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27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be mo...
Andrei Zmievski authored
1 New parameter parsing functions
2 ===============================
3
4 It should be easier to parse input parameters to an extension function.
5 Hence, borrowing from Python's example, there are now a set of functions
6 that given the string of type specifiers, can parse the input parameters
7 and store the results in the user specified variables. This avoids most
8 of the IS_* checks and convert_to_* conversions. The functions also
9 check for the appropriate number of parameters, and try to output
10 meaningful error messages.
11
12
13 Prototypes
14 ----------
15 /* Implemented. */
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16 int zend_parse_parameters(int num_args TSRMLS_DC, char *type_spec, ...);
17 int zend_parse_parameters_ex(int flags, int num_args TSRMLS_DC, char *type_spec, ...);
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Andrei Zmievski authored
18
19 The zend_parse_parameters() function takes the number of parameters
20 passed to the extension function, the type specifier string, and the
21 list of pointers to variables to store the results in. The _ex() version
22 also takes 'flags' argument -- current only ZEND_PARSE_PARAMS_QUIET can
23 be used as 'flags' to specify that the function should operate quietly
24 and not output any error messages.
25
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26 Both functions return SUCCESS or FAILURE depending on the result.
27
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be mo...
Andrei Zmievski authored
28 The auto-conversions are performed as necessary. Arrays, objects, and
fd4d1f2 @jparise Formatting nit: "autoconverted" to "auto-converted"
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29 resources cannot be auto-converted.
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30
31
32 Type specifiers
33 ---------------
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34 The following list shows the type specifier, its meaning and the parameter
35 types that need to be passed by address. All passed paramaters are set
36 if the PHP parameter is non optional and untouched if optional and the
37 parameter is not present. The only exception is O where the zend_class_entry*
38 has to be provided on input and is used to verify the PHP parameter is an
39 instance of that class.
40
41 a - array (zval*)
fce39ed @smalyshev add object-compatible array modes
smalyshev authored
42 A - array or object (zval *)
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43 b - boolean (zend_bool)
44 C - class (zend_class_entry*)
45 d - double (double)
46 f - function or array containing php method call info (returned as
47 zend_fcall_info and zend_fcall_info_cache)
48 h - array (returned as HashTable*)
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49 H - array or HASH_OF(object) (returned as HashTable*)
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50 l - long (long)
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51 L - long, limits out-of-range numbers to LONG_MAX/LONG_MIN (long)
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52 o - object of any type (zval*)
53 O - object of specific type given by class entry (zval*, zend_class_entry)
54 r - resource (zval*)
55 s - string (with possible null bytes) and its length (char*, int)
56 z - the actual zval (zval*)
57 Z - the actual zval (zval**)
a506a10 MFH
Jani Taskinen authored
58 * - variable arguments list (0 or more)
59 + - variable arguments list (1 or more)
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60
61 The following characters also have a meaning in the specifier string:
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62 | - indicates that the remaining parameters are optional, they
63 should be initialized to default values by the extension since they
64 will not be touched by the parsing function if they are not
65 passed to it.
66 / - use SEPARATE_ZVAL_IF_NOT_REF() on the parameter it follows
67 ! - the parameter it follows can be of specified type or NULL (applies
68 to all specifiers except for 'b', 'l', and 'd'). If NULL is passed, the
69 results pointer is set to NULL as well.
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70
991ae6e @tony2001 MFH: add note on 64bit compatibility and mention check_parameters.php
tony2001 authored
71
72 Note on 64bit compatibility
73 ---------------------------
74 Please do not forget that int and long are two different things on 64bit
9c8ecb3 @tony2001 MFH
tony2001 authored
75 OSes (int is 4 bytes and long is 8 bytes), so make sure you pass longs to "l"
991ae6e @tony2001 MFH: add note on 64bit compatibility and mention check_parameters.php
tony2001 authored
76 and ints to strings length (i.e. for "s" you need to pass char * and int),
77 not the other way round!
78 Remember: "l" is the only case when you need to pass long (and that's why
79 it's "l", not "i" btw).
