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27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
Andrei Zmievski authored
1 New parameter parsing functions
2 ===============================
3
4 It should be easier to parse input parameters to an extension function.
5 Hence, borrowing from Python's example, there are now a set of functions
6 that given the string of type specifiers, can parse the input parameters
7 and store the results in the user specified variables. This avoids most
8 of the IS_* checks and convert_to_* conversions. The functions also
9 check for the appropriate number of parameters, and try to output
10 meaningful error messages.
11
12
13 Prototypes
14 ----------
15 /* Implemented. */
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Andrei Zmievski authored
16 int zend_parse_parameters(int num_args TSRMLS_DC, char *type_spec, ...);
17 int zend_parse_parameters_ex(int flags, int num_args TSRMLS_DC, char *type_spec, ...);
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
Andrei Zmievski authored
18
19 The zend_parse_parameters() function takes the number of parameters
20 passed to the extension function, the type specifier string, and the
21 list of pointers to variables to store the results in. The _ex() version
22 also takes 'flags' argument -- current only ZEND_PARSE_PARAMS_QUIET can
23 be used as 'flags' to specify that the function should operate quietly
24 and not output any error messages.
25
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26 Both functions return SUCCESS or FAILURE depending on the result.
27
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
Andrei Zmievski authored
28 The auto-conversions are performed as necessary. Arrays, objects, and
fd4d1f2 @jparise Formatting nit: "autoconverted" to "auto-converted"
jparise authored
29 resources cannot be auto-converted.
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30
31
32 Type specifiers
33 ---------------
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34 The following list shows the type specifier, its meaning and the parameter
35 types that need to be passed by address. All passed paramaters are set
36 if the PHP parameter is non optional and untouched if optional and the
37 parameter is not present. The only exception is O where the zend_class_entry*
38 has to be provided on input and is used to verify the PHP parameter is an
39 instance of that class.
40
41 a - array (zval*)
fce39ed @smalyshev add object-compatible array modes
smalyshev authored
42 A - array or object (zval *)
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43 b - boolean (zend_bool)
44 C - class (zend_class_entry*)
45 d - double (double)
46 f - function or array containing php method call info (returned as
47 zend_fcall_info and zend_fcall_info_cache)
48 h - array (returned as HashTable*)
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smalyshev authored
49 H - array or HASH_OF(object) (returned as HashTable*)
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50 l - long (long)
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Matt Wilmas authored
51 L - long, limits out-of-range numbers to LONG_MAX/LONG_MIN (long)
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Jani Taskinen authored
52 o - object of any type (zval*)
53 O - object of specific type given by class entry (zval*, zend_class_entry)
b800ad0 @felipensp - Added 'p' type specifier
felipensp authored
54 p - valid path (string without null bytes in the middle) and its length (char*, int)
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Jani Taskinen authored
55 r - resource (zval*)
56 s - string (with possible null bytes) and its length (char*, int)
57 z - the actual zval (zval*)
58 Z - the actual zval (zval**)
a506a10 MFH
Jani Taskinen authored
59 * - variable arguments list (0 or more)
60 + - variable arguments list (1 or more)
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61
62 The following characters also have a meaning in the specifier string:
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Jani Taskinen authored
63 | - indicates that the remaining parameters are optional, they
64 should be initialized to default values by the extension since they
65 will not be touched by the parsing function if they are not
66 passed to it.
67 / - use SEPARATE_ZVAL_IF_NOT_REF() on the parameter it follows
68 ! - the parameter it follows can be of specified type or NULL (applies
69 to all specifiers except for 'b', 'l', and 'd'). If NULL is passed, the
70 results pointer is set to NULL as well.
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71
991ae6e @tony2001 MFH: add note on 64bit compatibility and mention check_parameters.php
tony2001 authored
72
73 Note on 64bit compatibility
74 ---------------------------
75 Please do not forget that int and long are two different things on 64bit
9c8ecb3 @tony2001 MFH
tony2001 authored
76 OSes (int is 4 bytes and long is 8 bytes), so make sure you pass longs to "l"
991ae6e @tony2001 MFH: add note on 64bit compatibility and mention check_parameters.php
tony2001 authored
77 and ints to strings length (i.e. for "s" you need to pass char * and int),
78 not the other way round!
79 Remember: "l" is the only case when you need to pass long (and that's why
80 it's "l", not "i" btw).
