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Installing PHP

     * General Installation Considerations
     * Installation on Unix systems
          + Apache 1.3.x on Unix systems
          + Apache 2.x on Unix systems
          + Lighttpd 1.4 on Unix systems
          + Sun, iPlanet and Netscape servers on Sun Solaris
          + CGI and command line setups
          + HP-UX specific installation notes
          + OpenBSD installation notes
          + Solaris specific installation tips
          + Debian GNU/Linux installation notes
     * Installation on Mac OS X
          + Using Packages
          + Using the bundled PHP
          + Compiling PHP on Mac OS X
     * Installation of PECL extensions
          + Introduction to PECL Installations
          + Downloading PECL extensions
          + Installing a PHP extension on Windows
          + Compiling shared PECL extensions with the pecl command
          + Compiling shared PECL extensions with phpize
          + php-config
          + Compiling PECL extensions statically into PHP
     * Problems?
          + Read the FAQ
          + Other problems
          + Bug reports
     * Runtime Configuration
          + The configuration file
          + .user.ini files
          + Where a configuration setting may be set
          + How to change configuration settings
     * Installation



   These installation instructions were generated from the HTML version of
   the PHP Manual so formatting and linking have been altered. See the
   online and updated version at:

General Installation Considerations

   Before starting the installation, first you need to know what do you
   want to use PHP for. There are three main fields you can use PHP, as
   described in the What can PHP do? section:
     * Websites and web applications (server-side scripting)
     * Command line scripting
     * Desktop (GUI) applications

   For the first and most common form, you need three things: PHP itself,
   a web server and a web browser. You probably already have a web
   browser, and depending on your operating system setup, you may also
   have a web server (e.g. Apache on Linux and MacOS X; IIS on Windows).
   You may also rent webspace at a company. This way, you don't need to
   set up anything on your own, only write your PHP scripts, upload it to
   the server you rent, and see the results in your browser.

   In case of setting up the server and PHP on your own, you have two
   choices for the method of connecting PHP to the server. For many
   servers PHP has a direct module interface (also called SAPI). These
   servers include Apache, Microsoft Internet Information Server, Netscape
   and iPlanet servers. Many other servers have support for ISAPI, the
   Microsoft module interface (OmniHTTPd for example). If PHP has no
   module support for your web server, you can always use it as a CGI or
   FastCGI processor. This means you set up your server to use the CGI
   executable of PHP to process all PHP file requests on the server.

   If you are also interested to use PHP for command line scripting (e.g.
   write scripts autogenerating some images for you offline, or processing
   text files depending on some arguments you pass to them), you always
   need the command line executable. For more information, read the
   section about writing command line PHP applications. In this case, you
   need no server and no browser.

   With PHP you can also write desktop GUI applications using the PHP-GTK
   extension. This is a completely different approach than writing web
   pages, as you do not output any HTML, but manage windows and objects
   within them. For more information about PHP-GTK, please » visit the
   site dedicated to this extension. PHP-GTK is not included in the
   official PHP distribution.

   From now on, this section deals with setting up PHP for web servers on
   Unix and Windows with server module interfaces and CGI executables. You
   will also find information on the command line executable in the
   following sections.

   PHP source code and binary distributions for Windows can be found at
   » We recommend you to choose a
   » mirror nearest to you for downloading the distributions.

Installation on Unix systems

Table of Contents

     * Apache 1.3.x on Unix systems
     * Apache 2.x on Unix systems
     * Lighttpd 1.4 on Unix systems
     * Sun, iPlanet and Netscape servers on Sun Solaris
     * CGI and command line setups
     * HP-UX specific installation notes
     * OpenBSD installation notes
     * Solaris specific installation tips
     * Debian GNU/Linux installation notes

   This section will guide you through the general configuration and
   installation of PHP on Unix systems. Be sure to investigate any
   sections specific to your platform or web server before you begin the

   As our manual outlines in the General Installation Considerations
   section, we are mainly dealing with web centric setups of PHP in this
   section, although we will cover setting up PHP for command line usage
   as well.

   There are several ways to install PHP for the Unix platform, either
   with a compile and configure process, or through various pre-packaged
   methods. This documentation is mainly focused around the process of
   compiling and configuring PHP. Many Unix like systems have some sort of
   package installation system. This can assist in setting up a standard
   configuration, but if you need to have a different set of features
   (such as a secure server, or a different database driver), you may need
   to build PHP and/or your web server. If you are unfamiliar with
   building and compiling your own software, it is worth checking to see
   whether somebody has already built a packaged version of PHP with the
   features you need.

   Prerequisite knowledge and software for compiling:
     * Basic Unix skills (being able to operate "make" and a C compiler)
     * An ANSI C compiler
     * A web server
     * Any module specific components (such as GD, PDF libs, etc.)

   When building directly from Git sources or after custom modifications
   you might also need:
     * autoconf: 2.13+ (for PHP < 5.4.0), 2.59+ (for PHP >= 5.4.0)
     * automake: 1.4+
     * libtool: 1.4.x+ (except 1.4.2)
     * re2c: Version 0.13.4 or newer
     * flex: Version 2.5.4 (for PHP <= 5.2)
     * bison: Version 1.28 (preferred), 1.35, or 1.75

   The initial PHP setup and configuration process is controlled by the
   use of the command line options of the configure script. You could get
   a list of all available options along with short explanations running
   ./configure --help. Our manual documents the different options
   separately. You will find the core options in the appendix, while the
   different extension specific options are descibed on the reference

   When PHP is configured, you are ready to build the module and/or
   executables. The command make should take care of this. If it fails and
   you can't figure out why, see the Problems section.

Apache 1.3.x on Unix systems

   This section contains notes and hints specific to Apache installs of
   PHP on Unix platforms. We also have instructions and notes for Apache 2
   on a separate page.

   You can select arguments to add to the configure on line 10 below from
   the list of core configure options and from extension specific options
   described at the respective places in the manual. The version numbers
   have been omitted here, to ensure the instructions are not incorrect.
   You will need to replace the 'xxx' here with the correct values from
   your files.

   Example #1 Installation Instructions (Apache Shared Module Version) for
1. gunzip apache_xxx.tar.gz
2. tar -xvf apache_xxx.tar
3. gunzip php-xxx.tar.gz
4. tar -xvf php-xxx.tar
5. cd apache_xxx
6. ./configure --prefix=/www --enable-module=so
7. make
8. make install
9. cd ../php-xxx

10. Now, configure your PHP. This is where you customize your PHP
    with various options, like which extensions will be enabled. Do a
    ./configure --help for a list of available options. In our example
    we'll do a simple configure with Apache 1 and MySQL support. Your
    path to apxs may differ from our example.

      ./configure --with-mysql --with-apxs=/www/bin/apxs

11. make
12. make install

    If you decide to change your configure options after installation,
    you only need to repeat the last three steps. You only need to
    restart apache for the new module to take effect. A recompile of
    Apache is not needed.

    Note that unless told otherwise, 'make install' will also install PEAR,
    various PHP tools such as phpize, install the PHP CLI, and more.

13. Setup your php.ini file:

      cp php.ini-development /usr/local/lib/php.ini

    You may edit your .ini file to set PHP options. If you prefer your
    php.ini in another location, use --with-config-file-path=/some/path in
    step 10.

    If you instead choose php.ini-production, be certain to read the list
    of changes within, as they affect how PHP behaves.

14. Edit your httpd.conf to load the PHP module. The path on the right hand
    side of the LoadModule statement must point to the path of the PHP
    module on your system. The make install from above may have already
    added this for you, but be sure to check.

      LoadModule php5_module libexec/

15. And in the AddModule section of httpd.conf, somewhere under the
    ClearModuleList, add this:

      AddModule mod_php5.c

16. Tell Apache to parse certain extensions as PHP. For example,
    let's have Apache parse the .php extension as PHP. You could
    have any extension(s) parse as PHP by simply adding more, with
    each separated by a space. We'll add .phtml to demonstrate.

      AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .phtml

    It's also common to setup the .phps extension to show highlighted PHP
    source, this can be done with:

      AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps

17. Use your normal procedure for starting the Apache server. (You must
    stop and restart the server, not just cause the server to reload by
    using a HUP or USR1 signal.)

   Alternatively, to install PHP as a static object:

   Example #2 Installation Instructions (Static Module Installation for
   Apache) for PHP
1. gunzip -c apache_1.3.x.tar.gz | tar xf -
2. cd apache_1.3.x
3. ./configure
4. cd ..

5. gunzip -c php-5.x.y.tar.gz | tar xf -
6. cd php-5.x.y
7. ./configure --with-mysql --with-apache=../apache_1.3.x
8. make
9. make install

10. cd ../apache_1.3.x

11. ./configure --prefix=/www --activate-module=src/modules/php5/libphp5.a
    (The above line is correct! Yes, we know libphp5.a does not exist at this
    stage. It isn't supposed to. It will be created.)

