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Formalization of Ethereum Virtual Machine in Lem

Build Status CircleCI

This repository contains

  • an EVM implementation in Lem lem/evm.lem
  • a Keccak-256 implementation in Lem lem/keccak.lem
  • a form of functional correctness defined in Lem lem/evmNonExec.lem
  • a relational semantics that captures the environment's nondeterministic behavior RelationalSem.thy
  • some example verified contracts in example
  • a parser that parses hex code and emits an Isabelle/HOL expression representing the program parser/hexparser.rb

When you see \<Rightarrow> in the source, try using the Isabelle2017 interface. There you see instead.


Lem is a language that can be translated into Coq, Isabelle/HOL, HOL4, OCaml, HTML and LaTeX.


  • Isabelle2017
  • lem
  • OCaml 4.02.3
  • opam 1.2.2
  • Some opam packages: use opam install ocamlfind batteries yojson bignum easy-format bisect_ppx ocamlbuild sha secp256k1
  • ECC-OCaml from mrsmkl
  • secp256k1
    • On Ubuntu Artful, apt install secp256k1-0 secp256k1-dev is enough
    • On older versions of Ubuntu, installation from the current master branch is necessary
    • configure option --enable-module-recovery is needed

How to read the proofs

First translate the Lem definitions into Isabelle/HOL:

$ make lem-thy

Then, use Isabelle2017 to open ./examples/AlwaysFail.thy. The prerequisite Isabelle/HOL files are automatically opened.

How to run VM tests and state tests

Make sure the tests submodule is cloned

$ git submodule init tests
$ git submodule update tests

Extract the OCaml definitions

$ make lem-ocaml

And move to tester directory.

$ cd tester

One way is to run the VM Test.

$ sh
$ ./runVmTest.native

(When ./runVmTest.native takes an argument, it executes only the test cases whose names contain the argument as a substring.)

Another way is to run the VM Test and measure the coverage.

$ sh

Moreover, it's possible to run Blockchain Tests.

$ ./runBlockchainTest.native

Makefile goals

  • make doc produces output/document.pdf as well as lem/*.pdf.
  • make lem-thy compiles the Lem sources into Isabelle/HOL
  • make lem-hol compiles the Lem sources into HOL4
  • make lem-coq; cd lem; make compiles the Lem sources into Coq (and then compiles the Coq sources)
  • make lem-pdf compiles some of the Lem sources into PDF through LaTeX
  • make all-isabelle checks all Isabelle/HOL sources (but not the ones compiled from Lem)
  • make does everything above
  • script/ generates a distribution useful for Coq users