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package Plack::Request;
use strict;
use warnings;
use 5.008_001;
our $VERSION = '0.9920';
use HTTP::Headers;
use Carp ();
use Hash::MultiValue;
use HTTP::Body;
use Plack::Request::Upload;
use Plack::TempBuffer;
use URI;
use URI::Escape ();
sub _deprecated {
my $alt = shift;
my $method = (caller(1))[3];
Carp::carp("$method is deprecated. Use '$alt' instead.");
sub new {
my($class, $env) = @_;
Carp::croak(q{$env is required})
unless defined $env && ref($env) eq 'HASH';
bless { env => $env }, $class;
sub env { $_[0]->{env} }
sub address { $_[0]->env->{REMOTE_ADDR} }
sub remote_host { $_[0]->env->{REMOTE_HOST} }
sub protocol { $_[0]->env->{SERVER_PROTOCOL} }
sub method { $_[0]->env->{REQUEST_METHOD} }
sub port { $_[0]->env->{SERVER_PORT} }
sub user { $_[0]->env->{REMOTE_USER} }
sub request_uri { $_[0]->env->{REQUEST_URI} }
sub path_info { $_[0]->env->{PATH_INFO} }
sub path { $_[0]->env->{PATH_INFO} || '/' }
sub script_name { $_[0]->env->{SCRIPT_NAME} }
sub scheme { $_[0]->env->{'psgi.url_scheme'} }
sub secure { $_[0]->scheme eq 'https' }
sub body { $_[0]->env->{'psgi.input'} }
sub input { $_[0]->env->{'psgi.input'} }
sub session { $_[0]->env->{'psgix.session'} }
sub session_options { $_[0]->env->{'psgix.session.options'} }
sub logger { $_[0]->env->{'psgix.logger'} }
sub cookies {
my $self = shift;
return {} unless $self->env->{HTTP_COOKIE};
# HTTP_COOKIE hasn't changed: reuse the parsed cookie
if ( $self->env->{'plack.cookie.parsed'}
&& $self->env->{'plack.cookie.string'} eq $self->env->{HTTP_COOKIE}) {
return $self->env->{'plack.cookie.parsed'};
$self->env->{'plack.cookie.string'} = $self->env->{HTTP_COOKIE};
my %results;
my @pairs = split "[;,] ?", $self->env->{'plack.cookie.string'};
for my $pair ( @pairs ) {
# trim leading trailing whitespace
$pair =~ s/^\s+//; $pair =~ s/\s+$//;
my ($key, $value) = map URI::Escape::uri_unescape($_), split( "=", $pair, 2 );
# Take the first one like or rack do
$results{$key} = $value unless exists $results{$key};
$self->env->{'plack.cookie.parsed'} = \%results;
sub query_parameters {
my $self = shift;
$self->env->{'plack.request.query'} ||= Hash::MultiValue->new($self->uri->query_form);
sub content {
my $self = shift;
unless ($self->env->{'psgix.input.buffered'}) {
my $fh = $self->input or return '';
my $cl = $self->content_length or return '';
$fh->read(my($content), $self->content_length || 0, 0);
$fh->seek(0, 0);
return $content;
sub raw_body { $_[0]->content }
# XXX you can mutate headers with ->headers but it's not written through to the env
sub headers {
my $self = shift;
if (!defined $self->{headers}) {
my $env = $self->env;
$self->{headers} = HTTP::Headers->new(
map {
(my $field = $_) =~ s/^HTTPS?_//;
( $field => $env->{$_} );
grep { /^(?:HTTP|CONTENT|COOKIE)/i } keys %$env
# shortcut
sub content_encoding { shift->headers->content_encoding(@_) }
sub content_length { shift->headers->content_length(@_) }
sub content_type { shift->headers->content_type(@_) }
sub header { shift->headers->header(@_) }
sub referer { shift->headers->referer(@_) }
sub user_agent { shift->headers->user_agent(@_) }
sub body_parameters {
my $self = shift;
unless ($self->env->{'plack.request.body'}) {
return $self->env->{'plack.request.body'};
# contains body + query
sub parameters {
my $self = shift;
$self->env->{'plack.request.merged'} ||= do {
my $query = $self->query_parameters;
my $body = $self->body_parameters;
Hash::MultiValue->new($query->flatten, $body->flatten);
sub uploads {
my $self = shift;