12. make
    (you should now have an httpd binary which you can copy to your Apache bin d
ir if
    it is your first install then you need to "make install" as well)

13. cd ../php-5.x.y
14. cp php.ini-development /usr/local/lib/php.ini

15. You can edit /usr/local/lib/php.ini file to set PHP options.
    Edit your httpd.conf or srm.conf file and add:
    AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

   Depending on your Apache install and Unix variant, there are many
   possible ways to stop and restart the server. Below are some typical
   lines used in restarting the server, for different apache/unix
   installations. You should replace /path/to/ with the path to these
   applications on your systems.

   Example #3 Example commands for restarting Apache
1. Several Linux and SysV variants:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart

2. Using apachectl scripts:
/path/to/apachectl stop
/path/to/apachectl start

3. httpdctl and httpsdctl (Using OpenSSL), similar to apachectl:
/path/to/httpsdctl stop
/path/to/httpsdctl start

4. Using mod_ssl, or another SSL server, you may want to manually
stop and start:
/path/to/apachectl stop
/path/to/apachectl startssl

   The locations of the apachectl and http(s)dctl binaries often vary. If
   your system has locate or whereis or which commands, these can assist
   you in finding your server control programs.

   Different examples of compiling PHP for apache are as follows:
./configure --with-apxs --with-pgsql

   This will create a shared library that is loaded into Apache
   using a LoadModule line in Apache's httpd.conf file. The PostgreSQL
   support is embedded into this library.

./configure --with-apxs --with-pgsql=shared

   This will create a shared library for Apache, but it will
   also create a shared library that is loaded into PHP either by
   using the extension directive in php.ini file or by loading it
   explicitly in a script using the dl() function.

./configure --with-apache=/path/to/apache_source --with-pgsql

   This will create a libmodphp5.a library, a mod_php5.c and some
   accompanying files and copy this into the src/modules/php5 directory in
   the Apache source tree. Then you compile Apache using
   --activate-module=src/modules/php5/libphp5.a and the Apache build
   system will create libphp5.a and link it statically into the httpd
   binary. The PostgreSQL support is included directly into this httpd
   binary, so the final result here is a single httpd binary that includes
   all of Apache and all of PHP.

./configure --with-apache=/path/to/apache_source --with-pgsql=shared

   Same as before, except instead of including PostgreSQL support directly
   into the final httpd you will get a shared library that you
   can load into PHP from either the php.ini file or directly using dl().

   When choosing to build PHP in different ways, you should consider the
   advantages and drawbacks of each method. Building as a shared object
   will mean that you can compile apache separately, and don't have to
   recompile everything as you add to, or change, PHP. Building PHP into
   apache (static method) means that PHP will load and run faster. For
   more information, see the Apache » web page on DSO support.


     Apache's default httpd.conf currently ships with a section that
     looks like this:

User nobody
Group "#-1"

     Unless you change that to "Group nogroup" or something like that
     ("Group daemon" is also very common) PHP will not be able to open


     Make sure you specify the installed version of apxs when using
     --with-apxs=/path/to/apxs . You must NOT use the apxs version that
     is in the apache sources but the one that is actually installed on
     your system.

Apache 2.x on Unix systems

   This section contains notes and hints specific to Apache 2.x installs
   of PHP on Unix systems.

   We do not recommend using a threaded MPM in production with Apache 2.
   Use the prefork MPM, which is the default MPM with Apache 2.0 and 2.2.
   For information on why, read the related FAQ entry on using Apache2
   with a threaded MPM

   The » Apache Documentation is the most authoritative source of
   information on the Apache 2.x server. More information about
   installation options for Apache may be found there.

   The most recent version of Apache HTTP Server may be obtained from
   » Apache download site, and a fitting PHP version from the above
   mentioned places. This quick guide covers only the basics to get
   started with Apache 2.x and PHP. For more information read the » Apache
   Documentation. The version numbers have been omitted here, to ensure
   the instructions are not incorrect. In the examples below, 'NN' should
   be replaced with the specific version of Apache being used.

   There are currently two versions of Apache 2.x - there's 2.0 and 2.2.
   While there are various reasons for choosing each, 2.2 is the current
   latest version, and the one that is recommended, if that option is
   available to you. However, the instructions here will work for either
   2.0 or 2.2.
    1. Obtain the Apache HTTP server from the location listed above, and
       unpack it:
gzip -d httpd-2_x_NN.tar.gz
tar -xf httpd-2_x_NN.tar

    2. Likewise, obtain and unpack the PHP source:
gunzip php-NN.tar.gz
tar -xf php-NN.tar

    3. Build and install Apache. Consult the Apache install documentation
       for more details on building Apache.
cd httpd-2_x_NN
./configure --enable-so
make install

    4. Now you have Apache 2.x.NN available under /usr/local/apache2,
       configured with loadable module support and the standard MPM
       prefork. To test the installation use your normal procedure for
       starting the Apache server, e.g.:
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start

       and stop the server to go on with the configuration for PHP:
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl stop

    5. Now, configure and build PHP. This is where you customize PHP with
       various options, like which extensions will be enabled. Run
       ./configure --help for a list of available options. In our example
       we'll do a simple configure with Apache 2 and MySQL support.
       If you built Apache from source, as described above, the below
       example will match your path for apxs, but if you installed Apache
       some other way, you'll need to adjust the path to apxs accordingly.
       Note that some distros may rename apxs to apxs2.
cd ../php-NN
./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs --with-mysql
make install

       If you decide to change your configure options after installation,
       you'll need to re-run the configure, make, and make install steps.
       You only need to restart apache for the new module to take effect.
       A recompile of Apache is not needed.
       Note that unless told otherwise, 'make install' will also install
       PEAR, various PHP tools such as phpize, install the PHP CLI, and
    6. Setup your php.ini
cp php.ini-development /usr/local/lib/php.ini

       You may edit your .ini file to set PHP options. If you prefer
       having php.ini in another location, use
       --with-config-file-path=/some/path in step 5.
       If you instead choose php.ini-production, be certain to read the
       list of changes within, as they affect how PHP behaves.
    7. Edit your httpd.conf to load the PHP module. The path on the right
       hand side of the LoadModule statement must point to the path of the
       PHP module on your system. The make install from above may have
       already added this for you, but be sure to check.
LoadModule php5_module modules/
    8. Tell Apache to parse certain extensions as PHP. For example, let's
       have Apache parse .php files as PHP. Instead of only using the
       Apache AddType directive, we want to avoid potentially dangerous
       uploads and created files such as exploit.php.jpg from being
       executed as PHP. Using this example, you could have any
       extension(s) parse as PHP by simply adding them. We'll add .php to
<FilesMatch \.php$>
    SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
       Or, if we wanted to allow .php, .php2, .php3, .php4, .php5, .php6,
       and .phtml files to be executed as PHP, but nothing else, we'd use
<FilesMatch "\.ph(p[2-6]?|tml)$">
    SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
       And to allow .phps files to be handled by the php source filter,
       and displayed as syntax-highlighted source code, use this:
<FilesMatch "\.phps$">
    SetHandler application/x-httpd-php-source
       mod_rewrite may be used To allow any arbitrary .php file to be
       displayed as syntax-highlighted source code, without having to
       rename or copy it to a .phps file:
RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule (.*\.php)s$ $1 [H=application/x-httpd-php-source]
       The php source filter should not be enabled on production systems,
       where it may expose confidential or otherwise sensitive information
       embedded in source code.
    9. Use your normal procedure for starting the Apache server, e.g.:
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start

service httpd restart

   Following the steps above you will have a running Apache2 web server
   with support for PHP as a SAPI module. Of course there are many more
   configuration options available Apache and PHP. For more information
   type ./configure --help in the corresponding source tree.

   Apache may be built multithreaded by selecting the worker MPM, rather
   than the standard prefork MPM, when Apache is built. This is done by
   adding the following option to the argument passed to ./configure, in
   step 3 above:

   This should not be undertaken without being aware of the consequences
   of this decision, and having at least a fair understanding of the
   implications. The Apache documentation regarding » MPM-Modules
   discusses MPMs in a great deal more detail.


     The Apache MultiViews FAQ discusses using multiviews with PHP.


     To build a multithreaded version of Apache, the target system must
     support threads. In this case, PHP should also be built with
     experimental Zend Thread Safety (ZTS). Under this configuration, not
     all extensions will be available. The recommended setup is to build
     Apache with the default prefork MPM-Module.

Lighttpd 1.4 on Unix systems

   This section contains notes and hints specific to Lighttpd 1.4 installs
   of PHP on Unix systems.

