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-========================
- PHP Coding Standards
-========================
-
-This file lists several standards that any programmer, adding or changing
-code in PHP, should follow. Since this file was added at a very late
-stage of the development of PHP v3.0, the code base does not (yet) fully
-follow it, but it's going in that general direction. Since we are now
-well into the version 4 releases, many sections have been recoded to use
-these rules.
-
-Code Implementation
--------------------
-
-0. Document your code in source files and the manual. [tm]
-
-1. Functions that are given pointers to resources should not free them
-
-For instance, ``function int mail(char *to, char *from)`` should NOT free
-to and/or from.
-Exceptions:
-
-- The function's designated behavior is freeing that resource. E.g. efree()
-
-- The function is given a boolean argument, that controls whether or not
- the function may free its arguments (if true - the function must free its
- arguments, if false - it must not)
-
-- Low-level parser routines, that are tightly integrated with the token
- cache and the bison code for minimum memory copying overhead.
-
-2. Functions that are tightly integrated with other functions within the
- same module, and rely on each other non-trivial behavior, should be
- documented as such and declared 'static'. They should be avoided if
- possible.
-
-3. Use definitions and macros whenever possible, so that constants have
- meaningful names and can be easily manipulated. The only exceptions
- to this rule are 0 and 1, when used as false and true (respectively).
- Any other use of a numeric constant to specify different behavior
- or actions should be done through a #define.
-
-4. When writing functions that deal with strings, be sure to remember
- that PHP holds the length property of each string, and that it
- shouldn't be calculated with strlen(). Write your functions in a such
- a way so that they'll take advantage of the length property, both
- for efficiency and in order for them to be binary-safe.
- Functions that change strings and obtain their new lengths while
- doing so, should return that new length, so it doesn't have to be
- recalculated with strlen() (e.g. php_addslashes())
-
-5. NEVER USE strncat(). If you're absolutely sure you know what you're doing,
- check its man page again, and only then, consider using it, and even then,
- try avoiding it.
-
-6. Use ``PHP_*`` macros in the PHP source, and ``ZEND_*`` macros in the Zend
- part of the source. Although the ``PHP_*`` macro's are mostly aliased to the
- ``ZEND_*`` macros it gives a better understanding on what kind of macro
- you're calling.
-
-7. When commenting out code using a #if statement, do NOT use 0 only. Instead
- use "<cvs username here>_0". For example, #if FOO_0, where FOO is your
- cvs user foo. This allows easier tracking of why code was commented out,
- especially in bundled libraries.
-
-8. Do not define functions that are not available. For instance, if a
- library is missing a function, do not define the PHP version of the
- function, and do not raise a run-time error about the function not
- existing. End users should use function_exists() to test for the
- existence of a function
-
-9. Prefer emalloc(), efree(), estrdup(), etc. to their standard C library
- counterparts. These functions implement an internal "safety-net"
- mechanism that ensures the deallocation of any unfreed memory at the
- end of a request. They also provide useful allocation and overflow
- information while running in debug mode.
-
- In almost all cases, memory returned to the engine must be allocated
- using emalloc().
-
- The use of malloc() should be limited to cases where a third-party
- library may need to control or free the memory, or when the memory in
- question needs to survive between multiple requests.
-
-Naming Conventions
-------------------
-
-1. Function names for user-level functions should be enclosed with in
- the PHP_FUNCTION() macro. They should be in lowercase, with words
- underscore delimited, with care taken to minimize the letter count.
- Abbreviations should not be used when they greatly decrease the
- readability of the function name itself::
-
- Good:
- 'mcrypt_enc_self_test'
- 'mysql_list_fields'
-
- Ok:
- 'mcrypt_module_get_algo_supported_key_sizes'
- (could be 'mcrypt_mod_get_algo_sup_key_sizes'?)
- 'get_html_translation_table'
- (could be 'html_get_trans_table'?)
-
- Bad:
- 'hw_GetObjectByQueryCollObj'
- 'pg_setclientencoding'
- 'jf_n_s_i'
-
-2. If they are part of a "parent set" of functions, that parent should
- be included in the user function name, and should be clearly related
- to the parent program or function family. This should be in the form
- of ``parent_*``::
-
- A family of 'foo' functions, for example:
- Good:
- 'foo_select_bar'
- 'foo_insert_baz'
- 'foo_delete_baz'
-
- Bad:
- 'fooselect_bar'
- 'fooinsertbaz'
- 'delete_foo_baz'
-
-3. Function names used by user functions should be prefixed
- with ``_php_``, and followed by a word or an underscore-delimited list of
- words, in lowercase letters, that describes the function. If applicable,
- they should be declared 'static'.
-
-4. Variable names must be meaningful. One letter variable names must be
- avoided, except for places where the variable has no real meaning or
- a trivial meaning (e.g. for (i=0; i<100; i++) ...).
-
-5. Variable names should be in lowercase. Use underscores to separate
- between words.
