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1. Backward Incompatible Changes
2. New Features
3. Changes in SAPI modules
4. Deprecated Functionality
5. Changed Functions
6. New Functions
7. New Classes and Interfaces
8. Removed Extensions and SAPIs
9. Other Changes to Extensions
10. New Global Constants
11. Changes to INI File Handling
12. Windows Support
13. Other Changes
14. Performance Improvements
1. Backward Incompatible Changes
- Core:
. `match` is now a reserved keyword.
. Assertion failures now throw by default. If the old behavior is desired,
then set `assert.exception=0` in INI settings.
. Methods with the same name as the class are no longer interpreted as
constructors. The __construct() method should be used instead.
. Removed ability to call non-static methods statically.
Thus `is_callable` will fail when checking for a non-static method with a
classname (must check with an object instance).
. Removed (real) cast.
. Removed (unset) cast.
. Removed track_errors ini directive. This means that $php_errormsg is no
longer available. The error_get_last() function may be used instead.
. Removed the ability to define case-insensitive constants. The third
argument to define() may no longer be true.
. Access to undefined constants now always results in an Error exception.
Previously, unqualified constant accesses resulted in a warning and were
interpreted as strings.
. Removed ability to specify an autoloader using an __autoload() function.
spl_autoload_register() should be used instead.
. Removed the $errcontext argument for custom error handlers.
. Removed create_function(). Anonymous functions may be used instead.
. Removed each(). foreach or ArrayIterator should be used instead.
. Removed ability to unbind $this from closures that were created from a
method, using Closure::fromCallable() or ReflectionMethod::getClosure().
. Also removed ability to unbind $this from proper closures that contain uses
of $this.
. Removed ability to use array_key_exists() with objects. Use one of isset()
or property_exists() instead.
. Made the behavior of array_key_exists() regarding the type of the key
parameter consistent with isset() and normal array access. All key types now
use the usual coercions and array/object keys throw a TypeError.
. Any array that has a number n as its first numeric key will use n+1 for
its next implicit key, even if n is negative.
. The default error_reporting level is now E_ALL. Previously it excluded
. display_startup_errors is now enabled by default.
. Using "parent" inside a class that has no parent will now result in a
fatal compile-time error.
. The @ operator will no longer silence fatal errors (E_ERROR, E_CORE_ERROR,
that expect error_reporting to be 0 when @ is used, should be adjusted to
use a mask check instead:
// Replace
function my_error_handler($err_no, $err_msg, $filename, $linenum) {
if (error_reporting() == 0) {
return; // Silenced
// ...
// With
function my_error_handler($err_no, $err_msg, $filename, $linenum) {
if (!(error_reporting() & $err_no)) {
return; // Silenced
// ...
Additionally, care should be taken that error messages are not displayed in
production environments, which can result in information leaks. Please
ensure that display_errors=Off is used in conjunction with error logging.
. Following the hash comment operator # immediately with an opening bracket
is not supported as a comment anymore since this syntax is now used for
. Inheritance errors due to incompatible method signatures (LSP violations)
will now always generate a fatal error. Previously a warning was generated
in some cases.
. The precedence of the concatenation operator has changed relative to
bitshifts and addition as well as subtraction.
. Arguments with a default value that resolves to null at runtime will no
longer implicitly mark the argument type as nullable. Either use an explicit
nullable type, or an explicit null default value instead.
// Replace
function test(int $arg = CONST_RESOLVING_TO_NULL) {}
// With
function test(?int $arg = CONST_RESOLVING_TO_NULL) {}
// Or
function test(int $arg = null) {}
. A number of warnings have been converted into Error exceptions:
* Attempting to write to a property of a non-object. Previously this
implicitly created an stdClass object for null, false and empty strings.
* Attempting to append an element to an array for which the PHP_INT_MAX key
is already used.
* Attempting to use an invalid type (array or object) as an array key or
string offset.
* Attempting to write to an array index of a scalar value.
* Attempting to unpack a non-array/Traversable.
A number of notices have been converted into warnings:
* Attempting to read an undefined variable.
* Attempting to read an undefined property.
* Attempting to read an undefined array key.
* Attempting to read a property of a non-object.
* Attempting to access an array index of a non-array.
* Attempting to convert an array to string.
* Attempting to use a resource as an array key.
* Attempting to use null, a boolean, or a float as a string offset.
* Attempting to read an out-of-bounds string offset.
* Attempting to assign an empty string to a string offset.
. Attempting to assign multiple bytes to a string offset will now emit a
. Unexpected characters in source files (such as null bytes outside of
strings) will now result in a ParseError exception instead of a compile
. Uncaught exceptions now go through "clean shutdown", which means that
destructors will be called after an uncaught exception.
. Compile time fatal error "Only variables can be passed by reference" has
been delayed until runtime and converted to "Argument cannot be passed by
reference" exception.
. Some "Only variables should be passed by reference" notices have been
converted to "Argument cannot be passed by reference" exception.