   Please use the » Lighttpd trac to learn how to install Lighttpd
   properly before continuing.

   Fastcgi is the preferred SAPI to connect PHP and Lighttpd. Fastcgi is
   automagically enabled in php-cgi in PHP 5.3, but for older versions
   configure PHP with --enable-fastcgi. To confirm that PHP has fastcgi
   enabled, php -v should contain PHP 5.2.5 (cgi-fcgi) Before PHP 5.2.3,
   fastcgi was enabled on the php binary (there was no php-cgi).

Letting Lighttpd spawn php processes

   To configure Lighttpd to connect to php and spawn fastcgi processes,
   edit lighttpd.conf. Sockets are preferred to connect to fastcgi
   processes on the local system.

   Example #1 Partial lighttpd.conf
server.modules += ( "mod_fastcgi" )

fastcgi.server = ( ".php" =>
    "socket" => "/tmp/php.socket",
    "bin-path" => "/usr/local/bin/php-cgi",
    "bin-environment" => (
      "PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN" => "16",
      "PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS" => "10000"
    "min-procs" => 1,
    "max-procs" => 1,
    "idle-timeout" => 20

   The bin-path directive allows lighttpd to spawn fastcgi processes
   dynamically. PHP will spawn children according to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN
   environment variable. The "bin-environment" directive sets the
   environment for the spawned processes. PHP will kill a child process
   after the number of requests specified by PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS is
   reached. The directives "min-procs" and "max-procs" should generally be
   avoided with PHP. PHP manages its own children and opcode caches like
   APC will only share among children managed by PHP. If "min-procs" is
   set to something greater than 1, the total number of php responders
   will be multiplied PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN (2 min-procs * 16 children gives
   32 responders).

Spawning with spawn-fcgi

   Lighttpd provides a program called spawn-fcgi to ease the process of
   spawning fastcgi processes easier.

Spawning php-cgi

   It is possible to spawn processes without spawn-fcgi, though a bit of
   heavy-lifting is required. Setting the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment
   var controls how many children PHP will spawn to handle incoming
   requests. Setting PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS will determine how long (in
   requests) each child will live. Here's a simple bash script to help
   spawn php responders.

   Example #2 Spawning FastCGI Responders

# Location of the php-cgi binary

# PID File location

# Binding to an address
# Binding to a domain socket



echo $! > "$PHP_PID"

Connecting to remote FCGI instances

   Fastcgi instances can be spawned on multiple remote machines in order
   to scale applications.

   Example #3 Connecting to remote php-fastcgi instances
fastcgi.server = ( ".php" =>
   (( "host" => "", "port" => 1030 ),
    ( "host" => "", "port" => 1030 ))

Sun, iPlanet and Netscape servers on Sun Solaris

   This section contains notes and hints specific to Sun Java System Web
   Server, Sun ONE Web Server, iPlanet and Netscape server installs of PHP
   on Sun Solaris.

   From PHP 4.3.3 on you can use PHP scripts with the NSAPI module to
   generate custom directory listings and error pages. Additional
   functions for Apache compatibility are also available. For support in
   current web servers read the note about subrequests.

   You can find more information about setting up PHP for the Netscape
   Enterprise Server (NES) here:

   To build PHP with Sun JSWS/Sun ONE WS/iPlanet/Netscape web servers,
   enter the proper install directory for the --with-nsapi=[DIR] option.
   The default directory is usually /opt/netscape/suitespot/. Please also
   read /php-xxx-version/sapi/nsapi/nsapi-readme.txt.

    1. Install the following packages from »
       or another download site:
          + autoconf-2.13
          + automake-1.4
          + bison-1_25-sol26-sparc-local
          + flex-2_5_4a-sol26-sparc-local
          + gcc-2_95_2-sol26-sparc-local
          + gzip-1.2.4-sol26-sparc-local
          + m4-1_4-sol26-sparc-local
          + make-3_76_1-sol26-sparc-local
          + mysql-3.23.24-beta (if you want mysql support)
          + perl-5_005_03-sol26-sparc-local
          + tar-1.13 (GNU tar)
    2. Make sure your path includes the proper directories
       PATH=.:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/ccs/bin and make it
       available to your system export PATH.
    3. gunzip php-x.x.x.tar.gz (if you have a .gz dist, otherwise go to
    4. tar xvf php-x.x.x.tar
    5. Change to your extracted PHP directory: cd ../php-x.x.x
    6. For the following step, make sure /opt/netscape/suitespot/ is where
       your netscape server is installed. Otherwise, change to the correct
       path and run:
./configure --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-nsapi=/opt/netscape/suitespot/ \
    7. Run make followed by make install.

   After performing the base install and reading the appropriate readme
   file, you may need to perform some additional configuration steps.

Configuration Instructions for Sun/iPlanet/Netscape

   Firstly you may need to add some paths to the LD_LIBRARY_PATH
   environment for the server to find all the shared libs. This can best
   done in the start script for your web server. The start script is often
   located in: /path/to/server/https-servername/start. You may also need
   to edit the configuration files that are located in:
    1. Add the following line to mime.types (you can do that by the
       administration server):
type=magnus-internal/x-httpd-php exts=php

    2. Edit magnus.conf (for servers >= 6) or obj.conf (for servers < 6)
       and add the following, shlib will vary depending on your system, it
       will be something like /opt/netscape/suitespot/bin/ You
       should place the following lines after mime types init.
Init fn="load-modules" funcs="php4_init,php4_execute,php4_auth_trans" shlib="/op
Init fn="php4_init" LateInit="yes" errorString="Failed to initialize PHP!" [php_

       (PHP >= 4.3.3) The php_ini parameter is optional but with it you
       can place your php.ini in your web server config directory.
    3. Configure the default object in obj.conf (for virtual server
       classes [version 6.0+] in their vserver.obj.conf):
<Object name="default">
.#NOTE this next line should happen after all 'ObjectType' and before all 'AddLo
g' lines
Service fn="php4_execute" type="magnus-internal/x-httpd-php" [inikey=value inike
y=value ...]

       (PHP >= 4.3.3) As additional parameters you can add some special
       php.ini-values, for example you can set a
       docroot="/path/to/docroot" specific to the context php4_execute is
       called. For boolean ini-keys please use 0/1 as value, not
       "On","Off",... (this will not work correctly), e.g.
       zlib.output_compression=1 instead of zlib.output_compression="On"
    4. This is only needed if you want to configure a directory that only
       consists of PHP scripts (same like a cgi-bin directory):
<Object name="x-httpd-php">
ObjectType fn="force-type" type="magnus-internal/x-httpd-php"
Service fn=php4_execute [inikey=value inikey=value ...]

       After that you can configure a directory in the Administration
       server and assign it the style x-httpd-php. All files in it will
       get executed as PHP. This is nice to hide PHP usage by renaming
       files to .html.
    5. Setup of authentication: PHP authentication cannot be used with any
       other authentication. ALL AUTHENTICATION IS PASSED TO YOUR PHP
       SCRIPT. To configure PHP Authentication for the entire server, add
       the following line to your default object:
<Object name="default">
AuthTrans fn=php4_auth_trans

    6. To use PHP Authentication on a single directory, add the following:
<Object ppath="d:\path\to\authenticated\dir\*">
AuthTrans fn=php4_auth_trans


     The stacksize that PHP uses depends on the configuration of the web
     server. If you get crashes with very large PHP scripts, it is
     recommended to raise it with the Admin Server (in the section

CGI environment and recommended modifications in php.ini

   Important when writing PHP scripts is the fact that Sun JSWS/Sun ONE
   WS/iPlanet/Netscape is a multithreaded web server. Because of that all
   requests are running in the same process space (the space of the web
   server itself) and this space has only one environment. If you want to
   get CGI variables like PATH_INFO, HTTP_HOST etc. it is not the correct
   way to try this in the old PHP way with getenv() or a similar way
   (register globals to environment, $_ENV). You would only get the
   environment of the running web server without any valid CGI variables!


     Why are there (invalid) CGI variables in the environment?

     Answer: This is because you started the web server process from the
     admin server which runs the startup script of the web server, you
     wanted to start, as a CGI script (a CGI script inside of the admin
     server!). This is why the environment of the started web server has
     some CGI environment variables in it. You can test this by starting
     the web server not from the administration server. Use the command
     line as root user and start it manually - you will see there are no
     CGI-like environment variables.