-
-6. Method names follow the 'studlyCaps' (also referred to as 'bumpy case'
- or 'camel caps') naming convention, with care taken to minimize the
- letter count. The initial letter of the name is lowercase, and each
- letter that starts a new 'word' is capitalized::
-
- Good:
- 'connect()'
- 'getData()'
- 'buildSomeWidget()'
-
- Bad:
- 'get_Data()'
- 'buildsomewidget'
- 'getI()'
-
-7. Classes should be given descriptive names. Avoid using abbreviations where
- possible. Each word in the class name should start with a capital letter,
- without underscore delimiters (CampelCaps starting with a capital letter).
- The class name should be prefixed with the name of the 'parent set' (e.g.
- the name of the extension)::
-
- Good:
- 'Curl'
- 'FooBar'
-
- Bad:
- 'foobar'
- 'foo_bar'
-
-Syntax and indentation
-----------------------
-
-1. Never use C++ style comments (i.e. // comment). Always use C-style
- comments instead. PHP is written in C, and is aimed at compiling
- under any ANSI-C compliant compiler. Even though many compilers
- accept C++-style comments in C code, you have to ensure that your
- code would compile with other compilers as well.
- The only exception to this rule is code that is Win32-specific,
- because the Win32 port is MS-Visual C++ specific, and this compiler
- is known to accept C++-style comments in C code.
-
-2. Use K&R-style. Of course, we can't and don't want to
- force anybody to use a style he or she is not used to, but,
- at the very least, when you write code that goes into the core
- of PHP or one of its standard modules, please maintain the K&R
- style. This applies to just about everything, starting with
- indentation and comment styles and up to function declaration
- syntax. Also see Indentstyle_.
-
-.. _Indentstyle: http://www.catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/I/indent-style.html
-
-3. Be generous with whitespace and braces. Keep one empty line between the
- variable declaration section and the statements in a block, as well as
- between logical statement groups in a block. Maintain at least one empty
- line between two functions, preferably two. Always prefer::
-
- if (foo) {
- bar;
- }
-
- to:
-
- if(foo)bar;
-
-4. When indenting, use the tab character. A tab is expected to represent
- four spaces. It is important to maintain consistency in indenture so
- that definitions, comments, and control structures line up correctly.
-
-5. Preprocessor statements (#if and such) MUST start at column one. To
- indent preprocessor directives you should put the # at the beginning
- of a line, followed by any number of whitespace.
-
-Testing
--------
-
-1. Extensions should be well tested using *.phpt tests. Read about that
- in README.TESTING.
-
-Documentation and Folding Hooks
--------------------------------
-
-In order to make sure that the online documentation stays in line with
-the code, each user-level function should have its user-level function
-prototype before it along with a brief one-line description of what the
-function does. It would look like this::
-
- /* {{{ proto int abs(int number)
- Returns the absolute value of the number */
- PHP_FUNCTION(abs)
- {
- ...
- }
- /* }}} */
-
-The {{{ symbols are the default folding symbols for the folding mode in
-Emacs and vim (set fdm=marker). Folding is very useful when dealing with
-large files because you can scroll through the file quickly and just unfold
-the function you wish to work on. The }}} at the end of each function marks
-the end of the fold, and should be on a separate line.
-
-The "proto" keyword there is just a helper for the doc/genfuncsummary script
-which generates a full function summary. Having this keyword in front of the
-function prototypes allows us to put folds elsewhere in the code without
-messing up the function summary.
-
-Optional arguments are written like this::
-
- /* {{{ proto object imap_header(int stream_id, int msg_no [, int from_length [, int subject_length [, string default_host]]])
- Returns a header object with the defined parameters */
-
-And yes, please keep the prototype on a single line, even if that line
-is massive.
-
-New and Experimental Functions
------------------------------------
-To reduce the problems normally associated with the first public
-implementation of a new set of functions, it has been suggested
-that the first implementation include a file labeled 'EXPERIMENTAL'
-in the function directory, and that the functions follow the
-standard prefixing conventions during their initial implementation.
-
-The file labelled 'EXPERIMENTAL' should include the following
-information::
-
- Any authoring information (known bugs, future directions of the module).
- Ongoing status notes which may not be appropriate for CVS comments.
-
-Aliases & Legacy Documentation
------------------------------------
-You may also have some deprecated aliases with close to duplicate
-names, for example, somedb_select_result and somedb_selectresult. For
-documentation purposes, these will only be documented by the most
-current name, with the aliases listed in the documentation for
-the parent function. For ease of reference, user-functions with
-completely different names, that alias to the same function (such as
-highlight_file and show_source), will be separately documented. The
-proto should still be included, describing which function is aliased.
-
-Backwards compatible functions and names should be maintained as long
-as the code can be reasonably be kept as part of the codebase. See
-/phpdoc/README for more information on documentation.
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-For the list of people who've put work into PHP, please see
-http://www.php.net/credits.php
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