. The generated name for anonymous classes has changed. It will now include
the name of the first parent or interface:
new class extends ParentClass {};
// -> ParentClass@anonymous
new class implements FirstInterface, SecondInterface {};
// -> FirstInterface@anonymous
new class {};
// -> class@anonymous
The name shown above is still followed by a null byte and a unique
. Non-absolute trait method references in trait alias adaptations are now
required to be unambiguous:
class X {
use T1, T2 {
func as otherFunc;
function func() {}
If both T1::func() and T2::func() exist, this code was previously silently
accepted, and func was assumed to refer to T1::func. Now it will generate a
fatal error instead, and either T1::func or T2::func needs to be written
. The signature of abstract methods defined in traits is now checked against
the implementing class method:
trait MyTrait {
abstract private function neededByTrait(): string;
class MyClass {
use MyTrait;
// Error, because of return type mismatch.
private function neededByTrait(): int { return 42; }
. Disabled functions are now treated exactly like non-existent functions.
Calling a disabled function will report it as unknown, and redefining a
disabled function is now possible.
. data: stream wrappers are no longer writable, which matches the documented
. The arithmetic and bitwise operators
+, -, *, /, **, %, <<, >>, &, |, ^, ~, ++, --
will now consistently throw a TypeError when one of the operands is an
array, resource or non-overloaded object. The only exception to this is the
array + array merge operation, which remains supported.
. Float to string casting will now always behave locale-independently.
. Removed support for deprecated curly braces for offset access
. Applying the final modifier on a private method will now produce a warning
unless that method is the constructor.
. If an object constructor exit()s, the object destructor will no longer be
called. This matches the behavior when the constructor throws.
. Non-strict comparisons between numbers and non-numeric strings now work by
casting the number to string and comparing the strings. Comparisons between
numbers and numeric strings continue to work as before. Notably, this means
that `0 == "not-a-number"` is considered false now.
. Namespaced names can no longer contain whitespace: While `Foo\Bar` will be
recognized as a namespaced name, `Foo \ Bar` will not. Conversely, reserved
keywords are now permitted as namespace segments, which may also change the
interpretation of code: `new\x` is now the same as `constant('new\x')`, not
`new \x()`.
. Nested ternaries now require explicit parentheses.
. debug_backtrace() and Exception::getTrace() will no longer provide
references to arguments. It will not be possible to change function
arguments through the backtrace.
. Numeric string handling has been altered to be more intuitive and less
error-prone. Trailing whitespace is now allowed in numeric strings for
consistency with how leading whitespace is treated. This mostly affects:
- The is_numeric() function
- String-to-string comparisons
- Type declarations
- Increment and decrement operations
The concept of a "leading-numeric string" has been mostly dropped; the
cases where this remains exist in order to ease migration. Strings which
emitted an E_NOTICE "A non well-formed numeric value encountered" will now
emit an E_WARNING "A non-numeric value encountered" and all strings which
emitted an E_WARNING "A non-numeric value encountered" will now throw a
TypeError. This mostly affects:
- Arithmetic operations
- Bitwise operations
This E_WARNING to TypeError change also affects the E_WARNING
"Illegal string offset 'string'" for illegal string offsets. The behavior
of explicit casts to int/float from strings has not been changed.
. Magic Methods will now have their arguments and return types checked if
they have them declared. The signatures should match the following list:
__call(string $name, array $arguments): mixed
__callStatic(string $name, array $arguments): mixed
__clone(): void
__debugInfo(): ?array
__get(string $name): mixed
__invoke(mixed $arguments): mixed
__isset(string $name): bool
__serialize(): array
__set(string $name, mixed $value): void
__set_state(array $properties): object
__sleep(): array
__unserialize(array $data): void
__unset(string $name): void
__wakeup(): void
. call_user_func_array() array keys will now be interpreted as parameter names,
instead of being silently ignored.
- COM:
. Removed the ability to import case-insensitive constants from type
libraries. The second argument to com_load_typelib() may no longer be false;
com.autoregister_casesensitive may no longer be disabled; case-insensitive
markers in com.typelib_file are ignored.
- Curl:
. CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS no longer accepts objects as arrays. To interpret an
object as an array, perform an explicit (array) cast. The same applies to
other options accepting arrays as well.
- Date:
. mktime() and gmmktime() now require at least one argument. time() can be
used to get the current timestamp.
- dom:
. Remove unimplemented classes from ext/dom that had no behavior and contained
test data. These classes have also been removed in the latest version of DOM
* DOMNameList
* DomImplementationList
* DOMConfiguration
* DomError
* DomErrorHandler
* DOMImplementationSource
* DOMLocator
* DOMUserDataHandler
* DOMTypeInfo
- Enchant:
. enchant_broker_list_dicts(), enchant_broker_describe() and
enchant_dict_suggest() will now return an empty array instead of null.
. enchant_broker_init() will now return an EnchantBroker object rather than
a resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`.