   Simply change your scripts to get CGI variables in the correct way for
   PHP 4.x by using the superglobal $_SERVER. If you have older scripts
   which use $HTTP_HOST, etc., you should turn on register_globals in
   php.ini and change the variable order too (important: remove "E" from
   it, because you do not need the environment here):
variables_order = "GPCS"
register_globals = On

Special use for error pages or self-made directory listings (PHP >= 4.3.3)

   You can use PHP to generate the error pages for "404 Not Found" or
   similar. Add the following line to the object in obj.conf for every
   error page you want to overwrite:
Error fn="php4_execute" code=XXX script="/path/to/script.php" [inikey=value inik

   where XXX is the HTTP error code. Please delete any other Error
   directives which could interfere with yours. If you want to place a
   page for all errors that could exist, leave the code parameter out.
   Your script can get the HTTP status code with $_SERVER['ERROR_TYPE'].

   Another possibility is to generate self-made directory listings. Just
   create a PHP script which displays a directory listing and replace the
   corresponding default Service line for type="magnus-internal/directory"
   in obj.conf with the following:
Service fn="php4_execute" type="magnus-internal/directory" script="/path/to/scri
pt.php" [inikey=value inikey=value...]

   For both error and directory listing pages the original URI and
   translated URI are in the variables $_SERVER['PATH_INFO'] and

Note about nsapi_virtual() and subrequests (PHP >= 4.3.3)

   The NSAPI module now supports the nsapi_virtual() function (alias:
   virtual()) to make subrequests on the web server and insert the result
   in the web page. This function uses some undocumented features from the
   NSAPI library. On Unix the module automatically looks for the needed
   functions and uses them if available. If not, nsapi_virtual() is


     But be warned: Support for nsapi_virtual() is EXPERIMENTAL!!!

CGI and command line setups

   By default, PHP is built as both a CLI and CGI program, which can be
   used for CGI processing. If you are running a web server that PHP has
   module support for, you should generally go for that solution for
   performance reasons. However, the CGI version enables users to run
   different PHP-enabled pages under different user-ids.

   A server deployed in CGI mode is open to several possible
   vulnerabilities. Please read our CGI security section to learn how to
   defend yourself from such attacks.


   If you have built PHP as a CGI program, you may test your build by
   typing make test. It is always a good idea to test your build. This way
   you may catch a problem with PHP on your platform early instead of
   having to struggle with it later.

Using Variables

   Some server supplied environment variables are not defined in the
   current » CGI/1.1 specification. Only the following variables are
   SERVER_SOFTWARE. Everything else should be treated as 'vendor

HP-UX specific installation notes

   This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
   HP-UX systems.

   There are two main options for installing PHP on HP-UX systems. Either
   compile it, or install a pre-compiled binary.

   Official pre-compiled packages are located here:

   Until this manual section is rewritten, the documentation about
   compiling PHP (and related extensions) on HP-UX systems has been
   removed. For now, consider reading the following external resource:
   » Building Apache and PHP on HP-UX 11.11

OpenBSD installation notes

   This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
   » OpenBSD 3.6.

Using Binary Packages

   Using binary packages to install PHP on OpenBSD is the recommended and
   simplest method. The core package has been separated from the various
   modules, and each can be installed and removed independently from the
   others. The files you need can be found on your OpenBSD CD or on the
   FTP site.

   The main package you need to install is php4-core-4.3.8.tgz, which
   contains the basic engine (plus gettext and iconv). Next, take a look
   at the module packages, such as php4-mysql-4.3.8.tgz or
   php4-imap-4.3.8.tgz. You need to use the phpxs command to activate and
   deactivate these modules in your php.ini.

   Example #1 OpenBSD Package Install Example
# pkg_add php4-core-4.3.8.tgz
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -s
# cp /usr/local/share/doc/php4/php.ini-recommended /var/www/conf/php.ini
  (add in mysql)
# pkg_add php4-mysql-4.3.8.tgz
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -a mysql
  (add in imap)
# pkg_add php4-imap-4.3.8.tgz
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -a imap
  (remove mysql as a test)
# pkg_delete php4-mysql-4.3.8
# /usr/local/sbin/phpxs -r mysql
  (install the PEAR libraries)
# pkg_add php4-pear-4.3.8.tgz

   Read the » packages(7) manual page for more information about binary
   packages on OpenBSD.

Using Ports

   You can also compile up PHP from source using the » ports tree.
   However, this is only recommended for users familiar with OpenBSD. The
   PHP 4 port is split into two sub-directories: core and extensions. The
   extensions directory generates sub-packages for all of the supported
   PHP modules. If you find you do not want to create some of these
   modules, use the no_* FLAVOR. For example, to skip building the imap
   module, set the FLAVOR to no_imap.

Common Problems

     * The default install of Apache runs inside a » chroot(2) jail, which
       will restrict PHP scripts to accessing files under /var/www. You
       will therefore need to create a /var/www/tmp directory for PHP
       session files to be stored, or use an alternative session backend.
       In addition, database sockets need to be placed inside the jail or
       listen on the localhost interface. If you use network functions,
       some files from /etc such as /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/services
       will need to be moved into /var/www/etc. The OpenBSD PEAR package
       automatically installs into the correct chroot directories, so no
       special modification is needed there. More information on the
       OpenBSD Apache is available in the » OpenBSD FAQ.
     * The OpenBSD 3.6 package for the » gd extension requires XFree86 to
       be installed. If you do not wish to use some of the font features
       that require X11, install the php4-gd-4.3.8-no_x11.tgz package

Older Releases

   Older releases of OpenBSD used the FLAVORS system to compile up a
   statically linked PHP. Since it is hard to generate binary packages
   using this method, it is now deprecated. You can still use the old
   stable ports trees if you wish, but they are unsupported by the OpenBSD
   team. If you have any comments about this, the current maintainer for
   the port is Anil Madhavapeddy (avsm at openbsd dot org).

Solaris specific installation tips

   This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
   Solaris systems.

Required software

   Solaris installs often lack C compilers and their related tools. Read
   this FAQ for information on why using GNU versions for some of these
   tools is necessary.

   For unpacking the PHP distribution you need
     * tar
     * gzip or
     * bzip2

   For compiling PHP you need
     * gcc (recommended, other C compilers may work)
     * make
     * GNU sed

   For building extra extensions or hacking the code of PHP you might also
     * flex (up to PHP 5.2)
     * re2c
     * bison
     * m4
     * autoconf
     * automake

   In addition, you will need to install (and possibly compile) any
   additional software specific to your configuration, such as Oracle or

Using Packages

   You can simplify the Solaris install process by using pkgadd to install
   most of your needed components. The Image Packaging System (IPS) for
   Solaris 11 Express also contains most of the required components for
   installation using the pkg command.

Debian GNU/Linux installation notes

   This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on
   » Debian GNU/Linux.

   Unofficial builds from third-parties are not supported here. Any bugs
   should be reported to the Debian team unless they can be reproduced
   using the latest builds from our » download area.

   While the instructions for building PHP on Unix apply to Debian as
   well, this manual page contains specific information for other options,
   such as using either the apt-get or aptitude commands. This manual page
   uses these two commands interchangeably.

Using APT

   First, note that other related packages may be desired like
   libapache2-mod-php5 to integrate with Apache 2, and php-pear for PEAR.

   Second, before installing a package, it's wise to ensure the package
   list is up to date. Typically, this is done by running the command
   apt-get update.

   Example #1 Debian Install Example with Apache 2
# apt-get install php5-common libapache2-mod-php5 php5-cli

   APT will automatically install the PHP 5 module for Apache 2 and all of
   its dependencies, and then activate it. Apache should be restarted in
   order for the changes take place. For example:

   Example #2 Stopping and starting Apache once PHP is installed
# /etc/init.d/apache2 stop
# /etc/init.d/apache2 start

Better control of configuration

   In the last section, PHP was installed with only core modules. It's
   very likely that additional modules will be desired, such as MySQL,
   cURL, GD, etc. These may also be installed via the apt-get command.

   Example #3 Methods for listing additional PHP 5 packages
# apt-cache search php5
# aptitude search php5
# aptitude search php5 |grep -i mysql

   The examples will show a lot of packages including several PHP specific
   ones like php5-cgi, php5-cli and php5-dev. Determine which are needed
   and install them like any other with either apt-get or aptitude. And
   because Debian performs dependency checks, it'll prompt for those so
   for example to install MySQL and cURL:

   Example #4 Install PHP with MySQL, cURL
# apt-get install php5-mysql php5-curl

   APT will automatically add the appropriate lines to the different
   php.ini related files like /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini,
   /etc/php5/conf.d/pdo.ini, etc. and depending on the extension will add
   entries similar to However, restarting the web server
   (like Apache) is required before these changes take affect.

Common Problems

     * If the PHP scripts are not parsing via the web server, then it's
       likely that PHP was not added to the web server's configuration
       file, which on Debian may be /etc/apache2/apache2.conf or similar.
       See the Debian manual for further details.
     * If an extension was seemingly installed yet the functions are
       undefined, be sure that the appropriate ini file is being loaded
       and/or the web server was restarted after installation.
     * There are two basic commands for installing packages on Debian (and
       other linux variants): apt-get and aptitude. However, explaining
       the subtle differences between these commands goes beyond the scope
       of this manual.

