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* README file for `paxutils' allout -*- outline -*- Here is version 2.4f for Free `pax' utilities. Glance through this `README' file before starting configuration. Make sure you read files `ABOUT-NLS' and `INSTALL' if you are not familiar with them already. The canonical distribution point for this version is either: http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/paxutils/paxutils-2.4f.tar.gz ftp://ftp.iro.umontreal.ca/pub/paxutils/paxutils-2.4f.tar.gz yet the second URL (the FTP one) might disappear one day. GNU mirrors usually hold a copy of non-pretest releases, the canonical distribution points for last such releases (before the merge occurred) are: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/cpio-2.4.tar.gz ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/tar-1.12.shar.gz ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/tar-1.12.tar.gz .* Introduction ------------ . + Presentation The `paxutils' tools, which manage archives of files, are `cpio', `pax' and `tar'. They can save many files together into a single tape or disk archive, and can restore individual files from the archive. They collectively include multivolume support, the ability to archive sparse files, automatic archive compression and decompression, remote archives, and special features allow for incremental and full backups. `cpio' supports the features of the System V release 4 `cpio', including support for `tar' archives. The included `tar' is derived from John Gilmore's public domain `tar'. This package also includes `rmt', the remote tape server, and `mt', a tape drive control program; these two programs will only be compiled if your system supports remote command execution, and tape drive control operations, respectively. . + See files ABOUT-NLS how to customise this program to your language BACKLOG summary of pending mail and articles COPYING copying conditions INSTALL compilation and installation instructions NEWS major changes in the current release README.dos how to build `paxutils' for MS-DOS or MS-Windows THANKS partial list of contributors . + Configure options The default archive devices are `stdin' on read and `stdout' on write. The installer can still override this by presetting `DEFAULT_ARCHIVE' in the environment before configuring (the behaviour of `-[0-7]' or `-[0-7]lmh' options in `tar' are then derived automatically). Similarly, `DEFAULT_BLOCKING' can be preset to something else than 20. Besides those configure options documented in files `INSTALL' and `ABOUT-NLS', a few extra options may be accepted after `./configure': . - `--with-included-malloc', `--without-included-malloc' to override the automatic choice made by `configure' about using included GNU malloc. . - `--with-dmalloc' to trigger a debugging feature for looking at memory management problems, it pre-requires Gray Watson's package, which is available as `ftp://ftp.letters.com/src/dmalloc/dmalloc.tar.gz'. . + Maintenance tools For comprehensive modifications to `paxutils', you might need tools beyond those used in simple installations. If not done already, get: ftp://i44ftp.info.uni-karlsruhe.de/pub/gnu/gettext-0.10.26.tar.gz ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/m4-1.4.tar.gz ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/perl-5.003.tar.gz ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/autoconf-2.12.tar.gz + AC-PATCHES ftp://ftp.cygnus.com/pub/tromey/automake-1.3.tar.gz + AM-PATCHES ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/bison-1.25.tar.gz + BI-PATCHES Do not forget applying the `*-PATCHES' files (all officious) appropriately. Make sure GNU `m4' is fully installed before you start installing Autoconf. Have Perl installed before Automake. . + Mailing lists and collaboration If you feel like receiving releases and pretest announcements for the `paxutils' package (formerly `cpio' or `tar'), send a message to mailto:email@example.com having, in its body, a line saying: subscribe paxutils-announce If you rather want to participate actively in discussions, pretesting and development for `paxutils', do just as above, but this time, use: subscribe paxutils-forum Look into http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/paxutils/ for various releases, pretests, and related files. In particular, subdirectory `dist/' contains a weekly mirror of the current unpackaged work files, while subdirectory `rmail/' contains saved or pending correspondence. Please do _not_ widely redistribute releases having a letter after the version numbers, as these are meant for pretesting only, and might not be stable enough for other usages. . + Report addresses Send bug reports to `firstname.lastname@example.org'. A bug report is an adequate description of the problem: your input, what you expected, what you got, and why this is wrong. Diffs are welcome, but they only describe a solution, from which the problem might be uneasy to infer. If needed, submit actual data files with your report. Small data files are preferred. Big files may sometimes be necessary, but do not send them to the report address; rather take special arrangement with the maintainer. Your feedback will help us to make a better and more portable package. Consider documentation errors as bugs, and report them as such. If you develop anything usefully related or have suggestions, let us know and share your findings by writing at `email@example.com'. .