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__________________________________________________________________
Installing PHP
__________________________________________________________________
* General Installation Considerations
* Installation on Unix systems
+ Apache 1.3.x on Unix systems
+ Apache 2.x on Unix systems
+ Lighttpd 1.4 on Unix systems
+ Sun, iPlanet and Netscape servers on Sun Solaris
+ CGI and command line setups
+ HP-UX specific installation notes
+ OpenBSD installation notes
+ Solaris specific installation tips
+ Debian GNU/Linux installation notes
* Installation on Mac OS X
+ Using Packages
+ Using the bundled PHP
+ Compiling PHP on Mac OS X
* Installation of PECL extensions
+ Introduction to PECL Installations
+ Downloading PECL extensions
+ Installing a PHP extension on Windows
+ Compiling shared PECL extensions with the pecl command
+ Compiling shared PECL extensions with phpize
+ php-config
+ Compiling PECL extensions statically into PHP
* Problems?
+ Read the FAQ
+ Other problems
+ Bug reports
* Runtime Configuration
+ The configuration file
+ .user.ini files
+ Where a configuration setting may be set
+ How to change configuration settings
* Installation
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Preface
These installation instructions were generated from the HTML version of
the PHP Manual so formatting and linking have been altered. See the
online and updated version at: http://php.net/install.unix
__________________________________________________________________
General Installation Considerations
Before starting the installation, first you need to know what do you
want to use PHP for. There are three main fields you can use PHP, as
described in the What can PHP do? section:
* Websites and web applications (server-side scripting)
* Command line scripting
* Desktop (GUI) applications
For the first and most common form, you need three things: PHP itself,
a web server and a web browser. You probably already have a web
browser, and depending on your operating system setup, you may also
have a web server (e.g. Apache on Linux and MacOS X; IIS on Windows).
You may also rent webspace at a company. This way, you don't need to
set up anything on your own, only write your PHP scripts, upload it to
the server you rent, and see the results in your browser.
In case of setting up the server and PHP on your own, you have two
choices for the method of connecting PHP to the server. For many
servers PHP has a direct module interface (also called SAPI). These
servers include Apache, Microsoft Internet Information Server, Netscape
and iPlanet servers. Many other servers have support for ISAPI, the
Microsoft module interface (OmniHTTPd for example). If PHP has no
module support for your web server, you can always use it as a CGI or
FastCGI processor. This means you set up your server to use the CGI
executable of PHP to process all PHP file requests on the server.
If you are also interested to use PHP for command line scripting (e.g.
write scripts autogenerating some images for you offline, or processing
text files depending on some arguments you pass to them), you always
need the command line executable. For more information, read the
section about writing command line PHP applications. In this case, you
need no server and no browser.
With PHP you can also write desktop GUI applications using the PHP-GTK
extension. This is a completely different approach than writing web
pages, as you do not output any HTML, but manage windows and objects
within them. For more information about PHP-GTK, please » visit the
site dedicated to this extension. PHP-GTK is not included in the
official PHP distribution.
From now on, this section deals with setting up PHP for web servers on
Unix and Windows with server module interfaces and CGI executables. You
will also find information on the command line executable in the
following sections.
PHP source code and binary distributions for Windows can be found at
» http://www.php.net/downloads.php. We recommend you to choose a
» mirror nearest to you for downloading the distributions.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Installation on Unix systems
Table of Contents
* Apache 1.3.x on Unix systems
* Apache 2.x on Unix systems
* Lighttpd 1.4 on Unix systems
* Sun, iPlanet and Netscape servers on Sun Solaris
* CGI and command line setups
* HP-UX specific installation notes
* OpenBSD installation notes
* Solaris specific installation tips
* Debian GNU/Linux installation notes
This section will guide you through the general configuration and
installation of PHP on Unix systems. Be sure to investigate any
sections specific to your platform or web server before you begin the
process.
As our manual outlines in the General Installation Considerations
section, we are mainly dealing with web centric setups of PHP in this
section, although we will cover setting up PHP for command line usage
as well.
There are several ways to install PHP for the Unix platform, either
with a compile and configure process, or through various pre-packaged
methods. This documentation is mainly focused around the process of
compiling and configuring PHP. Many Unix like systems have some sort of
package installation system. This can assist in setting up a standard
configuration, but if you need to have a different set of features
(such as a secure server, or a different database driver), you may need
to build PHP and/or your web server. If you are unfamiliar with
building and compiling your own software, it is worth checking to see
whether somebody has already built a packaged version of PHP with the
features you need.
Prerequisite knowledge and software for compiling:
* Basic Unix skills (being able to operate "make" and a C compiler)
* An ANSI C compiler
* A web server
* Any module specific components (such as GD, PDF libs, etc.)
When building directly from Git sources or after custom modifications
you might also need:
* autoconf: 2.13+ (for PHP < 5.4.0), 2.59+ (for PHP >= 5.4.0)
* automake: 1.4+
* libtool: 1.4.x+ (except 1.4.2)
* re2c: Version 0.13.4 or newer
* flex: Version 2.5.4 (for PHP <= 5.2)
* bison: Version 1.28 (preferred), 1.35, or 1.75
The initial PHP setup and configuration process is controlled by the
use of the command line options of the configure script. You could get
a list of all available options along with short explanations running
./configure --help. Our manual documents the different options
separately. You will find the core options in the appendix, while the
different extension specific options are descibed on the reference
pages.
When PHP is configured, you are ready to build the module and/or
executables. The command make should take care of this. If it fails and
you can't figure out why, see the Problems section.
__________________________________________________________________
Apache 1.3.x on Unix systems
This section contains notes and hints specific to Apache installs of
PHP on Unix platforms. We also have instructions and notes for Apache 2
on a separate page.
You can select arguments to add to the configure on line 10 below from
the list of core configure options and from extension specific options
described at the respective places in the manual. The version numbers
have been omitted here, to ensure the instructions are not incorrect.
You will need to replace the 'xxx' here with the correct values from
your files.
Example #1 Installation Instructions (Apache Shared Module Version) for
PHP
1. gunzip apache_xxx.tar.gz
2. tar -xvf apache_xxx.tar
3. gunzip php-xxx.tar.gz
4. tar -xvf php-xxx.tar
5. cd apache_xxx
6. ./configure --prefix=/www --enable-module=so
7. make
8. make install
9. cd ../php-xxx
10. Now, configure your PHP. This is where you customize your PHP
with various options, like which extensions will be enabled. Do a
./configure --help for a list of available options. In our example
we'll do a simple configure with Apache 1 and MySQL support. Your
path to apxs may differ from our example.
./configure --with-mysql --with-apxs=/www/bin/apxs
11. make
12. make install
If you decide to change your configure options after installation,
you only need to repeat the last three steps. You only need to
restart apache for the new module to take effect. A recompile of
Apache is not needed.
Note that unless told otherwise, 'make install' will also install PEAR,
various PHP tools such as phpize, install the PHP CLI, and more.
13. Setup your php.ini file:
cp php.ini-development /usr/local/lib/php.ini
You may edit your .ini file to set PHP options. If you prefer your
php.ini in another location, use --with-config-file-path=/some/path in
step 10.
If you instead choose php.ini-production, be certain to read the list
of changes within, as they affect how PHP behaves.
14. Edit your httpd.conf to load the PHP module. The path on the right hand
side of the LoadModule statement must point to the path of the PHP
module on your system. The make install from above may have already
added this for you, but be sure to check.
LoadModule php5_module libexec/libphp5.so
15. And in the AddModule section of httpd.conf, somewhere under the
ClearModuleList, add this:
AddModule mod_php5.c
16. Tell Apache to parse certain extensions as PHP. For example,
let's have Apache parse the .php extension as PHP. You could
have any extension(s) parse as PHP by simply adding more, with
each separated by a space. We'll add .phtml to demonstrate.
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .phtml
It's also common to setup the .phps extension to show highlighted PHP
source, this can be done with:
AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
17. Use your normal procedure for starting the Apache server. (You must
stop and restart the server, not just cause the server to reload by
using a HUP or USR1 signal.)
Alternatively, to install PHP as a static object:
Example #2 Installation Instructions (Static Module Installation for
Apache) for PHP
1. gunzip -c apache_1.3.x.tar.gz | tar xf -
2. cd apache_1.3.x
3. ./configure
4. cd ..
5. gunzip -c php-5.x.y.tar.gz | tar xf -
6. cd php-5.x.y
7. ./configure --with-mysql --with-apache=../apache_1.3.x
8. make
9. make install
10. cd ../apache_1.3.x
11. ./configure --prefix=/www --activate-module=src/modules/php5/libphp5.a
(The above line is correct! Yes, we know libphp5.a does not exist at this
stage. It isn't supposed to. It will be created.)