. enchant_broker_request_dict() and enchant_broker_request_pwl_dict() will now
return an EnchantDictionary object rather than a resource. Return value
checks using is_resource() should be replaced with checks for `false`.
- Exif:
. Removed read_exif_data(). exif_read_data() should be used instead.
- Filter:
FILTER_VALIDATE_URL filter have been removed. The scheme and host are (and
have been) always required.
. The INPUT_REQUEST and INPUT_SESSION source for filter_input() etc have been
removed. These were never implemented and their use always generated a
- GD:
. The GD extension now uses a GdImage objects as the underlying data structure
for images, rather than resources. These objects are completely opaque, i.e.
they don't have any methods. Return value checks using is_resource() should
be replaced with checks for `false`. The imagedestroy() function no longer
has an effect, instead the GdImage instance is automatically destroyed if
it is no longer referenced.
. The deprecated function image2wbmp() has been removed.
. The deprecated functions png2wbmp() and jpeg2wbmp() have been removed.
. The default $mode parameter of imagecropauto() no longer accepts -1.
IMG_CROP_DEFAULT should be used instead.
- GMP:
. gmp_random() has been removed. One of gmp_random_range() or
gmp_random_bits() should be used instead.
- Iconv:
. iconv() implementations which do not properly set errno in case of errors
are no longer supported.
. The unused default_host argument of imap_headerinfo() has been removed.
. The imap_header() function which is an alias of imap_headerinfo() has been removed.
- Intl:
. The deprecated constant INTL_IDNA_VARIANT_2003 has been removed.
. The deprecated Normalizer::NONE constant has been removed.
. The IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_FULL, IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_LONG,
IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_MEDIUM, and IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_SHORT
constants have been added.
. The deprecated function ldap_sort has been removed.
. The deprecated function ldap_control_paged_result has been removed.
. The deprecated function ldap_control_paged_result_response has been removed.
. The interface of ldap_set_rebind_proc has changed; the $callback parameter
does not accept empty string anymore; null value shall be used instead.
- Mbstring:
. The mbstring.func_overload directive has been removed. The related
also been removed. Finally, the "func_overload" and "func_overload_list"
entries in mb_get_info() have been removed.
. mb_parse_str() can no longer be used without specifying a result array.
. A number of deprecated mbregex aliases have been removed. See the following
list for which functions should be used instead:
* mbregex_encoding() -> mb_regex_encoding()
* mbereg() -> mb_ereg()
* mberegi() -> mb_eregi()
* mbereg_replace() -> mb_ereg_replace()
* mberegi_replace() -> mb_eregi_replace()
* mbsplit() -> mb_split()
* mbereg_match() -> mb_ereg_match()
* mbereg_search() -> mb_ereg_search()
* mbereg_search_pos() -> mb_ereg_search_pos()
* mbereg_search_regs() -> mb_ereg_search_regs()
* mbereg_search_init() -> mb_ereg_search_init()
* mbereg_search_getregs() -> mb_ereg_search_getregs()
* mbereg_search_getpos() -> mb_ereg_search_getpos()
* mbereg_search_setpos() -> mb_ereg_search_setpos()
. The 'e' modifier for mb_ereg_replace() has been removed.
mb_ereg_replace_callback() should be used instead.
. A non-string pattern argument to mb_ereg_replace() will now be interpreted
as a string instead of an ASCII codepoint. The previous behavior may be
restored with an explicit call to chr().
. The needle argument for mb_strpos(), mb_strrpos(), mb_stripos(),
mb_strripos(), mb_strstr(), mb_stristr(), mb_strrchr() and mb_strrichr() can
now be empty.
. The $is_hex parameter, which was not used internally, has been removed from
. The legacy behavior of passing the encoding as the third argument instead
of an offset for the mb_strrpos() function has been removed; provide an
explicit 0 offset with the encoding as the fourth argument instead.
. The ISO_8859-* character encoding aliases have been replaced by ISO8859-*
aliases for better interoperability with the iconv extension. The mbregex
ISO 8859 aliases with underscores (ISO_8859_* and ISO8859_*) have also been
. mb_ereg() and mb_eregi() will now return boolean true on a successful
match. Previously they returned integer 1 if $matches was not passed, or
max(1, strlen($reg[0])) is $matches was passed.
- OCI8:
. The OCI-Lob class is now called OCILob, and the OCI-Collection class is now
called OCICollection for name compliance enforced by PHP 8 arginfo
type annotation tooling.
. Several alias functions have been marked as deprecated.
. oci_internal_debug() and its alias ociinternaldebug() have been removed.
. odbc_connect() no longer reuses persistent connections.
. The unused flags parameter of odbc_exec() has been removed.
- OpenSSL:
. openssl_x509_read() and openssl_csr_sign() will now return an
OpenSSLCertificate object rather than a resource. Return value checks using
is_resource() should be replaced with checks for `false`.
