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bio-table is the swiss knife of tabular data. Tables of data are often used in bioinformatics, especially in conjunction with Excel spreadsheets and DB queries. This biogem contains support for reading tables, writing tables, and manipulation of rows and columns, both using a command line interface and through a Ruby library. If you don't like R dataframes, maybe you like this. Also, because bio-table is command line driven, and can use STDIN and STDOUT, it easily fits in a pipe-line setup.

Quick example, say we want to filter out rows that contain certain p-values listed in the 4th column:

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "value[3] <= 0.05"

even better, you can use the actual column name

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "fdr <= 0.05"

bio-table is lazy where it can be. And bio-table should be good for big data, bio-table is designed so that most important functions do not load the data in memory. The library supports a functional style of programming, but you don't need to know Ruby to use the command line interface (CLI).


  • Support for reading and writing TAB and CSV files, as well as regex splitters
  • Filter on (numerical) data and rownames
  • Transform table and data by column or row
  • Recalculate data
  • Calculate new values
  • Calculate column statistics (mean, standard deviation)
  • Diff between tables, selecting on specific column values
  • Count elements in columns
  • Merge tables side by side on column value/rowname
  • Split/reduce tables by column
  • Write formatted tables, e.g. HTML, LaTeX
  • Read from STDIN, write to STDOUT
  • Convert table to RDF
  • Convert key-value (attributes) to RDF (nyi)
  • Convert table to JSON/YAML/XML (nyi)
  • Transpose matrix (nyi)
  • Convert a FASTA file to a table
  • etc. etc.

and bio-table is pretty fast. To convert a 3Mb file of 18670 rows takes 0.87 second with Ruby 1.9. Adding a filter makes it parse at 0.95 second on my 3.2 GHz desktop (with preloaded disk cache).


    gem install bio-table

The command line interface (CLI)

Transforming a table

Tables can be transformed through the command line. To transform a comma separated file to a tab delimited one

    bio-table table1.csv --in-format csv --format tab >

Tab is actually the general default. Still, if the file name ends in csv, it will assume CSV. To convert the table back

    bio-table --format csv > table1a.csv

When you have a special file format, it is also possible to use a string or regex splitter, e.g.

    bio-table --in-format split --split-on ',' file
    bio-table --in-format regex --split-on '\s*,\s*' file

To filter out rows that contain certain values, i.e., filter on the third column that have values less than 0.05 (this is actually the 5th column in a tabular file, where the fist column is the row name and the others count from zero).

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "values[3] <= 0.05" 

or, rather than using an index value (which can change between different tables), you can use the column name (lower case), say for FDR

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "fdr <= 0.05" 

The filter ignores the header row, and the row names, by default. If you need either, use the switches --with-headers and --with-rownames. With math, list all rows

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "values[3]-values[6] >= 0.05"

or, list all rows that have a least a field with values >= 1000.0

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "values.max >= 1000.0" 

Produce all rows that have at least 3 values above 3.0 and 1 one value above 10.0:

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "values.max >= 10.0 and values.count{|x| x>=3.0} > 3"

How is that for expressiveness? Looks like Ruby to me.

The --num-filter will convert fields lazily to numerical values (only valid numbers are converted). If there are NA (nil) values in the table, you may wish to remove them, like this

    bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "values[0..12].compact.max >= 1000.0"

which takes the first 13 fields and compact removes the nil values.

To filter out all rows with more than 3 NA values:

  bio-table table.csv --num-filter 'values.size - values.compact.size > 3'

Also string comparisons and regular expressions can be used. E.g. filter on rownames and a row field both containing 'BGT'

    bio-table table1.csv --filter "rowname =~ /BGT/ and field[1] =~ /BGT/"

or use the column name, rather than the indexed column field:

    bio-table table1.csv --filter "rowname =~ /BGT/ and genename =~ /BGT/"

To reorder/reduce table columns by name

    bio-table table1.csv --columns AJ,B6,Axb1,Axb4,AXB13,Axb15,Axb19

or use their index numbers (the first column is zero)

    bio-table table1.csv --columns 0,1,8,2,4,6

If the table header happens to be one element shorter than the number of columns in the table, use unshift headers, 0 becomes an 'ID' column

    bio-table table1.csv --unshift-headers --columns 0,1,8,2,4,6

Another option will add fields to a row to get the same number of fields

    bio-table table1.csv --pad-fields

Duplicate columns with

    bio-table table1.csv --columns AJ,B6,AJ,Axb1,Axb4,AXB13,Axb15,Axb19

Combine column values (more on rewrite below)

    bio-table table1.csv --rewrite "rowname = rowname + '-' + field[0]"

To insert a table column simply add a tab, e.g., to inject a column containing 'PATHWAY'

    bio-table table1.csv --rewrite 'field[0] = "PATHWAY\t"+field[0]'

To filter for columns using a regular expression

    bio-table table1.csv --column-filter 'colname !~ /infected/i'

will drop all columns with names containing 'infected', ignoring case.