Installation on Mac OS X

Table of Contents

     * Using Packages
     * Using the bundled PHP
     * Compiling PHP on Mac OS X

   This section contains notes and hints specific to installing PHP on Mac
   OS X. PHP is bundled with Macs, and compiling is similar to the Unix
   installation guide.

Using Packages

   There are a few pre-packaged and pre-compiled versions of PHP for Mac
   OS X. This can help in setting up a standard configuration, but if you
   need to have a different set of features (such as a secure server, or a
   different database driver), you may need to build PHP and/or your web
   server yourself. If you are unfamiliar with building and compiling your
   own software, it's worth checking whether somebody has already built a
   packaged version of PHP with the features you need.

   The following resources offer easy to install packages and precompiled
   binaries for PHP on Mac OS:

     * MacPorts: »
     * Entropy: »
     * Fink: »
     * Homebrew: »

Using the bundled PHP

   PHP has come standard with Macs since OS X version 10.0.0. Enabling PHP
   with the default web server requires uncommenting a few lines in the
   Apache configuration file httpd.conf whereas the CGI and/or CLI are
   enabled by default (easily accessible via the Terminal program).

   Enabling PHP using the instructions below is meant for quickly setting
   up a local development environment. It's highly recommended to always
   upgrade PHP to the newest version. Like most live software, newer
   versions are created to fix bugs and add features and PHP being is no
   different. See the appropriate MAC OS X installation documentation for
   further details. The following instructions are geared towards a
   beginner with details provided for getting a default setup to work. All
   users are encouraged to compile, or install a new packaged version.

   The standard installation type is using mod_php, and enabling the
   bundled mod_php on Mac OS X for the Apache web server (the default web
   server, that is accessible via System Preferences) involves the
   following steps:

    1. Locate and open the Apache configuration file. By default, the
       location is as follows: /private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf Using
       Finder or Spotlight to find this file may prove difficult as by
       default it's private and owned by the root user.

     Note: One way to open this is by using a Unix based text editor in
     the Terminal, for example nano, and because the file is owned by
     root we'll use the sudo command to open it (as root) so for example
     type the following into the Terminal Application (after, it will
     prompt for a password): sudo nano /private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf
     Noteworthy nano commands: ^w (search), ^o (save), and ^x (exit)
     where ^ represents the Ctrl key.

     Note: Versions of Mac OS X prior to 10.5 were bundled with older
     versions of PHP and Apache. As such, the Apache configuration file
     on legacy machines may be /etc/httpd/httpd.conf.
    2. With a text editor, uncomment the lines (by removing the #) that
       look similar to the following (these two lines are often not
       together, locate them both in the file):
# LoadModule php5_module libexec/httpd/

# AddModule mod_php5.c

       Notice the location/path. When building PHP in the future, the
       above files should be replaced or commented out.
    3. Be sure the desired extensions will parse as PHP (examples: .php
       .html and .inc)
       Due to the following statement already existing in httpd.conf (as
       of Mac Panther), once PHP is enabled the .php files will
       automatically parse as PHP.
<IfModule mod_php5.c>
    # If php is turned on, we respect .php and .phps files.
    AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
    AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps

    # Since most users will want index.php to work we
    # also automatically enable index.php
    <IfModule mod_dir.c>
        DirectoryIndex index.html index.php

     Before OS X 10.5 (Leopard), PHP 4 was bundled instead of PHP 5 in
     which case the above instructions will differ slightly by changing
     5's to 4's.
    4. Be sure the DirectoryIndex loads the desired default index file
       This is also set in httpd.conf. Typically index.php and index.html
       are used. By default index.php is enabled because it's also in the
       PHP check shown above. Adjust accordingly.
    5. Set the php.ini location or use the default A typical default
       location on Mac OS X is /usr/local/php/php.ini and a call to
       phpinfo() will reveal this information. If a php.ini is not used,
       PHP will use all default values. See also the related FAQ on
       finding php.ini.
    6. Locate or set the DocumentRoot This is the root directory for all
       the web files. Files in this directory are served from the web
       server so the PHP files will parse as PHP before outputting them to
       the browser. A typical default path is /Library/WebServer/Documents
       but this can be set to anything in httpd.conf. Alternatively, the
       default DocumentRoot for individual users is
    7. Create a phpinfo() file
       The phpinfo() function will display information about PHP. Consider
       creating a file in the DocumentRoot with the following PHP code:
       <?php phpinfo(); ?>
    8. Restart Apache, and load the PHP file created above To restart,
       either execute sudo apachectl graceful in the shell or stop/start
       the "Personal Web Server" option in the OS X System Preferences. By
       default, loading local files in the browser will have an URL like
       so: http://localhost/info.php Or using the DocumentRoot in the user
       directory is another option and would end up looking like:

   The CLI (or CGI in older versions) is appropriately named php and
   likely exists as /usr/bin/php. Open up the terminal, read the command
   line section of the PHP manual, and execute php -v to check the PHP
   version of this PHP binary. A call to phpinfo() will also reveal this

Compiling PHP on Mac OS X

   Use the Unix installation guide to compile PHP on Mac OS X.

Installation of PECL extensions

Table of Contents

     * Introduction to PECL Installations
     * Downloading PECL extensions
     * Installing a PHP extension on Windows
     * Compiling shared PECL extensions with the pecl command
     * Compiling shared PECL extensions with phpize
     * php-config
     * Compiling PECL extensions statically into PHP

Introduction to PECL Installations

   » PECL is a repository of PHP extensions that are made available to you
   via the » PEAR packaging system. This section of the manual is intended
   to demonstrate how to obtain and install PECL extensions.

   These instructions assume /your/phpsrcdir/ is the path to the PHP
   source distribution, and that extname is the name of the PECL
   extension. Adjust accordingly. These instructions also assume a
   familiarity with the » pear command. The information in the PEAR manual
   for the pear command also applies to the pecl command.

   To be useful, a shared extension must be built, installed, and loaded.
   The methods described below provide you with various instructions on
   how to build and install the extensions, but they do not automatically
   load them. Extensions can be loaded by adding an extension directive.
   To this php.ini file, or through the use of the dl() function.

   When building PHP modules, it's important to have known-good versions
   of the required tools (autoconf, automake, libtool, etc.) See the
   » Anonymous Git Instructions for details on the required tools, and
   required versions.

Downloading PECL extensions

   There are several options for downloading PECL extensions, such as:
     * The pecl install extname command downloads the extensions code
       automatically, so in this case there is no need for a separate
     * » The PECL web site contains information about
       the different extensions that are offered by the PHP Development
       Team. The information available here includes: ChangeLog, release
       notes, requirements and other similar details.
     * pecl download extname PECL extensions that have releases listed on
       the PECL web site are available for download and installation using
       the » pecl command. Specific revisions may also be specified.
     * SVN Most PECL extensions also reside in SVN. A web-based view may
       be seen at » To download straight
       from SVN, the following sequence of commands may be used:
       $ svn checkout
     * Windows downloads At this time the PHP project does not compile
       Windows binaries for PECL extensions. However, to compile PHP under
       Windows see the chapter titled building PHP for Windows.

Installing a PHP extension on Windows

   On Windows, you have two ways to load a PHP extension: either compile
   it into PHP, or load the DLL. Loading a pre-compiled extension is the
   easiest and preferred way.

   To load an extension, you need to have it available as a ".dll" file on
   your system. All the extensions are automatically and periodically
   compiled by the PHP Group (see next section for the download).

   To compile an extension into PHP, please refer to building from source

   To compile a standalone extension (aka a DLL file), please refer to
   building from source documentation. If the DLL file is available
   neither with your PHP distribution nor in PECL, you may have to compile
   it before you can start using the extension.

Where to find an extension?

   PHP extensions are usually called "php_*.dll" (where the star
   represents the name of the extension) and they are located under the
   "PHP\ext" ("PHP\extensions" in PHP 4) folder.

   PHP ships with the extensions most useful to the majority of
   developers. They are called "core" extensions.

   However, if you need functionality not provided by any core extension,
   you may still be able to find one in PECL. The PHP Extension Community
   Library (PECL) is a repository for PHP Extensions, providing a
   directory of all known extensions and hosting facilities for
   downloading and development of PHP extensions.

   If you have developed an extension for your own uses, you might want to
   think about hosting it on PECL so that others with the same needs can
   benefit from your time. A nice side effect is that you give them a good
   chance to give you feedback, (hopefully) thanks, bug reports and even
   fixes/patches. Before you submit your extension for hosting on PECL,
   please read

Which extension to download?