12. make
(you should now have an httpd binary which you can copy to your Apache bin d
ir if
it is your first install then you need to "make install" as well)
13. cd ../php-5.x.y
14. cp php.ini-development /usr/local/lib/php.ini
15. You can edit /usr/local/lib/php.ini file to set PHP options.
Edit your httpd.conf or srm.conf file and add:
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
Depending on your Apache install and Unix variant, there are many
possible ways to stop and restart the server. Below are some typical
lines used in restarting the server, for different apache/unix
installations. You should replace /path/to/ with the path to these
applications on your systems.
Example #3 Example commands for restarting Apache
1. Several Linux and SysV variants:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart
2. Using apachectl scripts:
/path/to/apachectl stop
/path/to/apachectl start
3. httpdctl and httpsdctl (Using OpenSSL), similar to apachectl:
/path/to/httpsdctl stop
/path/to/httpsdctl start
4. Using mod_ssl, or another SSL server, you may want to manually
stop and start:
/path/to/apachectl stop
/path/to/apachectl startssl
The locations of the apachectl and http(s)dctl binaries often vary. If
your system has locate or whereis or which commands, these can assist
you in finding your server control programs.
Different examples of compiling PHP for apache are as follows:
./configure --with-apxs --with-pgsql
This will create a libphp5.so shared library that is loaded into Apache
using a LoadModule line in Apache's httpd.conf file. The PostgreSQL
support is embedded into this library.
./configure --with-apxs --with-pgsql=shared
This will create a libphp5.so shared library for Apache, but it will
also create a pgsql.so shared library that is loaded into PHP either by
using the extension directive in php.ini file or by loading it
explicitly in a script using the dl() function.
./configure --with-apache=/path/to/apache_source --with-pgsql
This will create a libmodphp5.a library, a mod_php5.c and some
accompanying files and copy this into the src/modules/php5 directory in
the Apache source tree. Then you compile Apache using
--activate-module=src/modules/php5/libphp5.a and the Apache build
system will create libphp5.a and link it statically into the httpd
binary. The PostgreSQL support is included directly into this httpd
binary, so the final result here is a single httpd binary that includes
all of Apache and all of PHP.
./configure --with-apache=/path/to/apache_source --with-pgsql=shared
Same as before, except instead of including PostgreSQL support directly
into the final httpd you will get a pgsql.so shared library that you
can load into PHP from either the php.ini file or directly using dl().
When choosing to build PHP in different ways, you should consider the
advantages and drawbacks of each method. Building as a shared object
will mean that you can compile apache separately, and don't have to
recompile everything as you add to, or change, PHP. Building PHP into
apache (static method) means that PHP will load and run faster. For
more information, see the Apache » web page on DSO support.
Note:
Apache's default httpd.conf currently ships with a section that
looks like this:
User nobody
Group "#-1"
Unless you change that to "Group nogroup" or something like that
("Group daemon" is also very common) PHP will not be able to open
files.
Note:
Make sure you specify the installed version of apxs when using
--with-apxs=/path/to/apxs . You must NOT use the apxs version that
is in the apache sources but the one that is actually installed on
your system.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Apache 2.x on Unix systems
This section contains notes and hints specific to Apache 2.x installs
of PHP on Unix systems.
Warning
We do not recommend using a threaded MPM in production with Apache 2.
Use the prefork MPM, which is the default MPM with Apache 2.0 and 2.2.
For information on why, read the related FAQ entry on using Apache2
with a threaded MPM
The » Apache Documentation is the most authoritative source of
information on the Apache 2.x server. More information about
installation options for Apache may be found there.
The most recent version of Apache HTTP Server may be obtained from
» Apache download site, and a fitting PHP version from the above
mentioned places. This quick guide covers only the basics to get
started with Apache 2.x and PHP. For more information read the » Apache
Documentation. The version numbers have been omitted here, to ensure
the instructions are not incorrect. In the examples below, 'NN' should
be replaced with the specific version of Apache being used.
There are currently two versions of Apache 2.x - there's 2.0 and 2.2.
While there are various reasons for choosing each, 2.2 is the current
latest version, and the one that is recommended, if that option is
available to you. However, the instructions here will work for either
2.0 or 2.2.
1. Obtain the Apache HTTP server from the location listed above, and
unpack it:
gzip -d httpd-2_x_NN.tar.gz
tar -xf httpd-2_x_NN.tar
2. Likewise, obtain and unpack the PHP source:
gunzip php-NN.tar.gz
tar -xf php-NN.tar
3. Build and install Apache. Consult the Apache install documentation
for more details on building Apache.
cd httpd-2_x_NN
./configure --enable-so
make
make install
4. Now you have Apache 2.x.NN available under /usr/local/apache2,
configured with loadable module support and the standard MPM
prefork. To test the installation use your normal procedure for
starting the Apache server, e.g.:
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start
and stop the server to go on with the configuration for PHP:
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl stop
5. Now, configure and build PHP. This is where you customize PHP with
various options, like which extensions will be enabled. Run
./configure --help for a list of available options. In our example
we'll do a simple configure with Apache 2 and MySQL support.
If you built Apache from source, as described above, the below
example will match your path for apxs, but if you installed Apache
some other way, you'll need to adjust the path to apxs accordingly.
Note that some distros may rename apxs to apxs2.
cd ../php-NN
./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs --with-mysql
make
make install
If you decide to change your configure options after installation,
you'll need to re-run the configure, make, and make install steps.
You only need to restart apache for the new module to take effect.
A recompile of Apache is not needed.
Note that unless told otherwise, 'make install' will also install
PEAR, various PHP tools such as phpize, install the PHP CLI, and
more.
6. Setup your php.ini
cp php.ini-development /usr/local/lib/php.ini
You may edit your .ini file to set PHP options. If you prefer
having php.ini in another location, use
--with-config-file-path=/some/path in step 5.
If you instead choose php.ini-production, be certain to read the
list of changes within, as they affect how PHP behaves.
7. Edit your httpd.conf to load the PHP module. The path on the right
hand side of the LoadModule statement must point to the path of the
PHP module on your system. The make install from above may have
already added this for you, but be sure to check.
LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
8. Tell Apache to parse certain extensions as PHP. For example, let's
have Apache parse .php files as PHP. Instead of only using the
Apache AddType directive, we want to avoid potentially dangerous
uploads and created files such as exploit.php.jpg from being
executed as PHP. Using this example, you could have any
extension(s) parse as PHP by simply adding them. We'll add .php to
demonstrate.
<FilesMatch \.php$>
SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
</FilesMatch>
Or, if we wanted to allow .php, .php2, .php3, .php4, .php5, .php6,
and .phtml files to be executed as PHP, but nothing else, we'd use
this:
<FilesMatch "\.ph(p[2-6]?|tml)$">
SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
</FilesMatch>
And to allow .phps files to be handled by the php source filter,
and displayed as syntax-highlighted source code, use this:
<FilesMatch "\.phps$">
SetHandler application/x-httpd-php-source
</FilesMatch>
mod_rewrite may be used To allow any arbitrary .php file to be
displayed as syntax-highlighted source code, without having to
rename or copy it to a .phps file:
RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule (.*\.php)s$ $1 [H=application/x-httpd-php-source]
The php source filter should not be enabled on production systems,
where it may expose confidential or otherwise sensitive information
embedded in source code.
9. Use your normal procedure for starting the Apache server, e.g.:
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start
OR
service httpd restart
Following the steps above you will have a running Apache2 web server
with support for PHP as a SAPI module. Of course there are many more
configuration options available Apache and PHP. For more information
type ./configure --help in the corresponding source tree.
Apache may be built multithreaded by selecting the worker MPM, rather
than the standard prefork MPM, when Apache is built. This is done by
adding the following option to the argument passed to ./configure, in
step 3 above:
--with-mpm=worker
This should not be undertaken without being aware of the consequences
of this decision, and having at least a fair understanding of the
implications. The Apache documentation regarding » MPM-Modules
discusses MPMs in a great deal more detail.
Note:
The Apache MultiViews FAQ discusses using multiviews with PHP.
Note:
To build a multithreaded version of Apache, the target system must
support threads. In this case, PHP should also be built with
experimental Zend Thread Safety (ZTS). Under this configuration, not
all extensions will be available. The recommended setup is to build
Apache with the default prefork MPM-Module.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Lighttpd 1.4 on Unix systems
This section contains notes and hints specific to Lighttpd 1.4 installs
of PHP on Unix systems.
Please use the » Lighttpd trac to learn how to install Lighttpd
properly before continuing.
Fastcgi is the preferred SAPI to connect PHP and Lighttpd. Fastcgi is
automagically enabled in php-cgi in PHP 5.3, but for older versions
configure PHP with --enable-fastcgi. To confirm that PHP has fastcgi
enabled, php -v should contain PHP 5.2.5 (cgi-fcgi) Before PHP 5.2.3,
fastcgi was enabled on the php binary (there was no php-cgi).