Finally we can rewrite the content of a table using rowname and fields again

    bio-table table1.csv --rewrite 'rowname.upcase!; field[1]=nil if field[2].to_f<0.25'

where we rewrite the rowname in capitals, and set the second field to empty if the third field is below 0.25.

Say we need a log transform, we can also transform and rewrite a full matrix with:

    bio-table table1.csv --rewrite 'fields = { |f| Math::log(f.to_f) }'

Note that 'fields' is an alias for 'field', but do not use them in the same expression. Another option is to use (lazy) values:

    bio-table table1.csv --rewrite 'fields = { |v| Math::log(v) }'

which saves the typing to to_f.

Another feature is counting column elements. With

    bio-table table1.csv --count 0,1,4

All records are combined that have the same rowname and values in columns 0 and 3. In addition a column is added counting the number of merged rows. So,

    hs8     48713371        53713371        G       SAMPLE005
    hs8     48713371        53713371        G       SAMPLE005
    hs9     136643994       141643994       C       SAMPLE005


    hs8     48713371        53713371        G       SAMPLE005    2
    hs9     136643994       141643994       C       SAMPLE005    1


bio-table can handle some column statistics using the Ruby statsample gem

    gem install statsample

(statsample is not loaded by default because it has a host of dependencies)

Thereafter, to calculate the stats for columns 1 and 2 (rowname is column 0)

    bio-table --statistics --columns 1,2 table1.csv
      stat    AJ                   B6
      size    379                  379
      min     0.0                  0.0
      max     1171.23              1309.25
      median  6.26                 7.45
      mean    23.49952506596308    24.851108179419523
      sd      79.4384873820721     84.43330500777459
      cv      3.3804294835358824   3.3975669977445166

Sorting a table

To sort a table on column 4 and 2

    # not yet implemented
    bio-table table1.csv --sort 4,2

Note: not all is implemented (just yet). Please check bio-table --help first.

Combining/merging tables

You can combine/concat two or more tables by passing in multiple file names

    bio-table table1.csv table2.csv

this will append table2 to table1, assuming they have the same headers (you can use the --columns switch at the same time!). With --skip the header lines are skipped in every file. This can be a real asset when using the Unix split command on input files and combining output files again. Something this might work:

    ls run/*.out -1|sort|xargs bio-table --skip 3

To combine tables side by side use the --merge switch:

    bio-table --merge table1.csv table2.csv

all rownames will be matched (i.e. the input table does not need to be sorted). For non-matching rownames the fields will be filled with NA's, unless you add a filter, e.g.

    bio-table --merge table1.csv table2.csv --num-filter "values.compact.size == values.size"

If you don't want the headers to be 'restyled' on merge, use the --keep-headers override.

Splitting a table

Splitting a table by column is possible by named or indexed columns, see the --columns switch.

Diffing and overlapping tables

With two tables it may be interesting to see the differences, or overlap, based on shared columns. The bio-table diff command shows the difference between two tables using the row names (i.e. those rows with rownames that appear in table2, but not in table1)

    bio-table --diff 0 table1.csv table2.csv 

bio-table --diff is different from the standard Unix diff tool. The latter shows insertions and deletions. bio-table --diff shows what is in one file, and not in the other (insertions). To see deletions, reverse the file order, i.e. switch the file names

    bio-table --diff 0 table1.csv table2.csv 

To diff on something else

    bio-table --diff 0,3 table2.csv table1.csv 

creates a key using columns 0 and 3 (0 is the rownames column).


    bio-table --overlap 2 table1.csv table2.csv

finds the overlapping rows, based on the content of column 2.

Different parsers

bio-table currently reads comma separated files and tab delimited files.

bio-table can also parse a FASTA file and turn it into a table using a flexible regular expression to fetch the IDs

    bio-table --fasta '^(\S+)' test/data/input/aa.fa

notice the parentheses - these capture the ID and create the first column. If two captures are defined another column gets added. Try

    bio-table --fasta '^(\S+).*?(\d+) aa' test/data/input/aa.fa


bio-table can read data from STDIN, by simply assuming that the data piped in is the first input file

    cat | bio-table table1.csv --num-filter "values[3] <= 0.05"

will filter both files and test1.csv and output to

Formatted output

bio-table has built-in formatters - for CSV and TAB, and for RDF (and soon for JSON/YAML and perhaps even XML). The RDF format is discussed in 'Output table to RDF'.

Another flexible option for formatting a table is to create programmatic output through a formatter. If you set the --format switch to eval, you can add the -e 'command' that is evaluated to print to STDOUT. For example, bio-table does not support HTML output directly, but if we were to create an HTML table, we could run

    bio-table --format eval -e '"<tr><td>"+field.join("</td><td>")+"</td></tr>"' table1.csv 

likewise to create a LaTeX table we could

    bio-table --columns gene_symbol,gene_desc --format eval -e 'field.join(" & ")+" \\\\"' table1.csv

Since fields can be accessed independently, you can add any markup for fields, e.g.

    bio-table --columns ID,Description,Date --format eval -e'"\\emph{"+field[0]+"} & "+ field[1..-1].join(" & ")+"\\\\"' table1.csv

Because of the evaluation formatter bio-table does not need to implement the machinery for every output format on the planet!