. The openssl_x509_free() function is deprecated and no longer has an effect,
instead the OpenSSLCertificate instance is automatically destroyed if it is no
longer referenced.
. openssl_csr_new() will now return an OpenSSLCertificateSigningRequest object
rather than a resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be
replaced with checks for `false`.
. openssl_pkey_new() will now return an OpenSSLAsymmetricKey object rather than a
resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`.
. The openssl_pkey_free() function is deprecated and no longer has an effect,
instead the OpenSSLAsymmetricKey instance is automatically destroyed if it is no
longer referenced.
. openssl_seal() and openssl_open() now require $method to be passed, as the
previous default of "RC4" is considered insecure.
. When passing invalid escape sequences they are no longer interpreted as
literals. This behavior previously required the X modifier - which is
now ignored.
- PDO:
. The default error handling mode has been changed from "silent" to
"exceptions". See
for details of behavior changes and how to explicitly set this attribute.
. The signatures of some PDO methods have changed:
string $statement, ?int $fetch_mode = null, ...$fetch_mode_args)
PDOStatement::setFetchMode(int $mode, ...$params)
. PDO::inTransaction() now reports the actual transaction state of the
connection, rather than an approximation maintained by PDO. If a query that
is subject to "implicit commit" is executed, PDO::inTransaction() will
subsequently return false, as a transaction is no longer active.
. The php.ini directive pdo_odbc.db2_instance_name has been removed
- pgsql:
. The deprecated pg_connect() syntax using multiple parameters instead of a
connection string is no longer supported.
. The deprecated pg_lo_import() and pg_lo_export() signature that passes the
connection as the last argument is no longer supported. The connection
should be passed as first argument instead.
. pg_fetch_all() will now return an empty array instead of false for result
sets with zero rows.
- Phar:
. Metadata associated with a phar will no longer be automatically unserialized,
to fix potential security vulnerabilities due to object instantiation, autoloading, etc.
- Reflection:
. The method signatures
ReflectionMethod::invoke($object, $args)
have been changed to:
ReflectionMethod::invoke($object, ...$args)
Code that must be compatible with both PHP 7 and PHP 8 can use the following
signatures to be compatible with both versions:
ReflectionClass::newInstance($arg = null, ...$args)
ReflectionFunction::invoke($arg = null, ...$args)
ReflectionMethod::invoke($object, $arg = null, ...$args)
. The ReflectionType::__toString() method will now return a complete debug
representation of the type, and is no longer deprecated. In particular the
result will include a nullability indicator for nullable types. The format
of the return value is not stable and may change between PHP versions.
. Reflection export() methods have been removed.
. The following methods can now return information about default values of
parameters of internal functions:
. ReflectionMethod::isConstructor() and ReflectionMethod::isDestructor() now
also return true for `__construct` and `__destruct` methods of interfaces.
Previously, this would only be true for methods of classes and traits.
. ReflectionType::isBuiltin() method has been moved to ReflectionNamedType.
ReflectionUnionType does not have it.
- Sockets:
flags for socket_addrinfo_lookup() have been removed.
. socket_create(), socket_create_listen(), socket_accept(),
socket_import_stream(), socket_addrinfo_connect(), socket_addrinfo_bind(),
and socket_wsaprotocol_info_import() will now return a Socket object rather
than a resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced
with checks for `false`.
. socket_addrinfo_lookup() will now return an array of AddressInfo objects
rather than resources.
- SPL:
. SplFileObject::fgetss() has been removed.
. SplFileObject::seek() now always seeks to the beginning of the line.
Previously, positions >=1 sought to the beginning of the next line.
. SplHeap::compare($a, $b) now specifies a method signature. Inheriting
classes implementing this method will now have to use a compatible
method signature.
. SplDoublyLinkedList::push() now returns void instead of true
. SplDoublyLinkedList::unshift() now returns void instead of true
. SplQueue::enqueue() now returns void instead of true
. spl_autoload_register() will now always throw a TypeError on invalid
arguments, therefore the second argument $do_throw is ignored and a
notice will be emitted if it is set to false.
. SplFixedArray is now an IteratorAggregate and not an Iterator.
SplFixedArray::rewind(), ::current(), ::key(), ::next(), and ::valid()
have been removed. In their place, SplFixedArray::getIterator() has been
added. Any code which uses explicit iteration over SplFixedArray must now
obtain an Iterator through SplFixedArray::getIterator(). This means that
SplFixedArray is now safe to use in nested loops.
- Standard:
. assert() will no longer evaluate string arguments, instead they will be
treated like any other argument. assert($a == $b) should be used instead of
assert('$a == $b'). The assert.quiet_eval ini directive and
ASSERT_QUIET_EVAL constants have also been removed, as they would no longer
have any effect.
. parse_str() can no longer be used without specifying a result array.
. fgetss() has been removed.
. The string.strip_tags filter has been removed.