   Many times, you will find several versions of each DLL:
     * Different version numbers (at least the first two numbers should
     * Different thread safety settings
     * Different processor architecture (x86, x64, ...)
     * Different debugging settings
     * etc.

   You should keep in mind that your extension settings should match all
   the settings of the PHP executable you are using. The following PHP
   script will tell you all about your PHP settings:

   Example #1 phpinfo() call

   Or from the command line, run:
drive:\\path\to\php\executable\php.exe -i

Loading an extension

   The most common way to load a PHP extension is to include it in your
   php.ini configuration file. Please note that many extensions are
   already present in your php.ini and that you only need to remove the
   semicolon to activate them.


   However, some web servers are confusing because they do not use the
   php.ini located alongside your PHP executable. To find out where your
   actual php.ini resides, look for its path in phpinfo():
Configuration File (php.ini) Path C:\WINDOWS

Loaded Configuration File C:\Program Files\PHP\5.2\php.ini

   After activating an extension, save php.ini, restart the web server and
   check phpinfo() again. The new extension should now have its own

Resolving problems

   If the extension does not appear in phpinfo(), you should check your
   logs to learn where the problem comes from.

   If you are using PHP from the command line (CLI), the extension loading
   error can be read directly on screen.

   If you are using PHP with a web server, the location and format of the
   logs vary depending on your software. Please read your web server
   documentation to locate the logs, as it does not have anything to do
   with PHP itself.

   Common problems are the location of the DLL, the value of the "
   extension_dir" setting inside php.ini and compile-time setting

   If the problem lies in a compile-time setting mismatch, you probably
   didn't download the right DLL. Try downloading again the extension with
   the right settings. Again, phpinfo() can be of great help.

Compiling shared PECL extensions with the pecl command

   PECL makes it easy to create shared PHP extensions. Using the » pecl
   command, do the following:

   $ pecl install extname

   This will download the source for extname, compile, and install into your extension_dir. may then be loaded via

   By default, the pecl command will not install packages that are marked
   with the alpha or beta state. If no stable packages are available, you
   may install a beta package using the following command:

   $ pecl install extname-beta

   You may also install a specific version using this variant:

   $ pecl install extname-0.1


     After enabling the extension in php.ini, restarting the web service
     is required for the changes to be picked up.

Compiling shared PECL extensions with phpize

   Sometimes, using the pecl installer is not an option. This could be
   because you're behind a firewall, or it could be because the extension
   you want to install is not available as a PECL compatible package, such
   as unreleased extensions from SVN. If you need to build such an
   extension, you can use the lower-level build tools to perform the build

   The phpize command is used to prepare the build environment for a PHP
   extension. In the following sample, the sources for an extension are in
   a directory named extname:

$ cd extname
$ phpize
$ ./configure
$ make
# make install

   A successful install will have created and put it into the
   PHP extensions directory. You'll need to and adjust php.ini and add an line before you can use the extension.

   If the system is missing the phpize command, and precompiled packages
   (like RPM's) are used, be sure to also install the appropriate devel
   version of the PHP package as they often include the phpize command
   along with the appropriate header files to build PHP and its

   Execute phpize --help to display additional usage information.


   php-config is a simple shell script for obtaining information about the
   installed PHP configuration.

   When compiling extensions, if you have multiple PHP versions installed,
   you may specify for which installation you'd like to build by using the
   --with-php-config option during configuration, specifying the path of
   the respective php-config script.

   The list of command line options provided by the php-config script can
   be queried anytime by running php-config with the -h switch:
Usage: /usr/local/bin/php-config [OPTION]
  --prefix [...]
  --includes [...]
  --ldflags [...]
  --libs [...]
  --extension-dir [...]
  --include-dir [...]
  --php-binary [...]
  --php-sapis [...]
  --configure-options [...]
  --version [...]
  --vernum [...]

   CAPTION: Command line options

   Option Description
   --prefix Directory prefix where PHP is installed, e.g. /usr/local
   --includes List of -I options with all include files
   --ldflags LD Flags which PHP was compiled with
   --libs Extra libraries which PHP was compiled with
   --extension-dir Directory where extensions are searched by default
   --include-dir Directory prefix where header files are installed by
   --php-binary Full path to php CLI or CGI binary
   --php-sapis Show all SAPI modules available
   --configure-options Configure options to recreate configuration of
   current PHP installation
   --version PHP version
   --vernum PHP version as integer

Compiling PECL extensions statically into PHP

   You might find that you need to build a PECL extension statically into
   your PHP binary. To do this, you'll need to place the extension source
   under the php-src/ext/ directory and tell the PHP build system to
   regenerate its configure script.

$ cd /your/phpsrcdir/ext
$ pecl download extname
$ gzip -d < extname.tgz | tar -xvf -
$ mv extname-x.x.x extname

   This will result in the following directory:


   From here, force PHP to rebuild the configure script, and then build
   PHP as normal:

   $ cd /your/phpsrcdir
   $ rm configure
   $ ./buildconf --force
   $ ./configure --help
   $ ./configure --with-extname --enable-someotherext --with-foobar
   $ make
   $ make install

     Note: To run the 'buildconf' script you need autoconf 2.13 and
     automake 1.4+ (newer versions of autoconf may work, but are not

   Whether --enable-extname or --with-extname is used depends on the
   extension. Typically an extension that does not require external
   libraries uses --enable. To be sure, run the following after buildconf:

   $ ./configure --help | grep extname


Table of Contents

     * Read the FAQ
     * Other problems
     * Bug reports

Read the FAQ

   Some problems are more common than others. The most common ones are
   listed in the PHP FAQ, part of this manual.

Other problems

   If you are still stuck, someone on the PHP installation mailing list
   may be able to help you. You should check out the archive first, in
   case someone already answered someone else who had the same problem as
   you. The archives are available from the support page on
   » To subscribe to the PHP installation
   mailing list, send an empty mail to
   » The mailing list address is

   If you want to get help on the mailing list, please try to be precise
   and give the necessary details about your environment (which operating
   system, what PHP version, what web server, if you are running PHP as
   CGI or a server module, safe mode, etc.), and preferably enough code to
   make others able to reproduce and test your problem.

Bug reports

   If you think you have found a bug in PHP, please report it. The PHP
   developers probably don't know about it, and unless you report it,
   chances are it won't be fixed. You can report bugs using the
   bug-tracking system at » Please do not send bug
   reports in mailing list or personal letters. The bug system is also
   suitable to submit feature requests.

   Read the » How to report a bug document before submitting any bug

Runtime Configuration

Table of Contents

     * The configuration file
     * .user.ini files
     * Where a configuration setting may be set
     * How to change configuration settings

The configuration file

   The configuration file (php.ini) is read when PHP starts up. For the
   server module versions of PHP, this happens only once when the web
   server is started. For the CGI and CLI versions, it happens on every

   php.ini is searched for in these locations (in order):
     * SAPI module specific location (PHPIniDir directive in Apache 2, -c
       command line option in CGI and CLI, php_ini parameter in NSAPI,
       PHP_INI_PATH environment variable in THTTPD)
     * The PHPRC environment variable. Before PHP 5.2.0, this was checked
       after the registry key mentioned below.
     * As of PHP 5.2.0, the location of the php.ini file can be set for
       different versions of PHP. The following registry keys are examined
       in order: [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x.y.z],
       [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x], where x, y and z mean the PHP
       major, minor and release versions. If there is a value for
       IniFilePath in any of these keys, the first one found will be used
       as the location of the php.ini (Windows only).
     * [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP], value of IniFilePath (Windows
     * Current working directory (except CLI).
     * The web server's directory (for SAPI modules), or directory of PHP
       (otherwise in Windows).
     * Windows directory (C:\windows or C:\winnt) (for Windows), or
       --with-config-file-path compile time option.

   If php-SAPI.ini exists (where SAPI is the SAPI in use, so, for example,
   php-cli.ini or php-apache.ini), it is used instead of php.ini. The SAPI
   name can be determined with php_sapi_name().


     The Apache web server changes the directory to root at startup,
     causing PHP to attempt to read php.ini from the root filesystem if
     it exists.

   The php.ini directives handled by extensions are documented on the
   respective pages of the extensions themselves. A list of the core
   directives is available in the appendix. Not all PHP directives are
   necessarily documented in this manual: for a complete list of
   directives available in your PHP version, please read your well
   commented php.ini file. Alternatively, you may find » the latest
   php.ini from Git helpful too.