Letting Lighttpd spawn php processes
To configure Lighttpd to connect to php and spawn fastcgi processes,
edit lighttpd.conf. Sockets are preferred to connect to fastcgi
processes on the local system.
Example #1 Partial lighttpd.conf
server.modules += ( "mod_fastcgi" )
fastcgi.server = ( ".php" =>
((
"socket" => "/tmp/php.socket",
"bin-path" => "/usr/local/bin/php-cgi",
"bin-environment" => (
"PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN" => "16",
"PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS" => "10000"
),
"min-procs" => 1,
"max-procs" => 1,
"idle-timeout" => 20
))
)
The bin-path directive allows lighttpd to spawn fastcgi processes
dynamically. PHP will spawn children according to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN
environment variable. The "bin-environment" directive sets the
environment for the spawned processes. PHP will kill a child process
after the number of requests specified by PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS is
reached. The directives "min-procs" and "max-procs" should generally be
avoided with PHP. PHP manages its own children and opcode caches like
APC will only share among children managed by PHP. If "min-procs" is
set to something greater than 1, the total number of php responders
will be multiplied PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN (2 min-procs * 16 children gives
32 responders).
Spawning with spawn-fcgi
Lighttpd provides a program called spawn-fcgi to ease the process of
spawning fastcgi processes easier.
Spawning php-cgi
It is possible to spawn processes without spawn-fcgi, though a bit of
heavy-lifting is required. Setting the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment
var controls how many children PHP will spawn to handle incoming
requests. Setting PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS will determine how long (in
requests) each child will live. Here's a simple bash script to help
spawn php responders.
Example #2 Spawning FastCGI Responders
#!/bin/sh
# Location of the php-cgi binary
PHP=/usr/local/bin/php-cgi
# PID File location
PHP_PID=/tmp/php.pid
# Binding to an address
#FCGI_BIND_ADDRESS=10.0.1.1:10000
# Binding to a domain socket
FCGI_BIND_ADDRESS=/tmp/php.sock
PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN=16
PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS=10000
env -i PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN=$PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN \
PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS=$PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS \
$PHP -b $FCGI_BIND_ADDRESS &
echo $! > "$PHP_PID"
Connecting to remote FCGI instances
Fastcgi instances can be spawned on multiple remote machines in order
to scale applications.
Example #3 Connecting to remote php-fastcgi instances
fastcgi.server = ( ".php" =>
(( "host" => "10.0.0.2", "port" => 1030 ),
( "host" => "10.0.0.3", "port" => 1030 ))
)
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Sun, iPlanet and Netscape servers on Sun Solaris
This section contains notes and hints specific to Sun Java System Web
Server, Sun ONE Web Server, iPlanet and Netscape server installs of PHP
on Sun Solaris.
From PHP 4.3.3 on you can use PHP scripts with the NSAPI module to
generate custom directory listings and error pages. Additional
functions for Apache compatibility are also available. For support in
current web servers read the note about subrequests.
You can find more information about setting up PHP for the Netscape
Enterprise Server (NES) here:
» http://benoit.noss.free.fr/php/install-php4.html
To build PHP with Sun JSWS/Sun ONE WS/iPlanet/Netscape web servers,
enter the proper install directory for the --with-nsapi=[DIR] option.
The default directory is usually /opt/netscape/suitespot/. Please also
read /php-xxx-version/sapi/nsapi/nsapi-readme.txt.
1. Install the following packages from » http://www.sunfreeware.com/
or another download site:
+ autoconf-2.13
+ automake-1.4
+ bison-1_25-sol26-sparc-local
+ flex-2_5_4a-sol26-sparc-local
+ gcc-2_95_2-sol26-sparc-local
+ gzip-1.2.4-sol26-sparc-local
+ m4-1_4-sol26-sparc-local
+ make-3_76_1-sol26-sparc-local
+ mysql-3.23.24-beta (if you want mysql support)
+ perl-5_005_03-sol26-sparc-local
+ tar-1.13 (GNU tar)
2. Make sure your path includes the proper directories
PATH=.:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/ccs/bin and make it
available to your system export PATH.
3. gunzip php-x.x.x.tar.gz (if you have a .gz dist, otherwise go to
4).
4. tar xvf php-x.x.x.tar
5. Change to your extracted PHP directory: cd ../php-x.x.x
6. For the following step, make sure /opt/netscape/suitespot/ is where
your netscape server is installed. Otherwise, change to the correct
path and run:
./configure --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-nsapi=/opt/netscape/suitespot/ \
--enable-libgcc
7. Run make followed by make install.
After performing the base install and reading the appropriate readme
file, you may need to perform some additional configuration steps.
Configuration Instructions for Sun/iPlanet/Netscape
Firstly you may need to add some paths to the LD_LIBRARY_PATH
environment for the server to find all the shared libs. This can best
done in the start script for your web server. The start script is often
located in: /path/to/server/https-servername/start. You may also need
to edit the configuration files that are located in:
/path/to/server/https-servername/config/.
1. Add the following line to mime.types (you can do that by the
administration server):
type=magnus-internal/x-httpd-php exts=php
2. Edit magnus.conf (for servers >= 6) or obj.conf (for servers < 6)
and add the following, shlib will vary depending on your system, it
will be something like /opt/netscape/suitespot/bin/libphp4.so. You
should place the following lines after mime types init.
Init fn="load-modules" funcs="php4_init,php4_execute,php4_auth_trans" shlib="/op
t/netscape/suitespot/bin/libphp4.so"
Init fn="php4_init" LateInit="yes" errorString="Failed to initialize PHP!" [php_
ini="/path/to/php.ini"]
(PHP >= 4.3.3) The php_ini parameter is optional but with it you
can place your php.ini in your web server config directory.
3. Configure the default object in obj.conf (for virtual server
classes [version 6.0+] in their vserver.obj.conf):
<Object name="default">
.
.
.
.#NOTE this next line should happen after all 'ObjectType' and before all 'AddLo
g' lines
Service fn="php4_execute" type="magnus-internal/x-httpd-php" [inikey=value inike
y=value ...]
.
.
</Object>
(PHP >= 4.3.3) As additional parameters you can add some special
php.ini-values, for example you can set a
docroot="/path/to/docroot" specific to the context php4_execute is
called. For boolean ini-keys please use 0/1 as value, not
"On","Off",... (this will not work correctly), e.g.
zlib.output_compression=1 instead of zlib.output_compression="On"
4. This is only needed if you want to configure a directory that only
consists of PHP scripts (same like a cgi-bin directory):
<Object name="x-httpd-php">
ObjectType fn="force-type" type="magnus-internal/x-httpd-php"
Service fn=php4_execute [inikey=value inikey=value ...]
</Object>
After that you can configure a directory in the Administration
server and assign it the style x-httpd-php. All files in it will
get executed as PHP. This is nice to hide PHP usage by renaming
files to .html.
5. Setup of authentication: PHP authentication cannot be used with any
other authentication. ALL AUTHENTICATION IS PASSED TO YOUR PHP
SCRIPT. To configure PHP Authentication for the entire server, add
the following line to your default object:
<Object name="default">
AuthTrans fn=php4_auth_trans
.
.
.
</Object>
6. To use PHP Authentication on a single directory, add the following:
<Object ppath="d:\path\to\authenticated\dir\*">
AuthTrans fn=php4_auth_trans
</Object>
Note:
The stacksize that PHP uses depends on the configuration of the web
server. If you get crashes with very large PHP scripts, it is
recommended to raise it with the Admin Server (in the section
"MAGNUS EDITOR").
CGI environment and recommended modifications in php.ini
Important when writing PHP scripts is the fact that Sun JSWS/Sun ONE
WS/iPlanet/Netscape is a multithreaded web server. Because of that all
requests are running in the same process space (the space of the web
server itself) and this space has only one environment. If you want to
get CGI variables like PATH_INFO, HTTP_HOST etc. it is not the correct
way to try this in the old PHP way with getenv() or a similar way
(register globals to environment, $_ENV). You would only get the
environment of the running web server without any valid CGI variables!
Note:
Why are there (invalid) CGI variables in the environment?
Answer: This is because you started the web server process from the
admin server which runs the startup script of the web server, you
wanted to start, as a CGI script (a CGI script inside of the admin
server!). This is why the environment of the started web server has
some CGI environment variables in it. You can test this by starting
the web server not from the administration server. Use the command
line as root user and start it manually - you will see there are no
CGI-like environment variables.