. The needle argument of strpos(), strrpos(), stripos(), strripos(), strstr(),
strchr(), strrchr(), and stristr() will now always be interpreted as a
string. Previously non-string needles were interpreted as an ASCII code
point. An explicit call to chr() can be used to restore the previous
. The needle argument for strpos(), strrpos(), stripos(), strripos(),
strstr(), stristr() and strrchr() can now be empty.
. The length argument for substr(), substr_count(), substr_compare(), and
iconv_substr() can now be null. Null values will behave as if no length
argument was provided and will therefore return the remainder of the string
instead of an empty string.
. The length argument for array_splice() can now be null. Null values will
behave identically to omitting the argument, thus removing everything from
the 'offset' to the end of the array.
. The args argument of vsprintf(), vfprintf(), and vprintf() must now be an
array. Previously any type was accepted.
. The 'salt' option of password_hash() is no longer supported. If the 'salt'
option is used a warning is generated, the provided salt is ignored, and a
generated salt is used instead.
. The quotemeta() function will now return an empty string if an empty string
was passed. Previously false was returned.
. hebrevc() has been removed.
. convert_cyr_string() has been removed.
. money_format() has been removed.
. ezmlm_hash() has been removed.
. restore_include_path() has been removed.
. get_magic_quotes_gpc() and get_magic_quotes_runtime() has been removed.
. Calling implode() with parameters in a reverse order ($pieces, $glue) is no
longer supported.
. parse_url() will now distinguish absent and empty queries and fragments: => query = null, fragment = null => query = "", fragment = null => query = null, fragment = "" => query = "", fragment = ""
Previously all cases resulted in query and fragment being null.
. var_dump() and debug_zval_dump() will now print floating-point numbers
using serialize_precision rather than precision. In a default configuration,
this means that floating-point numbers are now printed with full accuracy
by these debugging functions.
. If the array returned by __sleep() contains non-existing properties, these
are now silently ignored. Previously, such properties would have been
serialized as if they had the value NULL.
. The default locale on startup is now always "C". No locales are inherited
from the environment by default. Previously, LC_ALL was set to "C", while
LC_CTYPE was inherited from the environment. However, some functions did not
respect the inherited locale without an explicit setlocale() call. An
explicit setlocale() call is now always required if you wish to change any
locale component from the default.
. Removed deprecated DES fallback in crypt(). If an unknown salt format is
passed to crypt(), the function will fail with *0 instead of falling back
to a weak DES hash now.
. Specifying out of range rounds for sha256/sha512 crypt() will now fail with
*0 instead of clamping to the closest limit. This matches glibc behavior.
. The result of sorting functions may have changed, if the array contains
elements that compare as equal.
. Sort comparison functions that return true or false will now throw a
deprecation warning, and should be replaced with an implementation
that returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero.
// Replace
usort($array, fn($a, $b) => $a > $b);
// With
usort($array, fn($a, $b) => $a <=> $b);
. Any functions accepting callbacks that are not explicitly specified to
accept parameters by reference will now warn if a callback with reference
parameters is used. Examples include array_filter() and array_reduce().
This was already the case for most, but not all, functions previously.
. The HTTP stream wrapper as used by functions like file_get_contents()
now advertises HTTP/1.1 rather than HTTP/1.0 by default. This does not
change the behavior of the client, but may cause servers to respond
differently. To retain the old behavior, set the 'protocol_version'
stream context option, e.g.
$ctx = stream_context_create(['http' => ['protocol_version' => '1.0']]);
echo file_get_contents('', false, $ctx);
. Calling crypt() without an explicit salt is no longer supported. If you
would like to produce a strong hash with an auto-generated salt, use
password_hash() instead.
. substr(), mb_substr(), iconv_substr() and grapheme_substr() now consistently
clamp out-of-bounds offsets to the string boundary. Previously, false was
returned instead of the empty string in some cases.
. Populating $http_response_header variable by the HTTP stream wrapper
doesn't force rebuilding of symbol table anymore.
- Sysvmsg:
. msg_get_queue() will now return an SysvMessageQueue object rather than a
resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`.
- Sysvsem:
. sem_get() will now return an SysvSemaphore object rather than a resource.
Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with checks
for `false`.
. The $auto_release parameter of sem_get() was changed to accept bool values
rather than int.
- Sysvshm:
. shm_attach() will now return an SysvSharedMemory object rather than a resource.
Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with checks
for `false`.
- tidy:
. The $use_include_path parameter, which was not used internally, has been
removed from tidy_repair_string().
. tidy::repairString() and tidy::repairFile() became static methods
- Tokenizer:
. T_COMMENT tokens will no longer include a trailing newline. The newline will
instead be part of a following T_WHITESPACE token. It should be noted that
T_COMMENT is not always followed by whitespace, it may also be followed by
T_CLOSE_TAG or end-of-file.