   Example #1 php.ini example
; any text on a line after an unquoted semicolon (;) is ignored
[php] ; section markers (text within square brackets) are also ignored
; Boolean values can be set to either:
; true, on, yes
; or false, off, no, none
register_globals = off
track_errors = yes

; you can enclose strings in double-quotes
include_path = ".:/usr/local/lib/php"

; backslashes are treated the same as any other character
include_path = ".;c:\php\lib"

   Since PHP 5.1.0, it is possible to refer to existing .ini variables
   from within .ini files. Example: open_basedir = ${open_basedir}

.user.ini files

   Since PHP 5.3.0, PHP includes support for .htaccess-style INI files on
   a per-directory basis. These files are processed only by the
   CGI/FastCGI SAPI. This functionality obsoletes the PECL htscanner
   extension. If you are using Apache, use .htaccess files for the same

   In addition to the main php.ini file, PHP scans for INI files in each
   directory, starting with the directory of the requested PHP file, and
   working its way up to the current document root (as set in
   $_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT']). In case the PHP file is outside the
   document root, only its directory is scanned.

   Only INI settings with the modes PHP_INI_PERDIR and PHP_INI_USER will
   be recognized in .user.ini-style INI files.

   Two new INI directives, user_ini.filename and user_ini.cache_ttl
   control the use of user INI files.

   user_ini.filename sets the name of the file PHP looks for in each
   directory; if set to an empty string, PHP doesn't scan at all. The
   default is .user.ini.

   user_ini.cache_ttl controls how often user INI files are re-read. The
   default is 300 seconds (5 minutes).

Where a configuration setting may be set

   These modes determine when and where a PHP directive may or may not be
   set, and each directive within the manual refers to one of these modes.
   For example, some settings may be set within a PHP script using
   ini_set(), whereas others may require php.ini or httpd.conf.

   For example, the output_buffering setting is PHP_INI_PERDIR therefore
   it may not be set using ini_set(). However, the display_errors
   directive is PHP_INI_ALL therefore it may be set anywhere, including
   with ini_set().

   CAPTION: Definition of PHP_INI_* modes

   Mode Meaning
   PHP_INI_USER Entry can be set in user scripts (like with ini_set()) or
   in the Windows registry. Since PHP 5.3, entry can be set in .user.ini
   PHP_INI_PERDIR Entry can be set in php.ini, .htaccess, httpd.conf or
   .user.ini (since PHP 5.3)
   PHP_INI_SYSTEM Entry can be set in php.ini or httpd.conf
   PHP_INI_ALL Entry can be set anywhere

How to change configuration settings

Running PHP as an Apache module

   When using PHP as an Apache module, you can also change the
   configuration settings using directives in Apache configuration files
   (e.g. httpd.conf) and .htaccess files. You will need "AllowOverride
   Options" or "AllowOverride All" privileges to do so.

   There are several Apache directives that allow you to change the PHP
   configuration from within the Apache configuration files. For a listing
   of which directives are PHP_INI_ALL, PHP_INI_PERDIR, or PHP_INI_SYSTEM,
   have a look at the List of php.ini directives appendix.

   php_value name value
          Sets the value of the specified directive. Can be used only with
          PHP_INI_ALL and PHP_INI_PERDIR type directives. To clear a
          previously set value use none as the value.

     Note: Don't use php_value to set boolean values. php_flag (see
     below) should be used instead.

   php_flag name on|off
          Used to set a boolean configuration directive. Can be used only
          with PHP_INI_ALL and PHP_INI_PERDIR type directives.

   php_admin_value name value
          Sets the value of the specified directive. This can not be used
          in .htaccess files. Any directive type set with php_admin_value
          can not be overridden by .htaccess or ini_set(). To clear a
          previously set value use none as the value.

   php_admin_flag name on|off
          Used to set a boolean configuration directive. This can not be
          used in .htaccess files. Any directive type set with
          php_admin_flag can not be overridden by .htaccess or ini_set().

   Example #1 Apache configuration example
<IfModule mod_php5.c>
  php_value include_path ".:/usr/local/lib/php"
  php_admin_flag engine on
<IfModule mod_php4.c>
  php_value include_path ".:/usr/local/lib/php"
  php_admin_flag engine on


   PHP constants do not exist outside of PHP. For example, in httpd.conf
   you can not use PHP constants such as E_ALL or E_NOTICE to set the
   error_reporting directive as they will have no meaning and will
   evaluate to 0. Use the associated bitmask values instead. These
   constants can be used in php.ini

Changing PHP configuration via the Windows registry

   When running PHP on Windows, the configuration values can be modified
   on a per-directory basis using the Windows registry. The configuration
   values are stored in the registry key HKLM\SOFTWARE\PHP\Per Directory
   Values, in the sub-keys corresponding to the path names. For example,
   configuration values for the directory c:\inetpub\wwwroot would be
   stored in the key HKLM\SOFTWARE\PHP\Per Directory
   Values\c\inetpub\wwwroot. The settings for the directory would be
   active for any script running from this directory or any subdirectory
   of it. The values under the key should have the name of the PHP
   configuration directive and the string value. PHP constants in the
   values are not parsed. However, only configuration values changeable in
   PHP_INI_USER can be set this way, PHP_INI_PERDIR values can not.

Other interfaces to PHP

   Regardless of how you run PHP, you can change certain values at runtime
   of your scripts through ini_set(). See the documentation on the
   ini_set() page for more information.

   If you are interested in a complete list of configuration settings on
   your system with their current values, you can execute the phpinfo()
   function, and review the resulting page. You can also access the values
   of individual configuration directives at runtime using ini_get() or


   This section holds common questions about the way to install PHP. PHP
   is available for almost any OS (except maybe for MacOS before OSX), and
   almost any web server.

   To install PHP, follow the instructions in Installing PHP.
    1. Why shouldn't I use Apache2 with a threaded MPM in a production
    2. Unix/Windows: Where should my php.ini file be located?
    3. Unix: I installed PHP, but every time I load a document, I get the
       message 'Document Contains No Data'! What's going on here?
    4. Unix: I installed PHP using RPMS, but Apache isn't processing the
       PHP pages! What's going on here?
    5. Unix: I patched Apache with the FrontPage extensions patch, and
       suddenly PHP stopped working. Is PHP incompatible with the Apache
       FrontPage extensions?
    6. Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP
       script file via my browser, I get a blank screen.
    7. Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when try to access a PHP
       script file via my browser, I get a server 500 error.
    8. Some operating systems: I have installed PHP without errors, but
       when I try to start Apache I get undefined symbol errors:
       [mybox:user /src/php5] root# apachectl configtest apachectl:
       /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd Undefined symbols: _compress
    9. Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP
       script file via my browser, I get the error: cgi error: The
       specified CGI application misbehaved by not returning a complete
       set of HTTP headers. The headers it did return are:
   10. Windows: I've followed all the instructions, but still can't get
       PHP and IIS to work together!
   11. When running PHP as CGI with IIS, PWS, OmniHTTPD or Xitami, I get
       the following error: Security Alert! PHP CGI cannot be accessed
   12. How do I know if my php.ini is being found and read? It seems like
       it isn't as my changes aren't being implemented.
   13. How do I add my PHP directory to the PATH on Windows?
   14. How do I make the php.ini file available to PHP on windows?
   15. Is it possible to use Apache content negotiation (MultiViews
       option) with PHP?
   16. Is PHP limited to process GET and POST request methods only?

   Why shouldn't I use Apache2 with a threaded MPM in a production
          PHP is glue. It is the glue used to build cool web applications
          by sticking dozens of 3rd-party libraries together and making it
          all appear as one coherent entity through an intuitive and easy
          to learn language interface. The flexibility and power of PHP
          relies on the stability and robustness of the underlying
          platform. It needs a working OS, a working web server and
          working 3rd-party libraries to glue together. When any of these
          stop working PHP needs ways to identify the problems and fix
          them quickly. When you make the underlying framework more
          complex by not having completely separate execution threads,
          completely separate memory segments and a strong sandbox for
          each request to play in, further weaknesses are introduced into
          PHP's system.

          If you want to use a threaded MPM, look at a FastCGI
          configuration where PHP is running in its own memory space.

   Unix/Windows: Where should my php.ini file be located?
          By default on Unix it should be in /usr/local/lib which is
          <install-path>/lib. Most people will want to change this at
          compile-time with the --with-config-file-path flag. You would,
          for example, set it with something like:


          And then you would copy php.ini-development from the
          distribution to /etc/php.ini and edit it to make any local
          changes you want.


          On Windows the default path for the php.ini file is the Windows
          directory. If you're using the Apache webserver, php.ini is
          first searched in the Apaches install directory, e.g. c:\program
          files\apache group\apache. This way you can have different
          php.ini files for different versions of Apache on the same

          See also the chapter about the configuration file.