Simply change your scripts to get CGI variables in the correct way for
PHP 4.x by using the superglobal $_SERVER. If you have older scripts
which use $HTTP_HOST, etc., you should turn on register_globals in
php.ini and change the variable order too (important: remove "E" from
it, because you do not need the environment here):
variables_order = "GPCS"
register_globals = On
Special use for error pages or self-made directory listings (PHP >= 4.3.3)
You can use PHP to generate the error pages for "404 Not Found" or
similar. Add the following line to the object in obj.conf for every
error page you want to overwrite:
Error fn="php4_execute" code=XXX script="/path/to/script.php" [inikey=value inik
ey=value...]
where XXX is the HTTP error code. Please delete any other Error
directives which could interfere with yours. If you want to place a
page for all errors that could exist, leave the code parameter out.
Your script can get the HTTP status code with $_SERVER['ERROR_TYPE'].
Another possibility is to generate self-made directory listings. Just
create a PHP script which displays a directory listing and replace the
corresponding default Service line for type="magnus-internal/directory"
in obj.conf with the following:
Service fn="php4_execute" type="magnus-internal/directory" script="/path/to/scri
pt.php" [inikey=value inikey=value...]
For both error and directory listing pages the original URI and
translated URI are in the variables $_SERVER['PATH_INFO'] and
$_SERVER['PATH_TRANSLATED'].
Note about nsapi_virtual() and subrequests (PHP >= 4.3.3)
The NSAPI module now supports the nsapi_virtual() function (alias:
virtual()) to make subrequests on the web server and insert the result
in the web page. This function uses some undocumented features from the
NSAPI library. On Unix the module automatically looks for the needed
functions and uses them if available. If not, nsapi_virtual() is
disabled.
Note:
But be warned: Support for nsapi_virtual() is EXPERIMENTAL!!!
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
CGI and command line setups
By default, PHP is built as both a CLI and CGI program, which can be
used for CGI processing. If you are running a web server that PHP has
module support for, you should generally go for that solution for
performance reasons. However, the CGI version enables users to run
different PHP-enabled pages under different user-ids.
Warning
A server deployed in CGI mode is open to several possible
vulnerabilities. Please read our CGI security section to learn how to
defend yourself from such attacks.
Testing
If you have built PHP as a CGI program, you may test your build by
typing make test. It is always a good idea to test your build. This way
you may catch a problem with PHP on your platform early instead of
having to struggle with it later.
Using Variables
Some server supplied environment variables are not defined in the
current » CGI/1.1 specification. Only the following variables are
defined there: AUTH_TYPE, CONTENT_LENGTH, CONTENT_TYPE,
GATEWAY_INTERFACE, PATH_INFO, PATH_TRANSLATED, QUERY_STRING,
REMOTE_ADDR, REMOTE_HOST, REMOTE_IDENT, REMOTE_USER, REQUEST_METHOD,
SCRIPT_NAME, SERVER_NAME, SERVER_PORT, SERVER_PROTOCOL, and
SERVER_SOFTWARE. Everything else should be treated as 'vendor
extensions'.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
HP-UX specific installation notes
This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
HP-UX systems.
There are two main options for installing PHP on HP-UX systems. Either
compile it, or install a pre-compiled binary.
Official pre-compiled packages are located here:
» http://software.hp.com/
Until this manual section is rewritten, the documentation about
compiling PHP (and related extensions) on HP-UX systems has been
removed. For now, consider reading the following external resource:
» Building Apache and PHP on HP-UX 11.11
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
OpenBSD installation notes
This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
» OpenBSD 3.6.
Using Binary Packages
Using binary packages to install PHP on OpenBSD is the recommended and
simplest method. The core package has been separated from the various
modules, and each can be installed and removed independently from the
others. The files you need can be found on your OpenBSD CD or on the
FTP site.
The main package you need to install is php4-core-4.3.8.tgz, which
contains the basic engine (plus gettext and iconv). Next, take a look
at the module packages, such as php4-mysql-4.3.8.tgz or
php4-imap-4.3.8.tgz. You need to use the phpxs command to activate and
deactivate these modules in your php.ini.
Example #1 OpenBSD Package Install Example
# pkg_add php4-core-4.3.8.tgz
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -s
# cp /usr/local/share/doc/php4/php.ini-recommended /var/www/conf/php.ini
(add in mysql)
# pkg_add php4-mysql-4.3.8.tgz
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -a mysql
(add in imap)
# pkg_add php4-imap-4.3.8.tgz
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -a imap
(remove mysql as a test)
# pkg_delete php4-mysql-4.3.8
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -r mysql
(install the PEAR libraries)
# pkg_add php4-pear-4.3.8.tgz
Read the » packages(7) manual page for more information about binary
packages on OpenBSD.
Using Ports
You can also compile up PHP from source using the » ports tree.
However, this is only recommended for users familiar with OpenBSD. The
PHP 4 port is split into two sub-directories: core and extensions. The
extensions directory generates sub-packages for all of the supported
PHP modules. If you find you do not want to create some of these
modules, use the no_* FLAVOR. For example, to skip building the imap
module, set the FLAVOR to no_imap.
Common Problems
* The default install of Apache runs inside a » chroot(2) jail, which
will restrict PHP scripts to accessing files under /var/www. You
will therefore need to create a /var/www/tmp directory for PHP
session files to be stored, or use an alternative session backend.
In addition, database sockets need to be placed inside the jail or
listen on the localhost interface. If you use network functions,
some files from /etc such as /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/services
will need to be moved into /var/www/etc. The OpenBSD PEAR package
automatically installs into the correct chroot directories, so no
special modification is needed there. More information on the
OpenBSD Apache is available in the » OpenBSD FAQ.
* The OpenBSD 3.6 package for the » gd extension requires XFree86 to
be installed. If you do not wish to use some of the font features
that require X11, install the php4-gd-4.3.8-no_x11.tgz package
instead.
Older Releases
Older releases of OpenBSD used the FLAVORS system to compile up a
statically linked PHP. Since it is hard to generate binary packages
using this method, it is now deprecated. You can still use the old
stable ports trees if you wish, but they are unsupported by the OpenBSD
team. If you have any comments about this, the current maintainer for
the port is Anil Madhavapeddy (avsm at openbsd dot org).
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Solaris specific installation tips
This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
Solaris systems.
Required software
Solaris installs often lack C compilers and their related tools. Read
this FAQ for information on why using GNU versions for some of these
tools is necessary.
For unpacking the PHP distribution you need
* tar
* gzip or
* bzip2
For compiling PHP you need
* gcc (recommended, other C compilers may work)
* make
* GNU sed
For building extra extensions or hacking the code of PHP you might also
need
* flex (up to PHP 5.2)
* re2c
* bison
* m4
* autoconf
* automake
In addition, you will need to install (and possibly compile) any
additional software specific to your configuration, such as Oracle or
MySQL.
Using Packages
You can simplify the Solaris install process by using pkgadd to install
most of your needed components. The Image Packaging System (IPS) for
Solaris 11 Express also contains most of the required components for
installation using the pkg command.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Debian GNU/Linux installation notes
This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
» Debian GNU/Linux.
Warning
Unofficial builds from third-parties are not supported here. Any bugs
should be reported to the Debian team unless they can be reproduced
using the latest builds from our » download area.
While the instructions for building PHP on Unix apply to Debian as
well, this manual page contains specific information for other options,
such as using either the apt-get or aptitude commands. This manual page
uses these two commands interchangeably.
Using APT
First, note that other related packages may be desired like
libapache2-mod-php5 to integrate with Apache 2, and php-pear for PEAR.
Second, before installing a package, it's wise to ensure the package
list is up to date. Typically, this is done by running the command
apt-get update.
Example #1 Debian Install Example with Apache 2
# apt-get install php5-common libapache2-mod-php5 php5-cli
APT will automatically install the PHP 5 module for Apache 2 and all of
its dependencies, and then activate it. Apache should be restarted in
order for the changes take place. For example:
Example #2 Stopping and starting Apache once PHP is installed
# /etc/init.d/apache2 stop
# /etc/init.d/apache2 start
Better control of configuration
In the last section, PHP was installed with only core modules. It's
very likely that additional modules will be desired, such as MySQL,
cURL, GD, etc. These may also be installed via the apt-get command.
Example #3 Methods for listing additional PHP 5 packages
# apt-cache search php5
# aptitude search php5
# aptitude search php5 |grep -i mysql
The examples will show a lot of packages including several PHP specific
ones like php5-cgi, php5-cli and php5-dev. Determine which are needed
and install them like any other with either apt-get or aptitude. And
because Debian performs dependency checks, it'll prompt for those so
for example to install MySQL and cURL:
Example #4 Install PHP with MySQL, cURL
# apt-get install php5-mysql php5-curl
APT will automatically add the appropriate lines to the different
php.ini related files like /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini,
/etc/php5/conf.d/pdo.ini, etc. and depending on the extension will add
entries similar to extension=foo.so. However, restarting the web server
(like Apache) is required before these changes take affect.