. Namespaced names are now represented using the T_NAME_QUALIFIED (Foo\Bar),
T_NAME_FULLY_QUALIFIED (\Foo\Bar) and T_NAME_RELATIVE (namespace\Foo\Bar)
tokens. T_NS_SEPARATOR is only used for standalone namespace separators,
and only syntactially valid in conjunction with group use declarations.
- XML:
. xml_parser_create(_ns) will now return an XMLParser object rather than a
resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`. The xml_parser_free() function no longer has an effect,
instead the XMLParser instance is automatically destroyed if it is no longer
- XMLReader:
. XMLReader::open() and XMLReader::xml() are now static methods. They still
can be called dynamically, though, but inheriting classes need to declare
them as static if they override these methods.
- XMLWriter:
. The XMLWriter functions now accept and return, respectively, XMLWriter
objects instead of resources.
- Zip:
. ZipArchive::OPSYS_Z_CPM has been removed (this name was a typo). Use
ZipArchive::OPSYS_CPM instead.
- Zlib:
. gzgetss() has been removed.
. inflate_init() will now return an InflateContext object rather than a
resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`.
. deflate_init() will now return a DeflateContext object rather than a
resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`.
. zlib.output_compression is no longer automatically disabled for
Content-Type: image/*.
2. New Features
- Core:
. Added support for union types.
. Added WeakMap.
. Added ValueError class.
. Any number of function parameters may now be replaced by a variadic
argument, as long as the types are compatible. For example, the following
code is now allowed:
class A {
public function method(int $many, string $parameters, $here) {}
class B extends A {
public function method(...$everything) {}
. "static" (as in "late static binding") can now be used as a return type:
class Test {
public function create(): static {
return new static();
. It is now possible to fetch the class name of an object using
`$object::class`. The result is the same as `get_class($object)`.
. New and instanceof can now be used with arbitrary expressions, using
`new (expression)(...$args)` and `$obj instanceof (expression)`.
. Some consistency fixes to variable syntax have been applied, for example
writing `Foo::BAR::$baz` is now allowed.
. Added Stringable interface, which is automatically implemented if a class
defines a __toString() method.
. Traits can now define abstract private methods.
. `throw` can now be used as an expression.
. An optional trailing comma is now allowed in parameter lists.
. It is now possible to write `catch (Exception)` to catch an exception
without storing it in a variable.
. Added support for mixed type
. Added support for Attributes
. Added support for constructor property promotion (declaring properties in
the constructor signature).
. Added support for `match` expression.
. Private methods declared on a parent class no longer enforce any
inheritance rules on the methods of a child class. (with the exception of
final private constructors)
. Added support for nullsafe operator (`?->`).
. Added support for named arguments.
- Date:
. Added DateTime::createFromInterface() and
. Added the DateTime format specifier "p" which is the same as "P" but
returning "Z" for UTC.
- Dom:
. Introduce DOMParentNode and DOMChildNode with new traversal and
manipulation APIs.
- Enchant:
. enchant_dict_add()
. enchant_dict_is_added()
- FPM:
. Added a new option pm.status_listen that allows getting status from
different endpoint (e.g. port or UDS file) which is useful for getting
status when all children are busy with serving long running requests.
- Hash:
. HashContext objects can now be serialized.
- Opcache:
. If the opcache.record_warnings ini setting is enabled, opcache will record
compile-time warnings and replay them on the next include, even if it is
served from cache.
- OpenSSL:
. Added Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) (RFC 5652) support composed of
functions for encryption, decryption, signing, verifying and reading. The
API is similar to the API for PKCS #7 functions with an addition of new
- Standard:
. printf() and friends now support the %h and %H format specifiers. These
are the same as %g and %G, but always use "." as the decimal separator,
rather than determining it through the LC_NUMERIC locale.
. printf() and friends now support using "*" as width or precision, in which
case the width/precision is passed as an argument to printf. This also
allows using precision -1 with %g, %G, %h and %H. For example, the following
code can be used to reproduce PHP's default floating point formatting:
printf("%.*H", (int) ini_get("precision"), $float);
printf("%.*H", (int) ini_get("serialize_precision"), $float);
. proc_open() now supports pseudo-terminal (PTY) descriptors. The following
attaches stdin, stdout and stderr to the same PTY:
$proc = proc_open($command, [['pty'], ['pty'], ['pty']], $pipes);
. proc_open() now supports socket pair descriptors. The following attaches
a distinct socket pair to stdin, stdout and stderr:
$proc = proc_open(
$command, [['socket'], ['socket'], ['socket']], $pipes);
Unlike pipes, sockets do not suffer from blocking I/O issues on Windows.
However, not all programs may work correctly with stdio sockets.
. Sorting functions are now stable, which means that equal-comparing elements
will retain their original order.
. array_diff(), array_intersect() and their variations can now be used with
a single array as argument. This means that usages like the following are
now possible:
// OK even if $excludes is empty.
array_diff($array, ...$excludes);
// OK even if $arrays only contains a single array.
. The $flag parameter of ob_implicit_flush() was changed to accept bool
values rather than int.