81
82 Both mistakes cause memory corruptions and segfaults on 64bit OSes:
83 1)
84 char *str;
85 long str_len; /* XXX THIS IS WRONG!! Use int instead. */
86 zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &str, &str_len)
87
88 2)
89 int num; /* XXX THIS IS WRONG!! Use long instead. */
90 zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "l", &num)
91
92 If you're in doubt, use check_parameters.php script to the parameters
93 and their types (it can be found in ./scripts/dev/ directory of PHP sources):
94
95 # php ./scripts/dev/check_parameters.php /path/to/your/sources/
96
97
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
Andrei Zmievski authored
98 Examples
99 --------
100 /* Gets a long, a string and its length, and a zval */
101 long l;
102 char *s;
103 int s_len;
104 zval *param;
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Andrei Zmievski authored
105 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "lsz",
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Jani Taskinen authored
106 &l, &s, &s_len, &param) == FAILURE) {
107 return;
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108 }
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
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109
110
111 /* Gets an object of class specified by my_ce, and an optional double. */
112 zval *obj;
113 double d = 0.5;
e9dd6fa @johannes - MFH: Fix type in example
johannes authored
114 zend_class_entry *my_ce;
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Andrei Zmievski authored
115 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "O|d",
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116 &obj, my_ce, &d) == FAILURE) {
117 return;
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118 }
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
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119
120
121 /* Gets an object or null, and an array.
122 If null is passed for object, obj will be set to NULL. */
123 zval *obj;
124 zval *arr;
550550f @rlerdorf Minor tweaks
rlerdorf authored
125 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "o!a",
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Jani Taskinen authored
126 &obj, &arr) == FAILURE) {
127 return;
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128 }
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
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129
130
550550f @rlerdorf Minor tweaks
rlerdorf authored
131 /* Gets a separated array which can also be null. */
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
Andrei Zmievski authored
132 zval *arr;
550550f @rlerdorf Minor tweaks
rlerdorf authored
133 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "a/!",
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Jani Taskinen authored
134 &arr) == FAILURE) {
135 return;
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136 }
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
Andrei Zmievski authored
137
138 /* Get either a set of 3 longs or a string. */
139 long l1, l2, l3;
140 char *s;
ad8b425 Please note that you need to use 'int' as a length type when
Sascha Schumann authored
141 /*
142 * The function expects a pointer to a integer in this case, not a long
143 * or any other type. If you specify a type which is larger
144 * than a 'int', the upper bits might not be initialized
145 * properly, leading to random crashes on platforms like
146 * Tru64 or Linux/Alpha.
147 */
148 int length;
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Derick Rethans authored
149
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Andrei Zmievski authored
150 if (zend_parse_parameters_ex(ZEND_PARSE_PARAMS_QUIET, ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC,
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151 "lll", &l1, &l2, &l3) == SUCCESS) {
152 /* manipulate longs */
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153 } else if (zend_parse_parameters_ex(ZEND_PARSE_PARAMS_QUIET, ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC,
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154 "s", &s, &length) == SUCCESS) {
155 /* manipulate string */
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be…
Andrei Zmievski authored
156 } else {
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157 /* output error */
158
159 return;
160 }
161
162
163 /* Function that accepts only varargs (0 or more) */
164
165 int i, num_varargs;
166 zval ***varargs = NULL;
167
168
169 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "*", &varargs, &num_varargs) == FAILURE) {
170 return;
171 }
172
173 for (i = 0; i < num_varargs; i++) {
174 /* do something with varargs[i] */
175 }
176
177 if (varargs) {
178 efree(varargs);
179 }
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180
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181
182 /* Function that accepts a string, followed by varargs (1 or more) */
183
184 char *str;
185 int str_len;
186 int i, num_varargs;
187 zval ***varargs = NULL;
188
189 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s+", &str, &str_len, &varargs, &num_varargs) == FAILURE) {
190 return;
191 }
192
193 for (i = 0; i < num_varargs; i++) {
194 /* do something with varargs[i] */
195 }
196
197 if (varargs) {
198 efree(varargs);
199 }
200
201
202 /* Function that takes an array, followed by varargs, and ending with a long */
203 long num;
204 zval *array;
205 int i, num_varargs;
206 zval ***varargs = NULL;
207
208 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "a*l", &array, &varargs, &num_varargs, &num) == FAILURE) {
209 return;
210 }
211
212 for (i = 0; i < num_varargs; i++) {
213 /* do something with varargs[i] */
214 }
215
216 if (varargs) {
217 efree(varargs);
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218 }
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219
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