Two stage x86 boot loader and preliminary kernel code which are combined into single binary file to be flashed to PCI expansion card with Flash ROM/EEPROM.
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This file explains the changes have been done from the first version of this operating system archaic kernel.

How to Build The Kernel Binary - The "cumbersome" version

This is the explanation of how to build the very first version fo the code, which places all the source files in one directory, it is cumbersome, but it works. It is still here to give insight of how actually the code works. It's better to read this file, rather than reading all the "twisty" Makefile to know exactly how the code works.

The following guide explains how to build a working archaic kernel from the sources in one directory.

Step 0: The assumptions in the following steps

a. You have to put all the needed sources back into one directory. Then, invoke all the "command"s mentioned here from within that directory if you wish to do this.

b. Every binary/executable tool mentioned here is built from their respective source files and are named the same as their source file, except for the extension, i.e. in the binary/executable tool no file extension used at all, while in the source I'm using *.c extension.

c. You already knows the PCI vendor ID and Device ID of the card you are using. They are needed since if you are using a different card than mine, YOU HAVE TO CHANGE THOSE IDs in the source code to match your card. It is in the first stage kernel loader, i.e. loader1.asm, located in the loader directory. If you failed to do so, there's a big chance that the resulting binary ROM file routine will not be executed at all during the booting process, which means our kernel is not executed at all.

d. You have the compiler and assembler needed. Nasm and GCC are required to build the source code.

Step 1: Build the tools needed

The sources needed to build all of the tools are provided in the utility directory. If you are using gcc, then just invoke it as follows (for each file): gcc [source_filename] -o [target_filename]

Explanation of the tools

a. mergebin, this tools is used to combine 2 binary file (actually anyfile) into a single file. It's sensitive to position of the input parameters, i.e. the input filenames, the second input filename will be appended to the first input filename and the third input filename is the target binary file that we're building.

b. zeroextend, this tool is used to append zero(s) (0h) into a file until the file matches the size we're targeting (in bytes), which is the input parameter. For example: to "zeroextend" a file into 1024 byte invoke: zeroextend [input_filename] 1024

c. patch2pnprom, this tool is used to patch the 8-bit checksum of a "pseudo PCI ROM" file into a valid PCI pnprom. Frankly, it calculates the checksums and patches the needed header format as needed.

Step 2: Build the kernel loader

The source files are in the loader directory. Here's the explanation:

a. loader1.asm ; this file contains the PCI PnP rom header of the rom to be built, and some loader routines. Its function is to load the operating system code from ROM to RAM during int 19h, which invokes the BEV that we set in this ROM source code. Its size is 512 bytes, after assembled.

b. loader2.asm ; this file contains the assembly code to switch the machine from real to protected mode and also contains a jump into the C-compiled kernel code. Its size is 512bytes, after assembled.

Step 2a: assemble loader1.asm and loader2.asm

Invoke the following command to carry-out this step:

nasm -fbin [filename] -o [target filename]

in the command line.

Step 2b: combine the resulting binary from Step 2a.

To merge the file I use mergebin utility. Invoke :

mergebin loader1.bin loader2.bin loader.bin

in the command line to obtain it. Be careful not to swap the filename position since mergebin will put the first filename argument in the beginning of the resulting file, and so forth.

Step 3: Build the C kernel code

Compile and link the C sources for the kernel which are located in the kernel directory. To do so, invoke the following command:

gcc -c video.c -o video.o

gcc -c ports.c -o ports.o

ld -o kernel.bin -Ttext 0x7E00 -e main -N --oformat binary main.o video.o ports.o

Note: The last line means, link the files with main() function as entry point, with plain binary format and the code will begin at 0x7E00 when executed, since the first 512 bytes from 0x7C00 is used by loader2.bin, and with no page alignment (one page is 4Kbyte).

We're not done yet !!!

Then, use zeroextend utility to extend the file into multiple of 512 bytes (since we're building a ROM file here) as follows:

zeroextend kernel.bin 1024

Note: I'm using 1024 bytes as the "extended" file size for the C kernel binary here.

Step 4: Merge the kernel loader and the C kernel

Merge the C compiled code (kernel.bin) and the assembly code (loader.bin). Invoke the following command:

mergebin loader.bin kernel.bin boot.bin

Note: Again, take care of the position of the parameters! mergebin is sensitive to it.

Step 5: Patch the needed checksums

Invoke the following command:

patch2pnprom boot.bin

to patch all the wrong checksums in the binary so that boot.bin will become a valid ROM file. This file is the "ready to burn ROM file", use rtflash or another flashing tool to flash it into your LAN/NIC card (or another PCI expansion card) flash rom chip.

How to Build The Kernel Binary - The Makefile Version (10 February 2004 Update)

With the makefile support, you only need to invoke:


in this directory to make the OS and invoke :

make clean

to clean up all the files generated.


You have to provide the following program in an executable path within your shell:

a. nasm

b. gcc

I used Linux (with bash shell) as my development environment, and it works just fine. I've tried using MinGW32 and MSys, the Makefile works just fine but I don't know why gcc unable to output the "pure binary" file of the kernel (kernel.bin) correctly. Any suggestion ??? Please mail me: darmawan.salihun(at)

Successfully modded PCI CARDs

The following cards have been successfully "implanted" with the resulting binary from this source code with little modification(s):

  1. Realtek 8139A NIC (VendorID = 10EC, DeviceID = 8139), with Atmel AT29C512 flashrom (64KByte). The binary flashed using flash program provided by Realtek website (rtflash.exe). First, set the flashrom window size with rset8139.exe (also from Realtek website), just read Realtek's README file.

  2. Adaptec AHA-2940U SCSI controller card (VendorID = 9004, DeviceID = 8178), with soldered PLCC SST29C512 flashrom (64KByte). The binary flashed using unofficial flash program (flash4.exe). The result is awesome and a bit weird, no matter how I changed the BIOS setup, the PCI initialization routine always get called (I think this is due to the controller's chip Subclass Code and Interface Code, which is a SCSI controller/boot device). The hacked PCI expansion ROM make it behave as if it's a real PCI NIC except for the peculiarity mentioned above, my system boot from the card (through it's BEV routine) if I select boot from LAN in the BIOS setup of my mainboard. Also note that the flash program for this card ONLY ACCEPT BINARY FILE OF LENGTH 64KB, if you fail to do so, the flash program will not flash the binary at all :(.