Output table to RDF

bio-table can write a table into turtle RDF triples (part of the semantic web!), so you can put the data directly into a triple-store.

    bio-table --format rdf table1.csv

The table header is stored with predicate :colname using the header values both as subject and label, with the :index:

  :header3 rdf:label "Header3" ; a :colname; :index 4 .

Rows are stored with rowname as subject and label, followed by the columns referring to the header triples, and the values. E.g.

   :row13475701 rdf:label "row13475701" ; a :rowname ; ; :Id "row13475701" ; :header1 "1" ; :header2 "0" ; :header3 "3" .

To unify identifier names you may want to transform ids:

    bio-table --format rdf --transform-ids "downcase" table1.csv

Another interesting option is --blank-nodes. This causes rows to be written as blank nodes, and allows for duplicate row names. E.g.

   :row13475701 [ rdf:label "row13475701" ; a :rowname ; ; :Id "row13475701" ; :header1 "1" ; :header2 "0" ; :header3 "3" ] .

The bio-rdf gem actually uses this bio-table biogem to parse data into a triple store and query the data through SPARQL. For examples see the features, e.g. the genotype to RDF feature.

bio-table API (for Ruby programmers)

    require 'bio-table'
    include BioTable

Reading, transforming, and writing a table

Note: the Ruby API below is a work in progress.

Tables are two dimensional matrixes, which can be read from a file

    t = Table.read_file('table1.csv')
    p t.header              # print the header array
    p[0],t[0]        # print the row name and row row
    p t[0][0]               # print the top corner field

The table reader has quite a few options for defining field separator, which column to use for names etc. More interestingly you can pass a function to limit the amount of row read into memory:

    t = Table.read_file('table1.csv',
      :by_row => { | row | row[0..3] } )

will create a table of the column name +row[0]+ and 2 table fields. You can use the same idea to reformat and reorder table columns when reading data into the table. E.g.

    t = Table.read_file('table1.csv',
      :by_row => { | row | [row.rowname, row[0..3], row[6].to_i].flatten } )

When a header can not be transformed, it may fail. You can test for the header with row.header?, but in this case you can pass in a :by_header, which will have :by_row only call on actual table rows.

    t = Table.read_file('table1.csv',
      :by_header => { | header | ["Row name", header[0..3], header[6]].flatten } )
      :by_row => { | row | [row.rowname, row[0..3], row[6].to_i].flatten } )

When by_row returns nil or false, the table row is skipped. One way to transform a file, and not loading it in memory, is

    f ='','w')
    t = Table.read_file('table1.csv', 
      :by_row => { | row | 
        TableRow::write(f,[row.rowname,row[0..3],row[6].to_i].flatten, :separator => "\t") 
        nil   # don't create a table in memory, effectively a filter

Another function is :filter which only acts on rows, but can not transform them.

To write a full table from memory to file use


again columns can be reordered/transformed using a function. Another option is by passing in an list of column numbers or header names, so only those get written, e.g.

    t.write_file('test1a.csv', columns: [0,1,2,4,6,8])
    t.write_file('test1b.csv', columns: ["AJ","B6","Axb1","Axb4","AXB13","Axb15","Axb19"] )

other options are available for excluding row names (rownames: false), etc.

To sort a table file, the current routine is to load the file in memory and sort according to table columns. In the near future we aim to have a low-memory version, by reading only the sorting columns in memory, and indexing them before writing output. That means reading a file twice, but being able to handle much larger data.

In above examples we loaded the whole table in memory. It is also possible to execute functions without using RAM by using the emit function. This is what the bio-table CLI does to convert a CSV table to tab delimited:

ARGV.each do | fn |
  f =
  writer = :tab)
  BioTable::TableLoader.emit(f, in_format: :csv).each do |row,type| 

Essentially you can pass in any object that has the each method (here the File object) to iterate through rows as String (f's each method reads in a line at a time). The emit function yields the parsed row object as a simple array of fields (each field a String). The type is used to distinguish the header row.

Loading a numerical matrix

Coming soon


The API doc is online. For more code examples see the test files in the source tree.


Run bio-table with the --debug switch to get stack traces. Use --debug and or --trace for more output.

Project home page

Information on the source tree, documentation, examples, issues and how to contribute, see

The BioRuby community is on IRC server:, channel: #bioruby.


If you use this software, please cite one of

This Biogem is published at #bio-table


Copyright (c) 2012 Pjotr Prins. See LICENSE.txt for further details.


Swiss knife of tabular data







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