* Installation hints ------------------ Here are a few hints which might help installing `paxutils' on some systems. Many may be applied by temporary presetting environment variables while calling `./configure'. File `INSTALL' explains this. . + Static linking Some platform will, by default, prepare smaller program executable which depends on shared libraries. Since these tools may have to be used for system-level backups and disaster recovery, system builders and integrators might prefer forcing static linking, which might result in a bigger executable, but able to work standalone, in situations where shared libraries are not available. The way to achieve static linking varies between systems. Set LDFLAGS to a value from the table below, before configuration (see `INSTALL'). Platform Compiler LDFLAGS (any) Gnu C -static AIX (vendor) "-bnso -bI:/lib/syscalls.exp" HPUX (vendor) -Wl,-a,archive IRIX (vendor) -non_shared OSF (vendor) -non_shared SCO 3.2v5 (vendor) -dn Solaris (vendor) -Bstatic SunOS (vendor) -Bstatic A few users manifested the wish that Linux packages, in particular, offer some kind of statically linked tools for emergency cases. . + BSD compatibility matters Set LIBS to `-lbsd' before configuration (see `INSTALL') if the linker complains about undefined `valloc' (AIX) or `bsd_ioctl' (Slackware). Also set CPPFLAGS to `-I/usr/include/bsd/sys' before configuration to solve dirent problems (NeXT), or to `-I/usr/include/bsd' if <sgtty.h> is not found (Slackware). . + `union wait' problems Configuration of `union wait' does not always take the best decision. If you have this problem, edit file `config.cache' after configuration, find the line about `tar_cv_header_union_wait', change `yes' by `no' or vice-versa, then reconfigure again without doing `make distclean'. . + FreeBSD users -- `configure' fails It has been reported that `configure' does not run on FreeBSD 2.1.7, because of a buggy `sh'. It works using `bash', however. . + ISC users -- `S_*' symbols undefined On ISC 4.1mu, POSIX environment, set CFLAGS to `-posix' and CPPFLAGS to `-D_SYSV3' before configuration (see `INSTALL'). This will trigger the definition of a few `S_' prefixed symbols from <sys/stat.h>. . + Ultrix users -- broken `make' It seems that Ultrix make does not correctly handle shell commands having logical connectives in them. Use `s5make' if you have it, try `PROG_ENV=SYSTEM_FIVE make' (works on Ultrix 4.4), or install GNU Make. . + Failed tests It is expected that `make check' will fail a few tests if your environment if not fully Unix. Here are a few more notes. . - incremen.sh In an NFS environment, lack of synchronisation between machine clocks might create difficulties to any tool comparing dates and file timestamps, like `tar' in incremental dumps. This has been a recurrent problem in GNU Makefiles for the last few years. .* Special topics -------------- Here are a few special matters about `paxutils', not related to build matters. See previous section for such. . + File attributes About *security*, it is probable that future releases of `tar' will have some behaviour changed. There are many pending suggestions to choose from. Today, extracting an archive not being `root', `tar' will restore suid/sgid bits on files but owned by the extracting user. `root' automatically gets a lot of special privileges, `-p' might later become required to get them. `tar' does not properly restore symlink attributes. Various systems implement flavours of symbolic links showing different behaviour and properties. We did not successfully sorted all these out yet. Currently, the `lchown' call will be used if available, but that's all. . + POSIX compliance While the included `cpio' supports the final POSIX.1 "ustar" `tar' format, the included `tar' implements the 6th draft of the POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' standard, which is different from the final standard. `cpio' knows to recognize the nonstandard "ustar" archives produced by `tar'. This will be progressively corrected over the incoming years. Don't be mislead by the mere existence of the --posix option. This option will be more fully implemented in later releases for producing truly POSIX archives. `paxutils' 3.0 will produce POSIX archives by default, but there is a long way before we get there. (If you look at the internals, don't take all the extensions you see for granted, as they are planned to change.) . + What's next? The `BACKLOG' file shows an approximative priorisation of the many pending problems and suggestions. Besides pending problems and all other matters listed above, the cleanup will continue and extend to the general organisation of the code, so to better merge the `cpio' and `tar' algorithms, which were once fully separate. We also want to address some long-awaited performance issues (for example: double buffering) or enhancements (for example: per-file compression).