80
81 Both mistakes cause memory corruptions and segfaults on 64bit OSes:
82 1)
83 char *str;
84 long str_len; /* XXX THIS IS WRONG!! Use int instead. */
85 zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &str, &str_len)
86
87 2)
88 int num; /* XXX THIS IS WRONG!! Use long instead. */
89 zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "l", &num)
90
91 If you're in doubt, use check_parameters.php script to the parameters
92 and their types (it can be found in ./scripts/dev/ directory of PHP sources):
93
94 # php ./scripts/dev/check_parameters.php /path/to/your/sources/
95
96
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Andrei Zmievski authored
97 Examples
98 --------
99 /* Gets a long, a string and its length, and a zval */
100 long l;
101 char *s;
102 int s_len;
103 zval *param;
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104 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "lsz",
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105 &l, &s, &s_len, &param) == FAILURE) {
106 return;
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107 }
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108
109
110 /* Gets an object of class specified by my_ce, and an optional double. */
111 zval *obj;
112 double d = 0.5;
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johannes authored
113 zend_class_entry *my_ce;
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114 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "O|d",
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115 &obj, my_ce, &d) == FAILURE) {
116 return;
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117 }
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118
119
120 /* Gets an object or null, and an array.
121 If null is passed for object, obj will be set to NULL. */
122 zval *obj;
123 zval *arr;
550550f @rlerdorf Minor tweaks
rlerdorf authored
124 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "o!a",
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125 &obj, &arr) == FAILURE) {
126 return;
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127 }
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128
129
550550f @rlerdorf Minor tweaks
rlerdorf authored
130 /* Gets a separated array which can also be null. */
27d63c5 Adding some docs for new parameter parsing API. They really should be mo...
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131 zval *arr;
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rlerdorf authored
132 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "a/!",
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133 &arr) == FAILURE) {
134 return;
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135 }
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136
137 /* Get either a set of 3 longs or a string. */
138 long l1, l2, l3;
139 char *s;
ad8b425 Please note that you need to use 'int' as a length type when
Sascha Schumann authored
140 /*
141 * The function expects a pointer to a integer in this case, not a long
142 * or any other type. If you specify a type which is larger
143 * than a 'int', the upper bits might not be initialized
144 * properly, leading to random crashes on platforms like
145 * Tru64 or Linux/Alpha.
146 */
147 int length;
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148
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Andrei Zmievski authored
149 if (zend_parse_parameters_ex(ZEND_PARSE_PARAMS_QUIET, ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC,
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150 "lll", &l1, &l2, &l3) == SUCCESS) {
151 /* manipulate longs */
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152 } else if (zend_parse_parameters_ex(ZEND_PARSE_PARAMS_QUIET, ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC,
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153 "s", &s, &length) == SUCCESS) {
154 /* manipulate string */
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155 } else {
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156 /* output error */
157
158 return;
159 }
160
161
162 /* Function that accepts only varargs (0 or more) */
163
164 int i, num_varargs;
165 zval ***varargs = NULL;
166
167
168 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "*", &varargs, &num_varargs) == FAILURE) {
169 return;
170 }
171
172 for (i = 0; i < num_varargs; i++) {
173 /* do something with varargs[i] */
174 }
175
176 if (varargs) {
177 efree(varargs);
178 }
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179
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180
181 /* Function that accepts a string, followed by varargs (1 or more) */
182
183 char *str;
184 int str_len;
185 int i, num_varargs;
186 zval ***varargs = NULL;
187
188 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s+", &str, &str_len, &varargs, &num_varargs) == FAILURE) {
189 return;
190 }
191
192 for (i = 0; i < num_varargs; i++) {
193 /* do something with varargs[i] */
194 }
195
196 if (varargs) {
197 efree(varargs);
198 }
199
200
201 /* Function that takes an array, followed by varargs, and ending with a long */
202 long num;
203 zval *array;
204 int i, num_varargs;
205 zval ***varargs = NULL;
206
207 if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "a*l", &array, &varargs, &num_varargs, &num) == FAILURE) {
208 return;
209 }
210
211 for (i = 0; i < num_varargs; i++) {
212 /* do something with varargs[i] */
213 }
214
215 if (varargs) {
216 efree(varargs);
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217 }
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218
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