spec put_view(Plug.Conn.t, atom) :: Plug.Conn.t
def put_view(%Plug.Conn{state: state} = conn, module) when state in @unsent do
put_private(conn, :phoenix_view, module)
end
def put_view(%Plug.Conn{}, _module), do: raise AlreadySentError
@doc """
Stores the view for rendering if one was not stored yet.
Raises `Plug.Conn.AlreadySentError` if `conn` is already sent.
"""
@spec put_new_view(Plug.Conn.t, atom) :: Plug.Conn.t
def put_new_view(%Plug.Conn{state: state} = conn, module)
when state in @unsent do
update_in conn.private, &Map.put_new(&1, :phoenix_view, module)
end
def put_new_view(%Plug.Conn{}, _module), do: raise AlreadySentError
@doc """
Retrieves the current view.
"""
@spec view_module(Plug.Conn.t) :: atom
def view_module(conn) do
conn.private.phoenix_view
end
@doc """
Stores the layout for rendering.
The layout must be a tuple, specifying the layout view and the layout
name, or false. In case a previous layout is set, `put_layout` also
accepts the layout name to be given as a string or as an atom. If a
string, it must contain the format. Passing an atom means the layout
format will be found at rendering time, similar to the template in
`render/3`. It can also be set to `false`. In this case, no layout
would be used.
## Examples
iex> layout(conn)
false
iex> conn = put_layout conn, {AppView, "application.html"}
iex> layout(conn)
{AppView, "application.html"}
iex> conn = put_layout conn, "print.html"
iex> layout(conn)
{AppView, "print.html"}
iex> conn = put_layout conn, :print
iex> layout(conn)
{AppView, :print}
Raises `Plug.Conn.AlreadySentError` if `conn` is already sent.
"""
@spec put_layout(Plug.Conn.t, {atom, binary | atom} | binary | false) :: Plug.Conn.t
def put_layout(%Plug.Conn{state: state} = conn, layout) do
if state in @unsent do
do_put_layout(conn, layout)
else
raise AlreadySentError
end
end
defp do_put_layout(conn, false) do
put_private(conn, :phoenix_layout, false)
end
defp do_put_layout(conn, {mod, layout}) when is_atom(mod) do
put_private(conn, :phoenix_layout, {mod, layout})
end
defp do_put_layout(conn, layout) when is_binary(layout) or is_atom(layout) do
update_in conn.private, fn private ->
case Map.get(private, :phoenix_layout, false) do
{mod, _} -> Map.put(private, :phoenix_layout, {mod, layout})
false -> raise "cannot use put_layout/2 with atom/binary when layout is false, use a tuple instead"
end
end
end
@doc """
Stores the layout for rendering if one was not stored yet.
Raises `Plug.Conn.AlreadySentError` if `conn` is already sent.
"""
@spec put_new_layout(Plug.Conn.t, {atom, binary | atom} | false) :: Plug.Conn.t
def put_new_layout(%Plug.Conn{state: state} = conn, layout)
when (is_tuple(layout) and tuple_size(layout) == 2) or layout == false do
if state in @unsent do
update_in conn.private, &Map.put_new(&1, :phoenix_layout, layout)
else
raise AlreadySentError
end
end
@doc """
Sets which formats have a layout when rendering.
## Examples
iex> layout_formats(conn)
["html"]
iex> put_layout_formats(conn, ["html", "mobile"])
iex> layout_formats(conn)
["html", "mobile"]
Raises `Plug.Conn.AlreadySentError` if `conn` is already sent.
"""
@spec put_layout_formats(Plug.Conn.t, [String.t]) :: Plug.Conn.t
def put_layout_formats(%Plug.Conn{state: state} = conn, formats)
when state in @unsent and is_list(formats) do
put_private(conn, :phoenix_layout_formats, formats)
end
def put_layout_formats(%Plug.Conn{}, _formats), do: raise AlreadySentError
@doc """
Retrieves current layout formats.
"""
@spec layout_formats(Plug.Conn.t) :: [String.t]
def layout_formats(conn) do
Map.get(conn.private, :phoenix_layout_formats, ~w(html))
end
@doc """
Retrieves the current layout.