- Zip:
. Extension updated to version 1.19.1
. New ZipArchive::lastId property to get index value of last added entry.
. Error can be checked after an archive is closed using ZipArchive::status,
ZipArchive::statusSys properties or ZipArchive::getStatusString() method.
. The remove_path option of ZipArchive::addGlob() and ::addPattern() is now
treated as arbitrary string prefix (for consistency with the add_path
option), whereas formerly it was treated as directory name.
. Optional compression / encryption features are listed in phpinfo.
3. Changes in SAPI modules
- Apache:
. The PHP module has been renamed from php7_module to php_module.
4. Deprecated Functionality
- Core:
. Declaring a required parameter after an optional one is deprecated. As an
exception, declaring a parameter of the form "Type $param = null" before
a required one continues to be allowed, because this pattern was sometimes
used to achieve nullable types in older PHP versions.
function test($a = [], $b) {} // Deprecated
function test(Foo $a = null, $b) {} // Allowed
. Calling get_defined_functions() with $exclude_disabled explicitly set to
false is deprecated. get_defined_functions() will never include disabled
- Enchant:
. enchant_broker_set_dict_path and enchant_broker_get_dict_path
not available in libenchant < 1.5 nor in libenchant-2
. enchant_dict_add_to_personal, use enchant_dict_add instead
. enchant_dict_is_in_session, use enchant_dict_is_added instead
. enchant_broker_free and enchant_broker_free_dict, unset the object instead
- LibXML:
. libxml_disable_entity_loader() has been deprecated. As libxml 2.9.0 is now
required, external entity loading is guaranteed to be disabled by default,
and this function is no longer needed to protect against XXE attacks.
. The constant PGSQL_LIBPQ_VERSION_STR has now the same value as
PGSQL_LIBPQ_VERSION, and thus is deprecated.
. Function aliases in the pgsql extension have been deprecated.
- Zip:
. Using empty file as ZipArchive is deprecated. Libzip 1.6.0
do not accept empty files as valid zip archives any longer.
Existing workaround will be removed in next version.
. The procedural API of Zip is deprecated. Use ZipArchive instead.
- Reflection:
. ReflectionFunction::isDisabled() is deprecated, as it is no longer possible
to create a ReflectionFunction for a disabled function. This method now
always returns false.
. ReflectionParameter::getClass(), ReflectionParameter::isArray(), and
ReflectionParameter::isCallable() are deprecated.
ReflectionParameter::getType() and the ReflectionType APIs should be used
5. Changed Functions
- Reflection:
. ReflectionClass::getConstants and ReflectionClass::getReflectionConstants results
can be now filtered via a new parameter `$filter`. 3 new constants were added to
be used with it:
- Zip
. ZipArchive::addGlob and ZipArchive::addPattern methods accept more
values in the "options" array argument:
. flags
. comp_method
. comp_flags
. env_method
. enc_password
. ZipArchive::addEmptyDir, ZipArchive::addFile and aZipArchive::addFromString
methods have a new "flags" argument. This allows managing name encoding
(ZipArchive::FL_ENC_*) and entry replacement (ZipArchive::FL_OVERWRITE)
. ZipArchive::extractTo now restore file modification time.
6. New Functions
- Core:
. Added get_resource_id($resource) function, which returns the same value as
(int) $resource. It provides the same functionality under a clearer API.
. Added ldap_count_references(), which returns the number of reference
messages in a search result.
- OpenSSL:
. Added openssl_cms_encrypt() encrypts the message in the file with the
certificates and outputs the result to the supplied file.
. Added openssl_cms_decrypt() that decrypts the S/MIME message in the file
and outputs the results to the supplied file.
. Added openssl_cms_read() that exports the CMS file to an array of PEM
. Added openssl_cms_sign() that signs the MIME message in the file with
a cert and key and output the result to the supplied file.
. Added openssl_cms_verify() that verifies that the data block is intact,
the signer is who they say they are, and returns the certs of the signers.
. Added preg_last_error_msg(), which returns a human-readable message for
the last PCRE error. It complements preg_last_error(), which returns an
integer enum instead.
- SQLite3:
. Add SQLite3::setAuthorizer() and respective class constants to set a
userland callback that will be used to authorize or not an action on the
- Standard:
. Added
str_contains(string $haystack, string $needle): bool
str_starts_with(string $haystack, string $needle): bool
str_ends_with(string $haystack, string $needle): bool
functions, which check whether $haystack contains, starts with or ends with
. Added fdiv() function, which performs a floating-point division under
IEEE 754 semantics. Division by zero is considered well-defined and
will return one of Inf, -Inf or NaN.
. Added get_debug_type() function, which returns a type useful for error
messages. Unlike gettype(), it uses canonical type names, returns class
names for objects, and indicates the resource type for resources.
- Zip:
. ZipArchive::setMtimeName and ZipArchive::setMtimeIndex to set the
modification time of an entry.
