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  1. +154 −102 README.rdoc →
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@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
*IMPORTANT:* Devise 2.0.0 is out. If you are upgrading, please read:
-== Devise
+## Devise
-{<img src="" />}[]
+[![Build Status](](
Devise is a flexible authentication solution for Rails based on Warden. It:
@@ -26,57 +26,57 @@ It's comprised of 12 modules:
* Lockable: locks an account after a specified number of failed sign-in attempts. Can unlock via email or after a specified time period.
* Encryptable: adds support of other authentication mechanisms besides the built-in Bcrypt (the default).
-== Information
+## Information
-=== The Devise wiki
+### The Devise wiki
The Devise Wiki has lots of additional information about Devise including many "how-to" articles and answers to the most frequently asked questions. Please browse the Wiki after finishing this README:
-=== Bug reports
+### Bug reports
If you discover a problem with Devise, we would like to know about it. However, we ask that you please review these guidelines before submitting a bug report:
If you found a security bug, do *NOT* use the GitHub issue tracker. Send email or a private GitHub message to the maintainers listed at the bottom of the README.
-=== Mailing list
+### Mailing list
If you have any questions, comments, or concerns, please use the Google Group instead of the GitHub issue tracker:
-=== RDocs
+### RDocs
You can view the Devise documentation in RDoc format here:
If you need to use Devise with Rails 2.3, you can always run "gem server" from the command line after you install the gem to access the old documentation.
-=== Example applications
+### Example applications
There are a few example applications available on GitHub that demonstrate various features of Devise with different versions of Rails. You can view them here:
-=== Extensions
+### Extensions
Our community has created a number of extensions that add functionality above and beyond what is included with Devise. You can view a list of available extensions and add your own here:
-=== Contributing
+### Contributing
We hope that you will consider contributing to Devise. Please read this short overview for some information about how to get started:
You will usually want to write tests for your changes. To run the test suite, go into Devise's top-level directory and run "bundle install" and "rake". For the tests to pass, you will need to have a MongoDB server (version 2.0 or newer) running on your system.
-== Starting with Rails?
+## Starting with Rails?
If you are building your first Rails application, we recommend you to *not* use Devise. Devise requires a good understanding of the Rails Framework. In such cases, we advise you to start a simple authentication system from scratch, today we have two resources:
@@ -85,250 +85,302 @@ If you are building your first Rails application, we recommend you to *not* use
Once you have solidified your understanding of Rails and authentication mechanisms, we assure you Devise will be very pleasant to work with. :)
-== Getting started
+## Getting started
Devise 2.0 works with Rails 3.1 onwards. You can install it with:
- gem install devise
+gem install devise
After you install Devise and add it to your Gemfile, you need to run the generator:
- rails generate devise:install
+rails generate devise:install
The generator will install an initializer which describes ALL Devise's configuration options and you MUST take a look at it. When you are done, you are ready to add Devise to any of your models using the generator:
- rails generate devise MODEL
+rails generate devise MODEL
Replace MODEL by the class name used for the applications users, it's frequently 'User' but could also be 'Admin'. This will create a model (if one does not exist) and configure it with default Devise modules. Next, you'll usually run "rake db:migrate" as the generator will have created a migration file (if your ORM supports them). This generator also configures your config/routes.rb file to point to Devise controller.
-=== Controller filters and helpers
+### Controller filters and helpers
Devise will create some helpers to use inside your controllers and views. To set up a controller with user authentication, just add this before_filter:
- before_filter :authenticate_user!
+before_filter :authenticate_user!
To verify if a user is signed in, use the following helper:
- user_signed_in?
For the current signed-in user, this helper is available:
- current_user
You can access the session for this scope:
- user_session
After signing in a user, confirming the account or updating the password, Devise will look for a scoped root path to redirect. Example: For a :user resource, it will use +user_root_path+ if it exists, otherwise default +root_path+ will be used. This means that you need to set the root inside your routes:
- root :to => "home#index"
+root :to => "home#index"
You can also overwrite +after_sign_in_path_for+ and +after_sign_out_path_for+ to customize your redirect hooks.
Finally, you need to set up default url options for the mailer in each environment. Here is the configuration for "config/environments/development.rb":
- config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { :host => 'localhost:3000' }
+config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { :host => 'localhost:3000' }
Notice that if your devise model is not called "user" but "member", then the helpers you should use are:
- before_filter :authenticate_member!
+before_filter :authenticate_member!
- member_signed_in?
- current_member
- member_session
-=== Configuring Models
+### Configuring Models
The devise method in your models also accepts some options to configure its modules. For example, you can choose the cost of the encryption algorithm with:
- devise :database_authenticatable, :registerable, :confirmable, :recoverable, :stretches => 20
+devise :database_authenticatable, :registerable, :confirmable, :recoverable, :stretches => 20
Besides :stretches, you can define :pepper, :encryptor, :confirm_within, :remember_for, :timeout_in, :unlock_in and other values. For details, see the initializer file that was created when you invoked the "devise:install" generator described above.