"""
@spec layout(Plug.Conn.t) :: {atom, String.t | atom} | false
def layout(conn), do: conn.private |> Map.get(:phoenix_layout, false)
@doc """
Render the given template or the default template
specified by the current action with the given assigns.
See `render/3` for more information.
"""
@spec render(Plug.Conn.t, Keyword.t | map | binary | atom) :: Plug.Conn.t
def render(conn, template_or_assigns \\ [])
def render(conn, template) when is_binary(template) or is_atom(template) do
render(conn, template, [])
end
def render(conn, assigns) do
render(conn, action_name(conn), assigns)
end
@doc """
Renders the given `template` and `assigns` based on the `conn` information.
Once the template is rendered, the template format is set as the response
content type (for example, an HTML template will set "text/html" as response
content type) and the data is sent to the client with default status of 200.
## Arguments
* `conn` - the `Plug.Conn` struct
* `template` - which may be an atom or a string. If an atom, like `:index`,
it will render a template with the same format as the one returned by
`get_format/1`. For example, for an HTML request, it will render
the "index.html" template. If the template is a string, it must contain
the extension too, like "index.json"
* `assigns` - a dictionary with the assigns to be used in the view. Those
assigns are merged and have higher precedence than the connection assigns
(`conn.assigns`)
## Examples
defmodule MyAppWeb.UserController do
use Phoenix.Controller
def show(conn, _params) do
render(conn, "show.html", message: "Hello")
end
end
The example above renders a template "show.html" from the `MyAppWeb.UserView`
and sets the response content type to "text/html".
In many cases, you may want the template format to be set dynamically based
on the request. To do so, you can pass the template name as an atom (without
the extension):
def show(conn, _params) do
render(conn, :show, message: "Hello")
end
In order for the example above to work, we need to do content negotiation with
the accepts plug before rendering. You can do so by adding the following to your
pipeline (in the router):
plug :accepts, ["html"]
## Views
By default, Controllers render templates in a view with a similar name to the
controller. For example, `MyAppWeb.UserController` will render templates inside
the `MyAppWeb.UserView`. This information can be changed any time by using the
`put_view/2` function:
def show(conn, _params) do
conn
|> put_view(MyAppWeb.SpecialView)
|> render(:show, message: "Hello")
end
`put_view/2` can also be used as a plug:
defmodule MyAppWeb.UserController do
use Phoenix.Controller
plug :put_view, MyAppWeb.SpecialView
def show(conn, _params) do
render(conn, :show, message: "Hello")
end
end
## Layouts
Templates are often rendered inside layouts. By default, Phoenix
will render layouts for html requests. For example:
defmodule MyAppWeb.UserController do
use Phoenix.Controller
def show(conn, _params) do
render(conn, "show.html", message: "Hello")
end
end
will render the "show.html" template inside an "app.html"
template specified in `MyAppWeb.LayoutView`. `put_layout/2` can be used
to change the layout, similar to how `put_view/2` can be used to change
the view.
`layout_formats/1` and `put_layout_formats/2` can be used to configure
which formats support/require layout rendering (defaults to "html" only).
"""
@spec render(Plug.Conn.t, binary | atom, Keyword.t | map | binary | atom) :: Plug.Conn.t
def render(conn, template, assigns)
when is_atom(template) and (is_map(assigns) or is_list(assigns)) do
format =
get_format(conn) ||
raise "cannot render template #{inspect template} because conn.params[\"_format\"] is not set. " <>
"Please set `plug :accepts, ~w(html json ...)` in your pipeline."
instrument_render_and_send(conn, format, template, assigns)
end
def render(conn, template, assigns)
when is_binary(template) and (is_map(assigns) or is_list(assigns)) do
case Path.extname(template) do
"." <> format ->
instrument_render_and_send(conn, format, template, assigns)
"" ->
raise "cannot render template #{inspect template} without format. Use an atom if the " <>
"template format is meant to be set dynamically based on the request format"
end
end
def render(conn, view, template)
when is_atom(view) and (is_binary(template) or is_atom(template)) do
IO.warn "#{__MODULE__}.render/3 with a view is deprecated, see the documentation for render/3 for an alternative"
render(conn, view, template, [])
end
@doc """
WARNING: This function is deprecated in favor of `render/3` + `put_view/2`.