   Unix: I installed PHP, but every time I load a document, I get the
          message 'Document Contains No Data'! What's going on here?
          This probably means that PHP is having some sort of problem and
          is core-dumping. Look in your server error log to see if this is
          the case, and then try to reproduce the problem with a small
          test case. If you know how to use 'gdb', it is very helpful when
          you can provide a backtrace with your bug report to help the
          developers pinpoint the problem. If you are using PHP as an
          Apache module try something like:

          + Stop your httpd processes
          + gdb httpd
          + Stop your httpd processes
          + > run -X -f /path/to/httpd.conf
          + Then fetch the URL causing the problem with your browser
          + > run -X -f /path/to/httpd.conf
          + If you are getting a core dump, gdb should inform you of this
          + type: bt
          + You should include your backtrace in your bug report. This
            should be submitted to »

          If your script uses the regular expression functions
          (preg_match() and friends), you should make sure that you
          compiled PHP and Apache with the same regular expression
          package. This should happen automatically with PHP and Apache

   Unix: I installed PHP using RPMS, but Apache isn't processing the PHP
          pages! What's going on here?
          Assuming you installed both Apache and PHP from RPM packages,
          you need to uncomment or add some or all of the following lines
          in your httpd.conf file:

# Extra Modules
AddModule mod_php.c
AddModule mod_perl.c

# Extra Modules
LoadModule php_module modules/
LoadModule php5_module modules/
LoadModule perl_module modules/

          And add:

AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

          ... to the global properties, or to the properties of the
          VirtualDomain you want to have PHP support added to.

   Unix: I patched Apache with the FrontPage extensions patch, and
          suddenly PHP stopped working. Is PHP incompatible with the
          Apache FrontPage extensions?
          No, PHP works fine with the FrontPage extensions. The problem is
          that the FrontPage patch modifies several Apache structures,
          that PHP relies on. Recompiling PHP (using 'make clean ; make')
          after the FP patch is applied would solve the problem.

   Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP
          script file via my browser, I get a blank screen.
          Do a 'view source' in the web browser and you will probably find
          that you can see the source code of your PHP script. This means
          that the web server did not send the script to PHP for
          interpretation. Something is wrong with the server configuration
          - double check the server configuration against the PHP
          installation instructions.

   Unix/Windows: I have installed PHP, but when try to access a PHP script
          file via my browser, I get a server 500 error.
          Something went wrong when the server tried to run PHP. To get to
          see a sensible error message, from the command line, change to
          the directory containing the PHP executable (php.exe on Windows)
          and run php -i. If PHP has any problems running, then a suitable
          error message will be displayed which will give you a clue as to
          what needs to be done next. If you get a screen full of HTML
          codes (the output of the phpinfo() function) then PHP is
          working, and your problem may be related to your server
          configuration which you should double check.

   Some operating systems: I have installed PHP without errors, but when I
          try to start Apache I get undefined symbol errors:

[mybox:user /src/php5] root# apachectl configtest
 apachectl: /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd Undefined symbols:

          This has actually nothing to do with PHP, but with the MySQL
          client libraries. Some need --with-zlib , others do not. This is
          also covered in the MySQL FAQ.

   Windows: I have installed PHP, but when I try to access a PHP script
          file via my browser, I get the error:

cgi error:
 The specified CGI application misbehaved by not
 returning a complete set of HTTP headers.
 The headers it did return are:

          This error message means that PHP failed to output anything at
          all. To get to see a sensible error message, from the command
          line, change to the directory containing the PHP executable
          (php.exe on Windows) and run php -i. If PHP has any problems
          running, then a suitable error message will be displayed which
          will give you a clue as to what needs to be done next. If you
          get a screen full of HTML codes (the output of the phpinfo()
          function) then PHP is working.

          Once PHP is working at the command line, try accessing the
          script via the browser again. If it still fails then it could be
          one of the following:

          + File permissions on your PHP script, php.exe, php5ts.dll,
            php.ini or any PHP extensions you are trying to load are such
            that the anonymous internet user ISUR_<machinename> cannot
            access them.
          + The script file does not exist (or possibly isn't where you
            think it is relative to your web root directory). Note that
            for IIS you can trap this error by ticking the 'check file
            exists' box when setting up the script mappings in the
            Internet Services Manager. If a script file does not exist
            then the server will return a 404 error instead. There is also
            the additional benefit that IIS will do any authentication
            required for you based on the NTLanMan permissions on your
            script file.

   Windows: I've followed all the instructions, but still can't get PHP
          and IIS to work together!
          Make sure any user who needs to run a PHP script has the rights
          to run php.exe! IIS uses an anonymous user which is added at the
          time IIS is installed. This user needs rights to php.exe. Also,
          any authenticated user will also need rights to execute php.exe.
          And for IIS4 you need to tell it that PHP is a script engine.
          Also, you will want to read this faq.

   When running PHP as CGI with IIS, PWS, OmniHTTPD or Xitami, I get the
          following error: Security Alert! PHP CGI cannot be accessed
          You must set the cgi.force_redirect directive to 0. It defaults
          to 1 so be sure the directive isn't commented out (with a ;).
          Like all directives, this is set in php.ini

          Because the default is 1, it's critical that you're 100% sure
          that the correct php.ini file is being read. Read this faq for

   How do I know if my php.ini is being found and read? It seems like it
          isn't as my changes aren't being implemented.
          To be sure your php.ini is being read by PHP, make a call to
          phpinfo(). Near the top, there will be a listing called
          Configuration File (php.ini). This will tell you where PHP is
          looking for php.ini and whether or not it's being read. If just
          a directory PATH exists, then it's not being read, and you
          should put your php.ini in that directory. If php.ini is
          included within the PATH, it is being read.

          If php.ini is being read and you're running PHP as a module,
          then be sure to restart your web server after making changes to

          See also php_ini_loaded_file().

   How do I add my PHP directory to the PATH on Windows?
          On Windows NT+ and Windows Server 2000+:

          + Go to Control Panel and open the System icon (Start ->
            Settings -> Control Panel -> System, or just Start -> Control
            Panel -> System for Windows XP/2003+)
          + Go to the Advanced tab
          + Click on the 'Environment Variables' button
          + Look into the 'System Variables' pane
          + Find the Path entry (you may need to scroll to find it)
          + Double click on the Path entry
          + Enter your PHP directory at the end, including ';' before
            (e.g. ;C:\php)
          + Press OK

          On Windows 98/Me you need to edit the autoexec.bat file:

          + Open the Notepad (Start -> Run and enter notepad)
          + Open the C:\autoexec.bat file
          + Locate the line with PATH=C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND;.....
            and add: ;C:\php to the end of the line
          + Save the file and restart your computer

     Note: Be sure to reboot after following the steps above to ensure
     that the PATH changes are applied.

          The PHP manual used to promote the copying of files into the
          Windows system directory, this is because this directory
          (C:\Windows, C:\WINNT, etc.) is by default in the systems PATH.
          Copying files into the Windows system directory has long since
          been deprecated and may cause problems.

   How do I make the php.ini file available to PHP on windows?
          There are several ways of doing this. If you are using Apache,
          read their installation specific instructions (Apache 1, Apache
          2), otherwise you must set the PHPRC environment variable:

          On Windows NT, 2000, XP and 2003:

          + Go to Control Panel and open the System icon (Start ->
            Settings -> Control Panel -> System, or just Start -> Control
            Panel -> System for Windows XP/2003)
          + Go to the Advanced tab
          + Click on the 'Environment Variables' button
          + Look into the 'System variables' pane
          + Click on 'New' and enter 'PHPRC' as the variable name and the
            directory where php.ini is located as the variable value (e.g.
          + Press OK and restart your computer

          On Windows 98/Me you need to edit the autoexec.bat file:

          + Open the Notepad (Start -> Run and enter notepad)
          + Open the C:\autoexec.bat file
          + Add a new line to the end of the file: set PHPRC=C:\php
            (replace C:\php with the directory where php.ini is located).
            Please note that the path cannot contain spaces. For instance,
            if you have installed PHP in C:\Program Files\PHP, you would
            enter C:\PROGRA~1\PHP instead.
          + Save the file and restart your computer

   Is it possible to use Apache content negotiation (MultiViews option)
          with PHP?
          If links to PHP files include extension, everything works
          perfect. This FAQ is only for the case when links to PHP files
          don't include extension and you want to use content negotiation
          to choose PHP files from URL with no extension. In this case,
          replace the line AddType application/x-httpd-php .php with:

AddHandler php5-script php
AddType text/html php

          This solution doesn't work for Apache 1 as PHP module doesn't
          catch php-script.

   Is PHP limited to process GET and POST request methods only?
          No, it is possible to handle any request method, e.g. CONNECT.
          Proper response status can be sent with header(). If only GET
          and POST methods should be handled, it can be achieved with this
          Apache configuration:

<LimitExcept GET POST>
Deny from all
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.