Common Problems
* If the PHP scripts are not parsing via the web server, then it's
likely that PHP was not added to the web server's configuration
file, which on Debian may be /etc/apache2/apache2.conf or similar.
See the Debian manual for further details.
* If an extension was seemingly installed yet the functions are
undefined, be sure that the appropriate ini file is being loaded
and/or the web server was restarted after installation.
* There are two basic commands for installing packages on Debian (and
other linux variants): apt-get and aptitude. However, explaining
the subtle differences between these commands goes beyond the scope
of this manual.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Installation on Mac OS X
Table of Contents
* Using Packages
* Using the bundled PHP
* Compiling PHP on Mac OS X
This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on Mac
OS X. PHP is bundled with Macs, and compiling is similar to the Unix
installation guide.
__________________________________________________________________
Using Packages
There are a few pre-packaged and pre-compiled versions of PHP for Mac
OS X. This can help in setting up a standard configuration, but if you
need to have a different set of features (such as a secure server, or a
different database driver), you may need to build PHP and/or your web
server yourself. If you are unfamiliar with building and compiling your
own software, it's worth checking whether somebody has already built a
packaged version of PHP with the features you need.
The following resources offer easy to install packages and precompiled
binaries for PHP on Mac OS:
* MacPorts: » http://www.macports.org/
* Entropy: » http://www.entropy.ch/software/macosx/php/
* Fink: » http://www.finkproject.org/
* Homebrew: » http://github.com/mxcl/homebrew
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Using the bundled PHP
PHP has come standard with Macs since OS X version 10.0.0. Enabling PHP
with the default web server requires uncommenting a few lines in the
Apache configuration file httpd.conf whereas the CGI and/or CLI are
enabled by default (easily accessible via the Terminal program).
Enabling PHP using the instructions below is meant for quickly setting
up a local development environment. It's highly recommended to always
upgrade PHP to the newest version. Like most live software, newer
versions are created to fix bugs and add features and PHP being is no
different. See the appropriate MAC OS X installation documentation for
further details. The following instructions are geared towards a
beginner with details provided for getting a default setup to work. All
users are encouraged to compile, or install a new packaged version.
The standard installation type is using mod_php, and enabling the
bundled mod_php on Mac OS X for the Apache web server (the default web
server, that is accessible via System Preferences) involves the
following steps:
1. Locate and open the Apache configuration file. By default, the
location is as follows: /private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf Using
Finder or Spotlight to find this file may prove difficult as by
default it's private and owned by the root user.
Note: One way to open this is by using a Unix based text editor in
the Terminal, for example nano, and because the file is owned by
root we'll use the sudo command to open it (as root) so for example
type the following into the Terminal Application (after, it will
prompt for a password): sudo nano /private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf
Noteworthy nano commands: ^w (search), ^o (save), and ^x (exit)
where ^ represents the Ctrl key.
Note: Versions of Mac OS X prior to 10.5 were bundled with older
versions of PHP and Apache. As such, the Apache configuration file
on legacy machines may be /etc/httpd/httpd.conf.
2. With a text editor, uncomment the lines (by removing the #) that
look similar to the following (these two lines are often not
together, locate them both in the file):
# LoadModule php5_module libexec/httpd/libphp5.so
# AddModule mod_php5.c
Notice the location/path. When building PHP in the future, the
above files should be replaced or commented out.
3. Be sure the desired extensions will parse as PHP (examples: .php
.html and .inc)
Due to the following statement already existing in httpd.conf (as
of Mac Panther), once PHP is enabled the .php files will
automatically parse as PHP.
<IfModule mod_php5.c>
# If php is turned on, we respect .php and .phps files.
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
# Since most users will want index.php to work we
# also automatically enable index.php
<IfModule mod_dir.c>
DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
Note:
Before OS X 10.5 (Leopard), PHP 4 was bundled instead of PHP 5 in
which case the above instructions will differ slightly by changing
5's to 4's.
4. Be sure the DirectoryIndex loads the desired default index file
This is also set in httpd.conf. Typically index.php and index.html
are used. By default index.php is enabled because it's also in the
PHP check shown above. Adjust accordingly.
5. Set the php.ini location or use the default A typical default
location on Mac OS X is /usr/local/php/php.ini and a call to
phpinfo() will reveal this information. If a php.ini is not used,
PHP will use all default values. See also the related FAQ on
finding php.ini.
6. Locate or set the DocumentRoot This is the root directory for all
the web files. Files in this directory are served from the web
server so the PHP files will parse as PHP before outputting them to
the browser. A typical default path is /Library/WebServer/Documents
but this can be set to anything in httpd.conf. Alternatively, the
default DocumentRoot for individual users is
/Users/yourusername/Sites
7. Create a phpinfo() file
The phpinfo() function will display information about PHP. Consider
creating a file in the DocumentRoot with the following PHP code:
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
8. Restart Apache, and load the PHP file created above To restart,
either execute sudo apachectl graceful in the shell or stop/start
the "Personal Web Server" option in the OS X System Preferences. By
default, loading local files in the browser will have an URL like
so: http://localhost/info.php Or using the DocumentRoot in the user
directory is another option and would end up looking like:
http://localhost/~yourusername/info.php
The CLI (or CGI in older versions) is appropriately named php and
likely exists as /usr/bin/php. Open up the terminal, read the command
line section of the PHP manual, and execute php -v to check the PHP
version of this PHP binary. A call to phpinfo() will also reveal this
information.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Compiling PHP on Mac OS X
Use the Unix installation guide to compile PHP on Mac OS X.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Installation of PECL extensions
Table of Contents
* Introduction to PECL Installations
* Downloading PECL extensions
* Installing a PHP extension on Windows
* Compiling shared PECL extensions with the pecl command
* Compiling shared PECL extensions with phpize
* php-config
* Compiling PECL extensions statically into PHP
__________________________________________________________________
Introduction to PECL Installations
» PECL is a repository of PHP extensions that are made available to you
via the » PEAR packaging system. This section of the manual is intended
to demonstrate how to obtain and install PECL extensions.
These instructions assume /your/phpsrcdir/ is the path to the PHP
source distribution, and that extname is the name of the PECL
extension. Adjust accordingly. These instructions also assume a
familiarity with the » pear command. The information in the PEAR manual
for the pear command also applies to the pecl command.
To be useful, a shared extension must be built, installed, and loaded.
The methods described below provide you with various instructions on
how to build and install the extensions, but they do not automatically
load them. Extensions can be loaded by adding an extension directive.
To this php.ini file, or through the use of the dl() function.
When building PHP modules, it's important to have known-good versions
of the required tools (autoconf, automake, libtool, etc.) See the
» Anonymous Git Instructions for details on the required tools, and
required versions.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Downloading PECL extensions
There are several options for downloading PECL extensions, such as:
* The pecl install extname command downloads the extensions code
automatically, so in this case there is no need for a separate
download.
* » http://pecl.php.net/ The PECL web site contains information about
the different extensions that are offered by the PHP Development
Team. The information available here includes: ChangeLog, release
notes, requirements and other similar details.
* pecl download extname PECL extensions that have releases listed on
the PECL web site are available for download and installation using
the » pecl command. Specific revisions may also be specified.
* SVN Most PECL extensions also reside in SVN. A web-based view may
be seen at » http://svn.php.net/viewvc/pecl/. To download straight
from SVN, the following sequence of commands may be used:
$ svn checkout http://svn.php.net/repository/pecl/extname/trunk
extname
* Windows downloads At this time the PHP project does not compile
Windows binaries for PECL extensions. However, to compile PHP under
Windows see the chapter titled building PHP for Windows.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Installing a PHP extension on Windows
On Windows, you have two ways to load a PHP extension: either compile
it into PHP, or load the DLL. Loading a pre-compiled extension is the
easiest and preferred way.
To load an extension, you need to have it available as a ".dll" file on
your system. All the extensions are automatically and periodically
compiled by the PHP Group (see next section for the download).
To compile an extension into PHP, please refer to building from source
documentation.
To compile a standalone extension (aka a DLL file), please refer to
building from source documentation. If the DLL file is available
neither with your PHP distribution nor in PECL, you may have to compile
it before you can start using the extension.
Where to find an extension?
PHP extensions are usually called "php_*.dll" (where the star
represents the name of the extension) and they are located under the
"PHP\ext" ("PHP\extensions" in PHP 4) folder.
PHP ships with the extensions most useful to the majority of
developers. They are called "core" extensions.
However, if you need functionality not provided by any core extension,
you may still be able to find one in PECL. The PHP Extension Community
Library (PECL) is a repository for PHP Extensions, providing a
directory of all known extensions and hosting facilities for
downloading and development of PHP extensions.