A shortcut that renders the given template in the given view.
Equivalent to:
conn
|> put_view(view)
|> render(template, assigns)
"""
@spec render(Plug.Conn.t, atom, atom | binary, Keyword.t | map) :: Plug.Conn.t
def render(conn, view, template, assigns)
when is_atom(view) and (is_binary(template) or is_atom(template)) do
IO.warn "#{__MODULE__}.render/4 with a view is deprecated, see the documentation for render/3 for an alternative"
conn
|> put_view(view)
|> render(template, assigns)
end
@doc false
def __put_render__(conn, view, template, format, assigns) do
content_type = MIME.type(format)
conn = prepare_assigns(conn, assigns, template, format)
data = Phoenix.View.render_to_iodata(view, template, Map.put(conn.assigns, :conn, conn))
conn
|> ensure_resp_content_type(content_type)
|> resp(conn.status || 200, data)
end
defp instrument_render_and_send(conn, format, template, assigns) do
template = template_name(template, format)
view =
Map.get(conn.private, :phoenix_view) ||
raise "a view module was not specified, set one with put_view/2"
metadata = %{view: view, template: template, format: format, conn: conn}
conn =
Phoenix.Endpoint.instrument(conn, :phoenix_controller_render, metadata, fn ->
__put_render__(conn, view, template, format, assigns)
end)
send_resp(conn)
end
defp prepare_assigns(conn, assigns, template, format) do
assigns = to_map(assigns)
layout =
case layout(conn, assigns, format) do
{mod, layout} -> {mod, template_name(layout, format)}
false -> false
end
conn
|> put_private(:phoenix_template, template)
|> Map.update!(:assigns, fn prev ->
prev
|> Map.merge(assigns)
|> Map.put(:layout, layout)
end)
end
defp layout(conn, assigns, format) do
if format in layout_formats(conn) do
case Map.fetch(assigns, :layout) do
{:ok, layout} -> layout
:error -> layout(conn)
end
else
false
end
end
defp to_map(assigns) when is_map(assigns), do: assigns
defp to_map(assigns) when is_list(assigns), do: :maps.from_list(assigns)
defp template_name(name, format) when is_atom(name), do:
Atom.to_string(name) <> "." <> format
defp template_name(name, _format) when is_binary(name), do:
name
defp send_resp(conn, default_status, default_content_type, body) do
conn
|> ensure_resp_content_type(default_content_type)
|> send_resp(conn.status || default_status, body)
end
defp ensure_resp_content_type(%Plug.Conn{resp_headers: resp_headers} = conn, content_type) do
if List.keyfind(resp_headers, "content-type", 0) do
conn
else
content_type = content_type <> "; charset=utf-8"
%Plug.Conn{conn | resp_headers: [{"content-type", content_type}|resp_headers]}
end
end
@doc """
Puts the URL or `%URI{}` to be used for route generation.
This function overrides the default URL generation pulled
from the `%Plug.Conn{}`'s endpoint configuration.
## Examples
Imagine your application is configured to run on "example.com"
but after the user signs in, you want all links to use
"some_user.example.com". You can do so by setting the proper
router url configuration:
def put_router_url_by_user(conn) do
put_router_url(conn, get_user_from_conn(conn).account_name <> ".example.com")
end
Now when you call `Routes.some_route_url(conn, ...)`, it will use
the router url set above. Keep in mind that, if you want to generate
routes to the current domain, it is preferred to use `Routes.some_route_path`
helpers, as those are always relative.
"""
def put_router_url(conn, %URI{} = uri) do
put_private(conn, :phoenix_router_url, uri)
end
def put_router_url(conn, url) when is_binary(url) do
put_private(conn, :phoenix_router_url, url)
end
@doc """
Puts the format in the connection.
See `get_format/1` for retrieval.
"""
def put_format(conn, format), do: put_private(conn, :phoenix_format, format)
@doc """
Returns the request format, such as "json", "html".
"""
def get_format(conn) do
conn.private[:phoenix_format] || conn.params["_format"]
end
@doc """
Sends the given file or binary as a download.
The second argument must be `{:binary, contents}`, where
`contents` will be sent as download, or`{:file, path}`,
where `path` is the filesystem location of the file to
be sent. Be careful to not interpolate the path from
external parameters, as it could allow traversal of the
filesystem.