if ($self->env->{'plack.request.upload'}) {
return $self->env->{'plack.request.upload'};
return $self->env->{'plack.request.upload'};
sub hostname { _deprecated 'remote_host'; $_[0]->remote_host || $_[0]->address }
sub url_scheme { _deprecated 'scheme'; $_[0]->scheme }
sub params { _deprecated 'parameters'; shift->parameters(@_) }
sub query_params { _deprecated 'query_parameters'; shift->query_parameters(@_) }
sub body_params { _deprecated 'body_parameters'; shift->body_parameters(@_) }
sub cookie {
my $self = shift;
_deprecated 'cookies';
return keys %{ $self->cookies } if @_ == 0;
my $name = shift;
return $self->cookies->{$name};
sub param {
my $self = shift;
return keys %{ $self->parameters } if @_ == 0;
my $key = shift;
return $self->parameters->{$key} unless wantarray;
return $self->parameters->get_all($key);
sub upload {
my $self = shift;
return keys %{ $self->uploads } if @_ == 0;
my $key = shift;
return $self->uploads->{$key} unless wantarray;
return $self->uploads->get_all($key);
sub raw_uri {
my $self = shift;
_deprecated 'base';
my $base = $self->base;
sub uri {
my $self = shift;
my $base = $self->_uri_base;
my $path = $self->env->{PATH_INFO} || '';
$path .= '?' . $self->env->{QUERY_STRING}
if defined $self->env->{QUERY_STRING} && $self->env->{QUERY_STRING} ne '';
$base =~ s!/$!! if $path =~ m!^/!;
return URI->new($base . $path)->canonical;
sub base {
my $self = shift;
sub _uri_base {
my $self = shift;
my $env = $self->env;
my $uri = ($env->{'psgi.url_scheme'} || "http") .
"://" .
($env->{HTTP_HOST} || (($env->{SERVER_NAME} || "") . ":" . ($env->{SERVER_PORT} || 80))) .
($env->{SCRIPT_NAME} || '/');
return $uri;
sub new_response {
my $self = shift;
require Plack::Response;
sub _parse_request_body {
my $self = shift;
my $ct = $self->env->{CONTENT_TYPE};
my $cl = $self->env->{CONTENT_LENGTH};
if (!$ct && !$cl) {
# No Content-Type nor Content-Length -> GET/HEAD
$self->env->{'plack.request.body'} = Hash::MultiValue->new;
$self->env->{'plack.request.upload'} = Hash::MultiValue->new;
# Do not use ->content_type to get multipart boundary correctly
my $body = HTTP::Body->new($ct, $cl);
my $input = $self->input;
my $buffer;
if ($self->env->{'psgix.input.buffered'}) {
# Just in case if input is read by middleware/apps beforehand
$input->seek(0, 0);
} else {
$buffer = Plack::TempBuffer->new($cl);
my $spin = 0;
while ($cl) {
$input->read(my $chunk, $cl < 8192 ? $cl : 8192);
my $read = length $chunk;
$cl -= $read;
$buffer->print($chunk) if $buffer;
if ($read == 0 && $spin++ > 2000) {
Carp::croak "Bad Content-Length: maybe client disconnect? ($cl bytes remaining)";
if ($buffer) {
$self->env->{'psgix.input.buffered'} = 1;
$self->env->{'psgi.input'} = $buffer->rewind;
} else {
$input->seek(0, 0);
$self->env->{'plack.request.body'} = Hash::MultiValue->from_mixed($body->param);
my @uploads = Hash::MultiValue->from_mixed($body->upload)->flatten;
my @obj;
while (my($k, $v) = splice @uploads, 0, 2) {
push @obj, $k, $self->_make_upload($v);
$self->env->{'plack.request.upload'} = Hash::MultiValue->new(@obj);
sub _make_upload {
my($self, $upload) = @_;
headers => HTTP::Headers->new( %{delete $upload->{headers}} ),
=head1 NAME
Plack::Request - Portable HTTP request object from PSGI env hash
use Plack::Request;
my $app_or_middleware = sub {
my $env = shift; # PSGI env
my $req = Plack::Request->new($env);
my $path_info = $req->path_info;
my $query = $req->param('query');
my $res = $req->new_response(200); # new Plack::Response
L<Plack::Request> provides a consistent API for request objects across
web server environments.