If you have developed an extension for your own uses, you might want to
think about hosting it on PECL so that others with the same needs can
benefit from your time. A nice side effect is that you give them a good
chance to give you feedback, (hopefully) thanks, bug reports and even
fixes/patches. Before you submit your extension for hosting on PECL,
please read http://pecl.php.net/package-new.php.
Which extension to download?
Many times, you will find several versions of each DLL:
* Different version numbers (at least the first two numbers should
match)
* Different thread safety settings
* Different processor architecture (x86, x64, ...)
* Different debugging settings
* etc.
You should keep in mind that your extension settings should match all
the settings of the PHP executable you are using. The following PHP
script will tell you all about your PHP settings:
Example #1 phpinfo() call
<?php
phpinfo();
?>
Or from the command line, run:
drive:\\path\to\php\executable\php.exe -i
Loading an extension
The most common way to load a PHP extension is to include it in your
php.ini configuration file. Please note that many extensions are
already present in your php.ini and that you only need to remove the
semicolon to activate them.
;extension=php_extname.dll
extension=php_extname.dll
However, some web servers are confusing because they do not use the
php.ini located alongside your PHP executable. To find out where your
actual php.ini resides, look for its path in phpinfo():
Configuration File (php.ini) Path C:\WINDOWS
Loaded Configuration File C:\Program Files\PHP\5.2\php.ini
After activating an extension, save php.ini, restart the web server and
check phpinfo() again. The new extension should now have its own
section.
Resolving problems
If the extension does not appear in phpinfo(), you should check your
logs to learn where the problem comes from.
If you are using PHP from the command line (CLI), the extension loading
error can be read directly on screen.
If you are using PHP with a web server, the location and format of the
logs vary depending on your software. Please read your web server
documentation to locate the logs, as it does not have anything to do
with PHP itself.
Common problems are the location of the DLL, the value of the "
extension_dir" setting inside php.ini and compile-time setting
mismatches.
If the problem lies in a compile-time setting mismatch, you probably
didn't download the right DLL. Try downloading again the extension with
the right settings. Again, phpinfo() can be of great help.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Compiling shared PECL extensions with the pecl command
PECL makes it easy to create shared PHP extensions. Using the » pecl
command, do the following:
$ pecl install extname
This will download the source for extname, compile, and install
extname.so into your extension_dir. extname.so may then be loaded via
php.ini
By default, the pecl command will not install packages that are marked
with the alpha or beta state. If no stable packages are available, you
may install a beta package using the following command:
$ pecl install extname-beta
You may also install a specific version using this variant:
$ pecl install extname-0.1
Note:
After enabling the extension in php.ini, restarting the web service
is required for the changes to be picked up.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Compiling shared PECL extensions with phpize
Sometimes, using the pecl installer is not an option. This could be
because you're behind a firewall, or it could be because the extension
you want to install is not available as a PECL compatible package, such
as unreleased extensions from SVN. If you need to build such an
extension, you can use the lower-level build tools to perform the build
manually.
The phpize command is used to prepare the build environment for a PHP
extension. In the following sample, the sources for an extension are in
a directory named extname:
$ cd extname
$ phpize
$ ./configure
$ make
# make install
A successful install will have created extname.so and put it into the
PHP extensions directory. You'll need to and adjust php.ini and add an
extension=extname.so line before you can use the extension.
If the system is missing the phpize command, and precompiled packages
(like RPM's) are used, be sure to also install the appropriate devel
version of the PHP package as they often include the phpize command
along with the appropriate header files to build PHP and its
extensions.
Execute phpize --help to display additional usage information.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
php-config
php-config is a simple shell script for obtaining information about the
installed PHP configuration.
When compiling extensions, if you have multiple PHP versions installed,
you may specify for which installation you'd like to build by using the
--with-php-config option during configuration, specifying the path of
the respective php-config script.
The list of command line options provided by the php-config script can
be queried anytime by running php-config with the -h switch:
Usage: /usr/local/bin/php-config [OPTION]
Options:
--prefix [...]
--includes [...]
--ldflags [...]
--libs [...]
--extension-dir [...]
--include-dir [...]
--php-binary [...]
--php-sapis [...]
--configure-options [...]
--version [...]
--vernum [...]
CAPTION: Command line options
Option Description
--prefix Directory prefix where PHP is installed, e.g. /usr/local
--includes List of -I options with all include files
--ldflags LD Flags which PHP was compiled with
--libs Extra libraries which PHP was compiled with
--extension-dir Directory where extensions are searched by default
--include-dir Directory prefix where header files are installed by
default
--php-binary Full path to php CLI or CGI binary
--php-sapis Show all SAPI modules available
--configure-options Configure options to recreate configuration of
current PHP installation
--version PHP version
--vernum PHP version as integer
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Compiling PECL extensions statically into PHP
You might find that you need to build a PECL extension statically into
your PHP binary. To do this, you'll need to place the extension source
under the php-src/ext/ directory and tell the PHP build system to
regenerate its configure script.
$ cd /your/phpsrcdir/ext
$ pecl download extname
$ gzip -d < extname.tgz | tar -xvf -
$ mv extname-x.x.x extname
This will result in the following directory:
/your/phpsrcdir/ext/extname
From here, force PHP to rebuild the configure script, and then build
PHP as normal:
$ cd /your/phpsrcdir
$ rm configure
$ ./buildconf --force
$ ./configure --help
$ ./configure --with-extname --enable-someotherext --with-foobar
$ make
$ make install
Note: To run the 'buildconf' script you need autoconf 2.13 and
automake 1.4+ (newer versions of autoconf may work, but are not
supported).
Whether --enable-extname or --with-extname is used depends on the
extension. Typically an extension that does not require external
libraries uses --enable. To be sure, run the following after buildconf:
$ ./configure --help | grep extname
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Problems?
Table of Contents
* Read the FAQ
* Other problems
* Bug reports
__________________________________________________________________
Read the FAQ
Some problems are more common than others. The most common ones are
listed in the PHP FAQ, part of this manual.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Other problems
If you are still stuck, someone on the PHP installation mailing list
may be able to help you. You should check out the archive first, in
case someone already answered someone else who had the same problem as
you. The archives are available from the support page on
» http://www.php.net/support.php. To subscribe to the PHP installation
mailing list, send an empty mail to
» php-install-subscribe@lists.php.net. The mailing list address is
» php-install@lists.php.net.
If you want to get help on the mailing list, please try to be precise
and give the necessary details about your environment (which operating
system, what PHP version, what web server, if you are running PHP as
CGI or a server module, safe mode, etc.), and preferably enough code to
make others able to reproduce and test your problem.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Bug reports
If you think you have found a bug in PHP, please report it. The PHP
developers probably don't know about it, and unless you report it,
chances are it won't be fixed. You can report bugs using the
bug-tracking system at » http://bugs.php.net/. Please do not send bug
reports in mailing list or personal letters. The bug system is also
suitable to submit feature requests.
Read the » How to report a bug document before submitting any bug
reports!
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__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Runtime Configuration
Table of Contents
* The configuration file
* .user.ini files
* Where a configuration setting may be set
* How to change configuration settings
__________________________________________________________________
The configuration file
The configuration file (php.ini) is read when PHP starts up. For the
server module versions of PHP, this happens only once when the web
server is started. For the CGI and CLI versions, it happens on every
invocation.
php.ini is searched for in these locations (in order):
* SAPI module specific location (PHPIniDir directive in Apache 2, -c
command line option in CGI and CLI, php_ini parameter in NSAPI,
PHP_INI_PATH environment variable in THTTPD)
* The PHPRC environment variable. Before PHP 5.2.0, this was checked
after the registry key mentioned below.
* As of PHP 5.2.0, the location of the php.ini file can be set for
different versions of PHP. The following registry keys are examined
in order: [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x.y.z],
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x.y] and
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x], where x, y and z mean the PHP
major, minor and release versions. If there is a value for
IniFilePath in any of these keys, the first one found will be used
as the location of the php.ini (Windows only).
* [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP], value of IniFilePath (Windows
only).
* Current working directory (except CLI).
* The web server's directory (for SAPI modules), or directory of PHP
(otherwise in Windows).
* Windows directory (C:\windows or C:\winnt) (for Windows), or
--with-config-file-path compile time option.
If php-SAPI.ini exists (where SAPI is the SAPI in use, so, for example,
php-cli.ini or php-apache.ini), it is used instead of php.ini. The SAPI
name can be determined with php_sapi_name().
Note:
The Apache web server changes the directory to root at startup,
causing PHP to attempt to read php.ini from the root filesystem if
it exists.