The download is achieved by setting "content-disposition"
to attachment. The "content-type" will also be set based
on the extension of the given filename but can be customized
via the `:content_type` and `:charset` options.
## Options
* `:filename` - the filename to be presented to the user
as download
* `:content_type` - the content type of the file or binary
sent as download. It is automatically inferred from the
filename extension
* `:charset` - the charset of the file, such as "utf-8".
Defaults to none
* `:offset` - the bytes to offset when reading. Defaults to `0`
* `:length` - the total bytes to read. Defaults to `:all`
## Examples
To send a file that is stored inside your application priv
directory:
path = Application.app_dir(:my_app, "priv/prospectus.pdf")
send_download(conn, {:file, path})
When using `{:file, path}`, the filename is inferred from the
given path but may also be set explicitly.
To allow the user to download contents that are in memory as
a binary or string:
send_download(conn, {:binary, "world"}, filename: "hello.txt")
See `Plug.Conn.send_file/3` and `Plug.Conn.send_resp/3` if you
would like to access the low-level functions used to send files
and responses via Plug.
"""
def send_download(conn, kind, opts \\ [])
def send_download(conn, {:file, path}, opts) do
filename = opts[:filename] || Path.basename(path)
offset = opts[:offset] || 0
length = opts[:length] || :all
conn
|> prepare_send_download(filename, opts)
|> send_file(conn.status || 200, path, offset, length)
end
def send_download(conn, {:binary, contents}, opts) do
filename = opts[:filename] || raise ":filename option is required when sending binary download"
conn
|> prepare_send_download(filename, opts)
|> send_resp(conn.status || 200, contents)
end
defp prepare_send_download(conn, filename, opts) do
content_type = opts[:content_type] || MIME.from_path(filename)
encoded_filename = URI.encode_www_form(filename)
warn_if_ajax(conn)
conn
|> put_resp_content_type(content_type, opts[:charset])
|> put_resp_header("content-disposition", ~s[attachment; filename="#{encoded_filename}"])
end
defp ajax?(conn) do
case get_req_header(conn, "x-requested-with") do
[value] -> value in ["XMLHttpRequest", "xmlhttprequest"]
[] -> false
end
end
defp warn_if_ajax(conn) do
if ajax?(conn) do
Logger.warn "send_download/3 has been invoked during an AJAX request. " <>
"The download may not work as expected under XMLHttpRequest"
end
end
@doc """
Scrubs the parameters from the request.
This process is two-fold:
* Checks to see if the `required_key` is present
* Changes empty parameters of `required_key` (recursively) to nils
This function is useful for removing empty strings sent
via HTML forms. If you are providing an API, there
is likely no need to invoke `scrub_params/2`.
If the `required_key` is not present, it will
raise `Phoenix.MissingParamError`.
## Examples
iex> scrub_params(conn, "user")
"""
@spec scrub_params(Plug.Conn.t, String.t) :: Plug.Conn.t
def scrub_params(conn, required_key) when is_binary(required_key) do
param = Map.get(conn.params, required_key) |> scrub_param()
unless param do
raise Phoenix.MissingParamError, key: required_key
end
params = Map.put(conn.params, required_key, param)
%Plug.Conn{conn | params: params}
end
defp scrub_param(%{__struct__: mod} = struct) when is_atom(mod) do
struct
end
defp scrub_param(%{} = param) do
Enum.reduce(param, %{}, fn({k, v}, acc) ->
Map.put(acc, k, scrub_param(v))
end)
end
defp scrub_param(param) when is_list(param) do
Enum.map(param, &scrub_param/1)
end
defp scrub_param(param) do
if scrub?(param), do: nil, else: param
end
defp scrub?(" " <> rest), do: scrub?(rest)
defp scrub?(""), do: true
defp scrub?(_), do: false
@doc """
Enables CSRF protection.
Currently used as a wrapper function for `Plug.CSRFProtection`
and mainly serves as a function plug in `YourApp.Router`.
Check `get_csrf_token/0` and `delete_csrf_token/0` for
retrieving and deleting CSRF tokens.
"""
def protect_from_forgery(conn, opts \\ []) do
Plug.CSRFProtection.call(conn, Plug.CSRFProtection.init(opts))
end
@doc """
Put headers that improve browser security.