=head1 CAVEAT
Note that this module is intended to be used by Plack middleware
developers and web application framework developers rather than
application developers (end users).
Writing your web application directly using Plack::Request is
certainly possible but not recommended: it's like doing so with
mod_perl's Apache::Request: yet too low level.
If you're writing a web application, not a framework, then you're
encouraged to use one of the web application frameworks that support
PSGI, or see L<Piglet> or L<HTTP::Engine> to provide higher level
Request and Response API on top of PSGI.
=head1 METHODS
Some of the methods defined in the earlier versions are deprecated in
version 1.00. Take a look at L</"INCOMPATIBILITIES">.
Unless otherwise noted, all methods and attributes are B<read-only>,
and passing values to the method like an accessor doesn't work like
you expect it to.
=head2 new
Plack::Request->new( $env );
Creates a new request object.
=over 4
=item env
Returns the shared PSGI environment hash reference. This is a
reference, so writing to this environment passes through during the
whole PSGI request/response cycle.
=item address
Returns the IP address of the client (C<REMOTE_ADDR>).
=item remote_host
Returns the remote host (C<REMOTE_HOST>) of the client. It may be
empty, in which case you have to get the IP address using C<address>
method and resolve by your own.
=item method
Contains the request method (C<GET>, C<POST>, C<HEAD>, etc).
=item protocol
Returns the protocol (HTTP/1.0 or HTTP/1.1) used for the current request.
=item request_uri
Returns the raw, undecoded request URI path. You probably do B<NOT>
want to use this to dispatch requests.
=item path_info
Returns B<PATH_INFO> in the environment. Use this to get the local
path for the requests.
=item path
Similar to C<path_info> but returns C</> in case it is empty. In other
words, it returns the virtual path of the request URI after C<<
$req->base >>. See L</"DISPATCHING"> for details.
=item script_name
Returns B<SCRIPT_NAME> in the environment. This is the absolute path
where your application is hosted.
=item scheme
Returns the scheme (C<http> or C<https>) of the request.
=item secure
Returns true or false, indicating whether the connection is secure (https).
=item body, input
Returns C<psgi.input> handle.
=item session
Returns (optional) C<psgix.session> hash. When it exists, you can
retrieve and store per-session data from and to this hash.
=item session_options
Returns (optional) C<psgix.session.options> hash.
=item logger
Returns (optional) C<psgix.logger> code reference. When it exists,
your application is supposed to send the log message to this logger,
$req->logger->({ level => 'debug', message => "This is a debug message" });
=item cookies
Returns a reference to a hash containing the cookies. Values are
strings that are sent by clients and are URI decoded.
=item query_parameters
Returns a reference to a hash containing query string (GET)
parameters. This hash reference is L<Hash::MultiValue> object.
=item body_parameters
Returns a reference to a hash containing posted parameters in the
request body (POST). Similarly to C<query_parameters>, the hash
reference is a L<Hash::MultiValue> object.
=item parameters
Returns a L<Hash::MultiValue> hash reference containing (merged) GET
and POST parameters.
=item content, raw_body
Returns the request content in an undecoded byte string for POST requests.
=item uri
Returns an URI object for the current request. The URI is constructed
using various environment values such as C<SCRIPT_NAME>, C<PATH_INFO>,
Every time this method is called it returns a new, cloned URI object.
=item base
Returns an URI object for the base path of current request. This is
like C<uri> but only contains up to C<SCRIPT_NAME> where your
application is hosted at.
Every time this method is called it returns a new, cloned URI object.
=item user
Returns C<REMOTE_USER> if it's set.
=item headers
Returns an L<HTTP::Headers> object containing the headers for the current request.
=item uploads
Returns a reference to a hash containing uploads. The hash reference
is L<Hash::MultiValue> object and values are L<Plack::Request::Upload>
=item content_encoding
Shortcut to $req->headers->content_encoding.
=item content_length
Shortcut to $req->headers->content_length.
=item content_type
Shortcut to $req->headers->content_type.
=item header
Shortcut to $req->headers->header.
=item referer
Shortcut to $req->headers->referer.
=item user_agent
Shortcut to $req->headers->user_agent.
=item param
Returns GET and POST parameters with a param
method. This is an alternative method for accessing parameters in
$value = $req->param( 'foo' );
@values = $req->param( 'foo' );
@params = $req->param;
=item upload
A convenient method to access $req->uploads.