The php.ini directives handled by extensions are documented on the
respective pages of the extensions themselves. A list of the core
directives is available in the appendix. Not all PHP directives are
necessarily documented in this manual: for a complete list of
directives available in your PHP version, please read your well
commented php.ini file. Alternatively, you may find » the latest
php.ini from Git helpful too.
Example #1 php.ini example
; any text on a line after an unquoted semicolon (;) is ignored
[php] ; section markers (text within square brackets) are also ignored
; Boolean values can be set to either:
; true, on, yes
; or false, off, no, none
register_globals = off
track_errors = yes
; you can enclose strings in double-quotes
include_path = ".:/usr/local/lib/php"
; backslashes are treated the same as any other character
include_path = ".;c:\php\lib"
Since PHP 5.1.0, it is possible to refer to existing .ini variables
from within .ini files. Example: open_basedir = ${open_basedir}
":/new/dir".
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
.user.ini files
Since PHP 5.3.0, PHP includes support for .htaccess-style INI files on
a per-directory basis. These files are processed only by the
CGI/FastCGI SAPI. This functionality obsoletes the PECL htscanner
extension. If you are using Apache, use .htaccess files for the same
effect.
In addition to the main php.ini file, PHP scans for INI files in each
directory, starting with the directory of the requested PHP file, and
working its way up to the current document root (as set in
$_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT']). In case the PHP file is outside the
document root, only its directory is scanned.
Only INI settings with the modes PHP_INI_PERDIR and PHP_INI_USER will
be recognized in .user.ini-style INI files.
Two new INI directives, user_ini.filename and user_ini.cache_ttl
control the use of user INI files.
user_ini.filename sets the name of the file PHP looks for in each
directory; if set to an empty string, PHP doesn't scan at all. The
default is .user.ini.
user_ini.cache_ttl controls how often user INI files are re-read. The
default is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Where a configuration setting may be set
These modes determine when and where a PHP directive may or may not be
set, and each directive within the manual refers to one of these modes.
For example, some settings may be set within a PHP script using
ini_set(), whereas others may require php.ini or httpd.conf.
For example, the output_buffering setting is PHP_INI_PERDIR therefore
it may not be set using ini_set(). However, the display_errors
directive is PHP_INI_ALL therefore it may be set anywhere, including
with ini_set().
CAPTION: Definition of PHP_INI_* modes
Mode Meaning
PHP_INI_USER Entry can be set in user scripts (like with ini_set()) or
in the Windows registry. Since PHP 5.3, entry can be set in .user.ini
PHP_INI_PERDIR Entry can be set in php.ini, .htaccess, httpd.conf or
.user.ini (since PHP 5.3)
PHP_INI_SYSTEM Entry can be set in php.ini or httpd.conf
PHP_INI_ALL Entry can be set anywhere
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
How to change configuration settings
Running PHP as an Apache module
When using PHP as an Apache module, you can also change the
configuration settings using directives in Apache configuration files
(e.g. httpd.conf) and .htaccess files. You will need "AllowOverride
Options" or "AllowOverride All" privileges to do so.
There are several Apache directives that allow you to change the PHP
configuration from within the Apache configuration files. For a listing
of which directives are PHP_INI_ALL, PHP_INI_PERDIR, or PHP_INI_SYSTEM,
have a look at the List of php.ini directives appendix.
php_value name value
Sets the value of the specified directive. Can be used only with
PHP_INI_ALL and PHP_INI_PERDIR type directives. To clear a
previously set value use none as the value.
Note: Don't use php_value to set boolean values. php_flag (see
below) should be used instead.
php_flag name on|off
Used to set a boolean configuration directive. Can be used only
with PHP_INI_ALL and PHP_INI_PERDIR type directives.
php_admin_value name value
Sets the value of the specified directive. This can not be used
in .htaccess files. Any directive type set with php_admin_value
can not be overridden by .htaccess or ini_set(). To clear a
previously set value use none as the value.
php_admin_flag name on|off
Used to set a boolean configuration directive. This can not be
used in .htaccess files. Any directive type set with
php_admin_flag can not be overridden by .htaccess or ini_set().
Example #1 Apache configuration example
<IfModule mod_php5.c>
php_value include_path ".:/usr/local/lib/php"
php_admin_flag engine on
</IfModule>
<IfModule mod_php4.c>
php_value include_path ".:/usr/local/lib/php"
php_admin_flag engine on
</IfModule>
Caution
PHP constants do not exist outside of PHP. For example, in httpd.conf
you can not use PHP constants such as E_ALL or E_NOTICE to set the
error_reporting directive as they will have no meaning and will
evaluate to 0. Use the associated bitmask values instead. These
constants can be used in php.ini
Changing PHP configuration via the Windows registry
When running PHP on Windows, the configuration values can be modified
on a per-directory basis using the Windows registry. The configuration
values are stored in the registry key HKLM\SOFTWARE\PHP\Per Directory
Values, in the sub-keys corresponding to the path names. For example,
configuration values for the directory c:\inetpub\wwwroot would be
stored in the key HKLM\SOFTWARE\PHP\Per Directory
Values\c\inetpub\wwwroot. The settings for the directory would be
active for any script running from this directory or any subdirectory
of it. The values under the key should have the name of the PHP
configuration directive and the string value. PHP constants in the
values are not parsed. However, only configuration values changeable in
PHP_INI_USER can be set this way, PHP_INI_PERDIR values can not.
Other interfaces to PHP
Regardless of how you run PHP, you can change certain values at runtime
of your scripts through ini_set(). See the documentation on the
ini_set() page for more information.
If you are interested in a complete list of configuration settings on
your system with their current values, you can execute the phpinfo()
function, and review the resulting page. You can also access the values
of individual configuration directives at runtime using ini_get() or
get_cfg_var().
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Installation
This section holds common questions about the way to install PHP. PHP
is available for almost any OS (except maybe for MacOS before OSX), and
almost any web server.
To install PHP, follow the instructions in Installing PHP.
1. Why shouldn't I use Apache2 with a threaded MPM in a production
environment?
2. Unix/Windows: Where should my php.ini file be located?
3. Unix: I installed PHP, but every time I load a document, I get the
message 'Document Contains No Data'! What's going on here?
4. Unix: I installed PHP using RPMS, but Apache isn't processing the
PHP pages! What's going on here?
5. Unix: I patched Apache with the FrontPage extensions patch, and
suddenly PHP stopped working. Is PHP incompatible with the Apache
FrontPage extensions?
6. Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP
script file via my browser, I get a blank screen.
7. Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when try to access a PHP
script file via my browser, I get a server 500 error.
8. Some operating systems: I have installed PHP without errors, but
when I try to start Apache I get undefined symbol errors:
[mybox:user /src/php5] root# apachectl configtest apachectl:
/usr/local/apache/bin/httpd Undefined symbols: _compress
_uncompress
9. Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP
script file via my browser, I get the error: cgi error: The
specified CGI application misbehaved by not returning a complete
set of HTTP headers. The headers it did return are:
10. Windows: I've followed all the instructions, but still can't get
PHP and IIS to work together!
11. When running PHP as CGI with IIS, PWS, OmniHTTPD or Xitami, I get
the following error: Security Alert! PHP CGI cannot be accessed
directly..
12. How do I know if my php.ini is being found and read? It seems like
it isn't as my changes aren't being implemented.
13. How do I add my PHP directory to the PATH on Windows?
14. How do I make the php.ini file available to PHP on windows?
15. Is it possible to use Apache content negotiation (MultiViews
option) with PHP?
16. Is PHP limited to process GET and POST request methods only?
Why shouldn't I use Apache2 with a threaded MPM in a production
environment?
PHP is glue. It is the glue used to build cool web applications
by sticking dozens of 3rd-party libraries together and making it
all appear as one coherent entity through an intuitive and easy
to learn language interface. The flexibility and power of PHP
relies on the stability and robustness of the underlying
platform. It needs a working OS, a working web server and
working 3rd-party libraries to glue together. When any of these
stop working PHP needs ways to identify the problems and fix
them quickly. When you make the underlying framework more
complex by not having completely separate execution threads,
completely separate memory segments and a strong sandbox for
each request to play in, further weaknesses are introduced into
PHP's system.
If you want to use a threaded MPM, look at a FastCGI
configuration where PHP is running in its own memory space.
Unix/Windows: Where should my php.ini file be located?
By default on Unix it should be in /usr/local/lib which is
<install-path>/lib. Most people will want to change this at
compile-time with the --with-config-file-path flag. You would,
for example, set it with something like:
--with-config-file-path=/etc
And then you would copy php.ini-development from the
distribution to /etc/php.ini and edit it to make any local
changes you want.
--with-config-file-scan-dir=PATH
On Windows the default path for the php.ini file is the Windows
directory. If you're using the Apache webserver, php.ini is
first searched in the Apaches install directory, e.g. c:\program
files\apache group\apache. This way you can have different
php.ini files for different versions of Apache on the same
machine.