It sets the following headers:
* `x-frame-options` - set to SAMEORIGIN to avoid clickjacking
through iframes unless in the same origin
* `x-content-type-options` - set to nosniff. This requires
script and style tags to be sent with proper content type
* `x-xss-protection` - set to "1; mode=block" to improve XSS
protection on both Chrome and IE
* `x-download-options` - set to noopen to instruct the browser
not to open a download directly in the browser, to avoid
HTML files rendering inline and accessing the security
context of the application (like critical domain cookies)
* `x-permitted-cross-domain-policies` - set to none to restrict
Adobe Flash Player’s access to data
* `cross-origin-window-policy` - set to deny to avoid window
control attacks
A custom headers map may also be given to be merged with defaults.
"""
def put_secure_browser_headers(conn, headers \\ %{})
def put_secure_browser_headers(conn, []) do
put_secure_defaults(conn)
end
def put_secure_browser_headers(conn, headers) when is_map(headers) do
conn
|> put_secure_defaults()
|> merge_resp_headers(headers)
end
defp put_secure_defaults(conn) do
merge_resp_headers(conn, [
{"x-frame-options", "SAMEORIGIN"},
{"x-xss-protection", "1; mode=block"},
{"x-content-type-options", "nosniff"},
{"x-download-options", "noopen"},
{"x-permitted-cross-domain-policies", "none"},
{"cross-origin-window-policy", "deny"}
])
end
@doc """
Gets or generates a CSRF token.
If a token exists, it is returned, otherwise it is generated and stored
in the process dictionary.
"""
defdelegate get_csrf_token(), to: Plug.CSRFProtection
@doc """
Deletes the CSRF token from the process dictionary.
*Note*: The token is deleted only after a response has been sent.
"""
defdelegate delete_csrf_token(), to: Plug.CSRFProtection
@doc """
Performs content negotiation based on the available formats.
It receives a connection, a list of formats that the server
is capable of rendering and then proceeds to perform content
negotiation based on the request information. If the client
accepts any of the given formats, the request proceeds.
If the request contains a "_format" parameter, it is
considered to be the format desired by the client. If no
"_format" parameter is available, this function will parse
the "accept" header and find a matching format accordingly.
It is important to notice that browsers have historically
sent bad accept headers. For this reason, this function will
default to "html" format whenever:
* the accepted list of arguments contains the "html" format
* the accept header specified more than one media type preceded
or followed by the wildcard media type "`*/*`"
This function raises `Phoenix.NotAcceptableError`, which is rendered
with status 406, whenever the server cannot serve a response in any
of the formats expected by the client.
## Examples
`accepts/2` can be invoked as a function:
iex> accepts(conn, ["html", "json"])
or used as a plug:
plug :accepts, ["html", "json"]
plug :accepts, ~w(html json)
## Custom media types
It is possible to add custom media types to your Phoenix application.
The first step is to teach Plug about those new media types in
your `config/config.exs` file:
config :mime, :types, %{
"application/vnd.api+json" => ["json-api"]
}
The key is the media type, the value is a list of formats the
media type can be identified with. For example, by using
"json-api", you will be able to use templates with extension
"index.json-api" or to force a particular format in a given
URL by sending "?_format=json-api".
After this change, you must recompile plug:
$ mix deps.clean mime --build
$ mix deps.get
And now you can use it in accepts too:
plug :accepts, ["html", "json-api"]
"""
@spec accepts(Plug.Conn.t, [binary]) :: Plug.Conn.t | no_return()
def accepts(conn, [_|_] = accepted) do
case Map.fetch(conn.params, "_format") do
{:ok, format} ->
handle_params_accept(conn, format, accepted)
:error ->
handle_header_accept(conn, get_req_header(conn, "accept"), accepted)
end
end
defp handle_params_accept(conn, format, accepted) do
if format in accepted do
put_format(conn, format)
else
raise Phoenix.NotAcceptableError,
message: "unknown format #{inspect format}, expected one of #{inspect accepted}",
accepts: accepted
end
end
# In case there is no accept header or the header is */*
# we use the first format specified in the accepts list.
defp handle_header_accept(conn, header, [first|_]) when header == [] or header == ["*/*"] do
put_format(conn, first)