$upload = $req->upload('field');
@uploads = $req->upload('field');
@fields = $req->upload;
for my $upload ( $req->upload('field') ) {
print $upload->filename;
=item new_response
my $res = $req->new_response;
Creates a new L<Plack::Response> object. Handy to remove dependency on
L<Plack::Response> in your code for easy subclassing and duck typing
in web application frameworks, as well as overriding Response
generation in middlewares.
=head2 Hash::MultiValue parameters
Parameters that can take one or multiple values i.e. C<parameters>,
C<query_parameters>, C<body_parameters> and C<uploads> store those
hash reference as a L<Hash::MultiValue> object. This means you can use
the hash reference as a plain hash where values are B<always> scalars
(B<NOT> array reference), so you don't need to code ugly and unsafe
C<< ref ... eq 'ARRAY' >> anymore.
And if you explicitly want to get multiple values of the same key, you
can call the method on it, such as:
my @foo = $req->query_parameters->get_all('foo');
You can also call C<get_one> to always get one parameter independent
of the context (unlike C<param>), and eve call C<mixed> (with
Hash::MultiValue 0.05 or later) to get the I<traditional> hash
my $params = $req->prameters->mixed;
where values are either a scalar or an array reference depending on
input, so it might be useful if you already have the code to deal with
that ugliness.
The methods to parse request body (C<content>, C<body_parameters> and
C<uploads>) are carefully coded to save the parsed body in the
environment hash as well as in the temporary buffer, so you can call
them multiple times and create Plack::Request objects multiple times
in a request and they should work safely, and won't parse request body
more than twice for the efficiency.
If your application or framework wants to dispatch (or route) actions
based on request paths, be sure to use C<< $req->path_info >> not C<<
$req->uri->path >>.
It is because C<path_info> gives you the virtual path of the request,
regardless of how your application is mounted. If your application is
hosted with mod_perl or CGI scripts, or even multiplexed with tools
like L<Plack::App::URLMap>, request's C<path_info> always gives you
the action path.
Note that C<path_info> might give you an empty string, in which case
you should assume just like C</>.
You will also like to use C<< $req->base >> as a base prefix when
building URLs in your templates or in redirections. It's a good idea
for you to subclass Plack::Request and define methods such as:
sub uri_for {
my($self, $path, $args) = @_;
my $uri = $self->base;
$uri->path($uri->path . $path);
$uri->query_form(@$args) if $args;
So you can say:
my $link = $req->uri_for('/logout', [ signoff => 1 ]);
and if C<< $req->base >> is C</app> you'll get the full URI for
In version 1.0, many utility methods are removed or deprecated, and
most methods are made read-only.
The following methods are deprecated: C<hostname>, C<url_scheme>,
C<params>, C<query_params>, C<body_params>, C<cookie> and
C<raw_uri>. They will be removed in the next major release.
All parameter-related methods such as C<parameters>,
C<body_parameters>, C<query_parameters> and C<uploads> now contains
L<Hash::MultiValue> objects, rather than I<scalar or an array
reference depending on the user input> which is insecure. See
L<Hash::MultiValue> for more about this change.
C<< $req->path >> method had a bug, where the code and the document
was mismatching. The document was suggesting it returns the sub
request path after C<< $req->base >> but the code was always returning
the absolute URI path. The code is now updated to be an alias of C<<
$req->path_info >> but returns C</> in case it's empty. If you need
the older behavior, just call C<< $req->uri->path >> instead.
Cookie handling is simplified, and doesn't use L<CGI::Simple::Cookie>
anymore, which means you B<CAN NOT> set array reference or hash
reference as a cookie value and expect it be serialized. You're always
required to set string value, and encoding or decoding them is totally
up to your application or framework. Also, C<cookies> hash reference
now returns I<strings> for the cookies rather than CGI::Simple::Cookie
objects, which means you no longer have to write a wacky code such as:
$v = $req->cookie->{foo} ? $req->cookie->{foo}->value : undef;
and instead, simply do:
$v = $req->cookie->{foo};
=head1 AUTHORS
Tatsuhiko Miyagawa
Kazuhiro Osawa
Tokuhiro Matsuno
=head1 SEE ALSO
L<Plack::Response> L<HTTP::Request>, L<Catalyst::Request>
=head1 LICENSE
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself.
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