See also the chapter about the configuration file.
Unix: I installed PHP, but every time I load a document, I get the
message 'Document Contains No Data'! What's going on here?
This probably means that PHP is having some sort of problem and
is core-dumping. Look in your server error log to see if this is
the case, and then try to reproduce the problem with a small
test case. If you know how to use 'gdb', it is very helpful when
you can provide a backtrace with your bug report to help the
developers pinpoint the problem. If you are using PHP as an
Apache module try something like:
+ Stop your httpd processes
+ gdb httpd
+ Stop your httpd processes
+ > run -X -f /path/to/httpd.conf
+ Then fetch the URL causing the problem with your browser
+ > run -X -f /path/to/httpd.conf
+ If you are getting a core dump, gdb should inform you of this
now
+ type: bt
+ You should include your backtrace in your bug report. This
should be submitted to » http://bugs.php.net/
If your script uses the regular expression functions
(preg_match() and friends), you should make sure that you
compiled PHP and Apache with the same regular expression
package. This should happen automatically with PHP and Apache
1.3.x
Unix: I installed PHP using RPMS, but Apache isn't processing the PHP
pages! What's going on here?
Assuming you installed both Apache and PHP from RPM packages,
you need to uncomment or add some or all of the following lines
in your httpd.conf file:
# Extra Modules
AddModule mod_php.c
AddModule mod_perl.c
# Extra Modules
LoadModule php_module modules/mod_php.so
LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
LoadModule perl_module modules/libperl.so
And add:
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
... to the global properties, or to the properties of the
VirtualDomain you want to have PHP support added to.
Unix: I patched Apache with the FrontPage extensions patch, and
suddenly PHP stopped working. Is PHP incompatible with the
Apache FrontPage extensions?
No, PHP works fine with the FrontPage extensions. The problem is
that the FrontPage patch modifies several Apache structures,
that PHP relies on. Recompiling PHP (using 'make clean ; make')
after the FP patch is applied would solve the problem.
Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP
script file via my browser, I get a blank screen.
Do a 'view source' in the web browser and you will probably find
that you can see the source code of your PHP script. This means
that the web server did not send the script to PHP for
interpretation. Something is wrong with the server configuration
- double check the server configuration against the PHP
installation instructions.
Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when try to access a PHP script
file via my browser, I get a server 500 error.
Something went wrong when the server tried to run PHP. To get to
see a sensible error message, from the command line, change to
the directory containing the PHP executable (php.exe on Windows)
and run php -i. If PHP has any problems running, then a suitable
error message will be displayed which will give you a clue as to
what needs to be done next. If you get a screen full of HTML
codes (the output of the phpinfo() function) then PHP is
working, and your problem may be related to your server
configuration which you should double check.
Some operating systems: I have installed PHP without errors, but when I
try to start Apache I get undefined symbol errors:
[mybox:user /src/php5] root# apachectl configtest
apachectl: /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd Undefined symbols:
_compress
_uncompress
This has actually nothing to do with PHP, but with the MySQL
client libraries. Some need --with-zlib , others do not. This is
also covered in the MySQL FAQ.
Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP script
file via my browser, I get the error:
cgi error:
The specified CGI application misbehaved by not
returning a complete set of HTTP headers.
The headers it did return are:
This error message means that PHP failed to output anything at
all. To get to see a sensible error message, from the command
line, change to the directory containing the PHP executable
(php.exe on Windows) and run php -i. If PHP has any problems
running, then a suitable error message will be displayed which
will give you a clue as to what needs to be done next. If you
get a screen full of HTML codes (the output of the phpinfo()
function) then PHP is working.
Once PHP is working at the command line, try accessing the
script via the browser again. If it still fails then it could be
one of the following:
+ File permissions on your PHP script, php.exe, php5ts.dll,
php.ini or any PHP extensions you are trying to load are such
that the anonymous internet user ISUR_<machinename> cannot
access them.
+ The script file does not exist (or possibly isn't where you
think it is relative to your web root directory). Note that
for IIS you can trap this error by ticking the 'check file
exists' box when setting up the script mappings in the
Internet Services Manager. If a script file does not exist
then the server will return a 404 error instead. There is also
the additional benefit that IIS will do any authentication
required for you based on the NTLanMan permissions on your
script file.
Windows: I've followed all the instructions, but still can't get PHP
and IIS to work together!
Make sure any user who needs to run a PHP script has the rights
to run php.exe! IIS uses an anonymous user which is added at the
time IIS is installed. This user needs rights to php.exe. Also,
any authenticated user will also need rights to execute php.exe.
And for IIS4 you need to tell it that PHP is a script engine.
Also, you will want to read this faq.
When running PHP as CGI with IIS, PWS, OmniHTTPD or Xitami, I get the
following error: Security Alert! PHP CGI cannot be accessed
directly..
You must set the cgi.force_redirect directive to 0. It defaults
to 1 so be sure the directive isn't commented out (with a ;).
Like all directives, this is set in php.ini
Because the default is 1, it's critical that you're 100% sure
that the correct php.ini file is being read. Read this faq for
details.
How do I know if my php.ini is being found and read? It seems like it
isn't as my changes aren't being implemented.
To be sure your php.ini is being read by PHP, make a call to
phpinfo(). Near the top, there will be a listing called
Configuration File (php.ini). This will tell you where PHP is
looking for php.ini and whether or not it's being read. If just
a directory PATH exists, then it's not being read, and you
should put your php.ini in that directory. If php.ini is
included within the PATH, it is being read.
If php.ini is being read and you're running PHP as a module,
then be sure to restart your web server after making changes to
php.ini
See also php_ini_loaded_file().
How do I add my PHP directory to the PATH on Windows?
On Windows NT+ and Windows Server 2000+:
+ Go to Control Panel and open the System icon (Start ->
Settings -> Control Panel -> System, or just Start -> Control
Panel -> System for Windows XP/2003+)
+ Go to the Advanced tab
+ Click on the 'Environment Variables' button
+ Look into the 'System Variables' pane
+ Find the Path entry (you may need to scroll to find it)
+ Double click on the Path entry
+ Enter your PHP directory at the end, including ';' before
(e.g. ;C:\php)
+ Press OK
On Windows 98/Me you need to edit the autoexec.bat file:
+ Open the Notepad (Start -> Run and enter notepad)
+ Open the C:\autoexec.bat file
+ Locate the line with PATH=C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND;.....
and add: ;C:\php to the end of the line
+ Save the file and restart your computer
Note: Be sure to reboot after following the steps above to ensure
that the PATH changes are applied.
The PHP manual used to promote the copying of files into the
Windows system directory, this is because this directory
(C:\Windows, C:\WINNT, etc.) is by default in the systems PATH.
Copying files into the Windows system directory has long since
been deprecated and may cause problems.
How do I make the php.ini file available to PHP on windows?
There are several ways of doing this. If you are using Apache,
read their installation specific instructions (Apache 1, Apache
2), otherwise you must set the PHPRC environment variable:
On Windows NT, 2000, XP and 2003:
+ Go to Control Panel and open the System icon (Start ->
Settings -> Control Panel -> System, or just Start -> Control
Panel -> System for Windows XP/2003)
+ Go to the Advanced tab
+ Click on the 'Environment Variables' button
+ Look into the 'System variables' pane
+ Click on 'New' and enter 'PHPRC' as the variable name and the
directory where php.ini is located as the variable value (e.g.
C:\php)
+ Press OK and restart your computer
On Windows 98/Me you need to edit the autoexec.bat file:
+ Open the Notepad (Start -> Run and enter notepad)
+ Open the C:\autoexec.bat file
+ Add a new line to the end of the file: set PHPRC=C:\php
(replace C:\php with the directory where php.ini is located).
Please note that the path cannot contain spaces. For instance,
if you have installed PHP in C:\Program Files\PHP, you would
enter C:\PROGRA~1\PHP instead.
+ Save the file and restart your computer
Is it possible to use Apache content negotiation (MultiViews option)
with PHP?
If links to PHP files include extension, everything works
perfect. This FAQ is only for the case when links to PHP files
don't include extension and you want to use content negotiation
to choose PHP files from URL with no extension. In this case,
replace the line AddType application/x-httpd-php .php with:
AddHandler php5-script php
AddType text/html php
This solution doesn't work for Apache 1 as PHP module doesn't
catch php-script.
Is PHP limited to process GET and POST request methods only?
No, it is possible to handle any request method, e.g. CONNECT.
Proper response status can be sent with header(). If only GET
and POST methods should be handled, it can be achieved with this
Apache configuration:
<LimitExcept GET POST>
Deny from all
</LimitExcept>
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