end
# In case there is a header, we need to parse it.
# But before we check for */* because if one exists and we serve html,
# we unfortunately need to assume it is a browser sending us a request.
defp handle_header_accept(conn, [header|_], accepted) do
if header =~ "*/*" and "html" in accepted do
put_format(conn, "html")
else
parse_header_accept(conn, String.split(header, ","), [], accepted)
end
end
defp parse_header_accept(conn, [h|t], acc, accepted) do
case Plug.Conn.Utils.media_type(h) do
{:ok, type, subtype, args} ->
exts = parse_exts(type, subtype)
q = parse_q(args)
if format = (q === 1.0 && find_format(exts, accepted)) do
put_format(conn, format)
else
parse_header_accept(conn, t, [{-q, h, exts}|acc], accepted)
end
:error ->
parse_header_accept(conn, t, acc, accepted)
end
end
defp parse_header_accept(conn, [], acc, accepted) do
acc
|> Enum.sort()
|> Enum.find_value(&parse_header_accept(conn, &1, accepted))
|> Kernel.||(refuse(conn, acc, accepted))
end
defp parse_header_accept(conn, {_, _, exts}, accepted) do
if format = find_format(exts, accepted) do
put_format(conn, format)
end
end
defp parse_q(args) do
case Map.fetch(args, "q") do
{:ok, float} ->
case Float.parse(float) do
{float, _} -> float
:error -> 1.0
end
:error ->
1.0
end
end
defp parse_exts("*", "*"), do: "*/*"
defp parse_exts(type, "*"), do: type
defp parse_exts(type, subtype), do: MIME.extensions(type <> "/" <> subtype)
defp find_format("*/*", accepted), do: Enum.fetch!(accepted, 0)
defp find_format(exts, accepted) when is_list(exts), do: Enum.find(exts, &(&1 in accepted))
defp find_format(_type_range, []), do: nil
defp find_format(type_range, [h|t]) do
mime_type = MIME.type(h)
case Plug.Conn.Utils.media_type(mime_type) do
{:ok, accepted_type, _subtype, _args} when type_range === accepted_type -> h
_ -> find_format(type_range, t)
end
end
@spec refuse(term(), [tuple], [binary]) :: no_return()
defp refuse(_conn, given, accepted) do
raise Phoenix.NotAcceptableError,
accepts: accepted,
message: """
no supported media type in accept header.
Expected one of #{inspect accepted} but got the following formats:
* #{Enum.map_join(given, "\n ", fn {_, header, exts} ->
inspect(header) <> " with extensions: " <> inspect(exts)
end)}
To accept custom formats, register them under the :mime library
in your config/config.exs file:
config :mime, :types, %{
"application/xml" => ["xml"]
}
And then run `mix deps.clean --build mime` to force it to be recompiled.
"""
end
@doc """
Fetches the flash storage.
"""
def fetch_flash(conn, _opts \\ []) do
session_flash = get_session(conn, "phoenix_flash")
conn = persist_flash(conn, session_flash || %{})
register_before_send conn, fn conn ->
flash = conn.private.phoenix_flash
flash_size = map_size(flash)
cond do
is_nil(session_flash) and flash_size == 0 ->
conn
flash_size > 0 and conn.status in 300..308 ->
put_session(conn, "phoenix_flash", flash)
true ->
delete_session(conn, "phoenix_flash")
end
end
end
@doc """
Persists a value in flash.
Returns the updated connection.
## Examples
iex> conn = put_flash(conn, :info, "Welcome Back!")
iex> get_flash(conn, :info)
"Welcome Back!"
"""
def put_flash(conn, key, message) do
persist_flash(conn, Map.put(get_flash(conn), flash_key(key), message))
end
@doc """
Returns a map of previously set flash messages or an empty map.
## Examples
iex> get_flash(conn)
%{}
iex> conn = put_flash(conn, :info, "Welcome Back!")
iex> get_flash(conn)
%{"info" => "Welcome Back!"}
"""
def get_flash(conn) do
Map.get(conn.private, :phoenix_flash) ||
raise ArgumentError, message: "flash not fetched, call fetch_flash/2"
end
@doc """
Returns a message from flash by `key`.