. ZipArchive::registerProgressCallback to provide updates during archive close.
. ZipArchive::registerCancelCallback to allow cancellation during archive close.
. ZipArchive::replaceFile to replace an entry content.
. ZipArchive::isCompressionMethodSupported to check optional compression
. ZipArchive::isEncryptionMethodSupported to check optional encryption
7. New Classes and Interfaces
- Tokenizer:
. The new PhpToken class adds an object-based interface to the tokenizer.
It provides a more uniform and ergonomic representation, while being more
memory efficient and faster.
8. Removed Extensions and SAPIs
. The xmlrpc extension has been unbundled and moved to PECL.
9. Other Changes to Extensions
. The CURL extension now requires at least libcurl 7.29.0.
. curl_init() will now return a CurlHandle object rather than a resource.
Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`. The curl_close() function no longer has an effect,
instead the CurlHandle instance is automatically destroyed if it is no
longer referenced.
. curl_multi_init() will now return a CurlMultiHandle object rather than a
resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`. The curl_multi_close() function no longer has an effect,
instead the CurlMultiHandle instance is automatically destroyed if it is no
longer referenced.
. curl_share_init() will now return a CurlShareHandle object rather than a
resource. Return value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with
checks for `false`. The curl_share_close() function no longer has an effect,
instead the CurlShareHandle instance is automatically destroyed if it is no
longer referenced.
. The deprecated parameter `$version` of curl_version() has been removed.
- Date:
. DatePeriod now implements IteratorAggregate (instead of Traversable).
- DOM:
. DOMNamedNodeMap now implements IteratorAggregate (instead of Traversable).
. DOMNodeList now implements IteratorAggregate (instead of Traversable).
- Intl:
. IntlBreakIterator now implements IteratorAggregate (instead of Traversable).
. ResourceBundle now implements IteratorAggregate (instead of Traversable).
- Enchant:
. The enchant extension now uses libenchant-2 by default when available.
libenchant version 1 is still supported but is deprecated and could
be removed in the future.
- GD:
. The $num_points parameter of imagepolygon(), imageopenpolygon() and
imagefilledpolygon() is now optional, i.e. these functions may be called
with either 3 or 4 arguments. If the arguments is omitted, it is calculated
as count($points)/2.
. The function imagegetinterpolation() to get the current interpolation method
has been added.
. The JSON extension cannot be disabled anymore and is always an integral part
of any PHP build, similar to the date extension.
- MBString:
. The Unicode data tables have been updated to version 13.0.0.
- PDO:
. PDOStatement now implements IteratorAggregate (instead of Traversable).
- LibXML:
. The minimum required libxml version is now 2.9.0. This means that external
entity loading is now guaranteed to be disabled by default, and no extra
steps need to be taken to protect against XXE attacks.
. When mysqlnd is not used (which is the default and recommended option),
the minimum supported libmysqlclient version is now 5.5.
. mysqli_result now implements IteratorAggregate (instead of Traversable).
. The PGSQL and PDO PGSQL extensions now require at least libpq 9.1.
- Readline:
. Calling readline_completion_function() before the interactive prompt starts
(e.g. in auto_prepend_file) will now override the default interactive prompt
completion function. Previously, readline_completion_function() only worked
when called after starting the interactive prompt.
- SimpleXML:
. SimpleXMLElement now implements RecursiveIterator and absorbed the
functionality of SimpleXMLIterator. SimpleXMLIterator is an empty extension
of SimpleXMLElement.
- Shmop:
. shmop_open() will now return a Shmop object rather than a resource. Return
value checks using is_resource() should be replaced with checks for `false`.
The shmop_close() function no longer has an effect, and is deprecated;
instead the Shmop instance is automatically destroyed if it is no longer
10. New Global Constants
- Filter:
. FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOL has been added as an alias for FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOLEAN.
The new name is preferred, as it uses the canonical type name.
11. Changes to INI File Handling
- zend.exception_string_param_max_len
. New INI directive to set the maximum string length in an argument of a
stringified stack strace.
- com.dotnet_version
. New INI directive to choose the version of the .NET framework to use for
dotnet objects.
12. Windows Support
- Standard:
. Program execution functions (proc_open(), exec(), popen() etc.) using the
shell now consistently execute `%comspec% /s /c "$commandline"`, which has
the same effect as executing `$commandline` (without additional quotes).
- GD:
. php_gd2.dll has been renamed to php_gd.dll.
- php-test-pack:
. The test runner has been renamed from run-test.php to run-tests.php, to
match its name in php-src.
13. Other Changes
- EBCDIC targets are no longer supported, though it's unlikely that they were
still working in the first place.
14. Performance Improvements
- A Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler has been added to the opcache extension.
- array_slice() on an array without gaps will no longer scan the whole array to
find the start offset. This may significantly reduce the runtime of the
function with large offsets and small lengths.
- strtolower() now uses a SIMD implementation when using the "C" LC_CTYPE
locale (which is the default).