## Examples
iex> conn = put_flash(conn, :info, "Welcome Back!")
iex> get_flash(conn, :info)
"Welcome Back!"
"""
def get_flash(conn, key) do
get_flash(conn)[flash_key(key)]
end
@doc """
Generates a status message from the template name.
## Examples
iex> status_message_from_template("404.html")
"Not Found"
iex> status_message_from_template("whatever.html")
"Internal Server Error"
"""
def status_message_from_template(template) do
template
|> String.split(".")
|> hd()
|> String.to_integer()
|> Plug.Conn.Status.reason_phrase()
rescue
_ -> "Internal Server Error"
end
@doc """
Clears all flash messages.
"""
def clear_flash(conn) do
persist_flash(conn, %{})
end
defp flash_key(binary) when is_binary(binary), do: binary
defp flash_key(atom) when is_atom(atom), do: Atom.to_string(atom)
defp persist_flash(conn, value) do
put_private(conn, :phoenix_flash, value)
end
@doc """
Returns the current request path, with and without query params.
By default, the connection's query params are included in
the generated path. Custom query params may be used instead
by providing a map of your own params. You may also retrieve
only the request path by passing an empty map of params.
## Examples
iex> current_path(conn)
"/users/123?existing=param"
iex> current_path(conn, %{new: "param"})
"/users/123?new=param"
iex> current_path(conn, %{filter: %{status: ["draft", "published"})
"/users/123?filter[status][]=draft&filter[status][]=published"
iex> current_path(conn, %{})
"/users/123"
"""
def current_path(%Plug.Conn{query_string: ""} = conn) do
conn.request_path
end
def current_path(%Plug.Conn{query_string: query_string} = conn) do
conn.request_path <> "?" <> query_string
end
def current_path(%Plug.Conn{} = conn, params) when params == %{} do
conn.request_path
end
def current_path(%Plug.Conn{} = conn, params) do
conn.request_path <> "?" <> Plug.Conn.Query.encode(params)
end
@doc ~S"""
Returns the current request URL, with and without query params.
The path will be retrieved from the currently requested path via
`current_path/1`. The scheme, host and others will be received from
the URL configuration in your Phoenix endpoint. The reason we don't
use the host and scheme information in the request is because most
applications are behind proxies and the host and scheme may not
actually reflect the host and scheme accessed by the client. If you
want to access the url precisely as requested by the client, see
`Plug.Conn.request_url/1`.
## Examples
iex> current_url(conn)
"https://www.example.com/users/123?existing=param"
iex> current_url(conn, %{new: "param"})
"https://www.example.com/users/123?new=param"
iex> current_url(conn, %{})
"https://www.example.com/users/123"
## Custom URL Generation
In some cases, you'll need to generate a request's URL, but using a
different scheme, different host, etc. This can be accomplished in
two ways.
If you want to do so in a case-by-case basis, you can define a custom
function that gets the endpoint URI configuration and changes it accordingly.
For example, to get the current URL always in HTTPS format:
def current_secure_url(conn, params \\ %{}) do
cur_uri = MyAppWeb.Endpoint.struct_url()
cur_path = Phoenix.Controller.current_path(conn, params)
MyAppWeb.Router.Helpers.url(%URI{cur_uri | scheme: "https"}) <> cur_path
end
However, if you want all generated URLs to always have a certain schema,
host, etc, you may invoke `put_router_url/2`.
"""
def current_url(%Plug.Conn{} = conn) do
Phoenix.Router.Helpers.url(router_module(conn), conn) <> current_path(conn)
end
def current_url(%Plug.Conn{} = conn, %{} = params) do
Phoenix.Router.Helpers.url(router_module(conn), conn) <> current_path(conn, params)
end
@doc false
def __view__(controller_module) do
controller_module
|> Phoenix.Naming.unsuffix("Controller")
|> Kernel.<>("View")
|> String.to_atom()
end
@doc false
def __layout__(controller_module, opts) do
namespace =
if given = Keyword.get(opts, :namespace) do
given
else
controller_module
|> Atom.to_string()
|> String.split(".")
|> Enum.drop(-1)
|> Enum.take(2)
|> Module.concat()
end
Module.concat(namespace, "LayoutView")
end
end