-=== Configuring multiple models
+### Configuring multiple models
Devise allows you to set up as many roles as you want. For example, you may have a User model and also want an Admin model with just authentication and timeoutable features. If so, just follow these steps:
- # Create a migration with the required fields
- create_table :admins do |t|
- t.string :email
- t.string :encrypted_password
- t.timestamps
- end
+# Create a migration with the required fields
+create_table :admins do |t|
+ t.string :email
+ t.string :encrypted_password
+ t.timestamps
- # Inside your Admin model
- devise :database_authenticatable, :timeoutable
+# Inside your Admin model
+devise :database_authenticatable, :timeoutable
- # Inside your routes
- devise_for :admins
+# Inside your routes
+devise_for :admins
- # Inside your protected controller
- before_filter :authenticate_admin!
+# Inside your protected controller
+before_filter :authenticate_admin!
- # Inside your controllers and views
- admin_signed_in?
- current_admin
- admin_session
+# Inside your controllers and views
On the other hand, you can simply run the generator!
-=== Configuring views
+### Configuring views
We built Devise to help you quickly develop an application that uses authentication. However, we don't want to be in your way when you need to customize it.
Since Devise is an engine, all its views are packaged inside the gem. These views will help you get started, but after some time you may want to change them. If this is the case, you just need to invoke the following generator, and it will copy all views to your application:
- rails generate devise:views
+rails generate devise:views
If you have more than one role in your application (such as "User" and "Admin"), you will notice that Devise uses the same views for all roles. Fortunately, Devise offers an easy way to customize views. All you need to do is set "config.scoped_views = true" inside "config/initializers/devise.rb".
After doing so, you will be able to have views based on the role like "users/sessions/new" and "admins/sessions/new". If no view is found within the scope, Devise will use the default view at "devise/sessions/new". You can also use the generator to generate scoped views:
- rails generate devise:views users
+rails generate devise:views users
-=== Configuring controllers
+### Configuring controllers
If the customization at the views level is not enough, you can customize each controller by following these steps:
1) Create your custom controller, for example a Admins::SessionsController:
- class Admins::SessionsController < Devise::SessionsController
- end
+class Admins::SessionsController < Devise::SessionsController
2) Tell the router to use this controller:
- devise_for :admins, :controllers => { :sessions => "admins/sessions" }
+devise_for :admins, :controllers => { :sessions => "admins/sessions" }
3) And since we changed the controller, it won't use the "devise/sessions" views, so remember to copy "devise/sessions" to "admin/sessions".
Remember that Devise uses flash messages to let users know if sign in was successful or failed. Devise expects your application to call "flash[:notice]" and "flash[:alert]" as appropriate.
-=== Configuring routes
+### Configuring routes
Devise also ships with default routes. If you need to customize them, you should probably be able to do it through the devise_for method. It accepts several options like :class_name, :path_prefix and so on, including the possibility to change path names for I18n:
- devise_for :users, :path => "usuarios", :path_names => { :sign_in => 'login', :sign_out => 'logout', :password => 'secret', :confirmation => 'verification', :unlock => 'unblock', :registration => 'register', :sign_up => 'cmon_let_me_in' }
+devise_for :users, :path => "usuarios", :path_names => { :sign_in => 'login', :sign_out => 'logout', :password => 'secret', :confirmation => 'verification', :unlock => 'unblock', :registration => 'register', :sign_up => 'cmon_let_me_in' }
Be sure to check +devise_for+ documentation for details.
If you have the need for more deep customization, for instance to also allow "/sign_in" besides "/users/sign_in", all you need to do is to create your routes normally and wrap them in a +devise_scope+ block in the router:
- devise_scope :user do
- get "sign_in", :to => "devise/sessions#new"
- end
+devise_scope :user do
+ get "sign_in", :to => "devise/sessions#new"
This way you tell devise to use the scope :user when "/sign_in" is accessed. Notice +devise_scope+ is also aliased as +as+ and you can also give a block to +devise_for+, resulting in the same behavior:
- devise_for :users do
- get "sign_in", :to => "devise/sessions#new"
- end
+devise_for :users do
+ get "sign_in", :to => "devise/sessions#new"
Feel free to choose the one you prefer!
-=== I18n
+### I18n
Devise uses flash messages with I18n with the flash keys :notice and :alert. To customize your app, you can set up your locale file:
- en:
- devise:
- sessions:
- signed_in: 'Signed in successfully.'
+ devise:
+ sessions:
+ signed_in: 'Signed in successfully.'
You can also create distinct messages based on the resource you've configured using the singular name given in routes:
- en:
- devise:
- sessions:
- user:
- signed_in: 'Welcome user, you are signed in.'
- admin:
- signed_in: 'Hello admin!'
+ devise:
+ sessions:
+ user:
+ signed_in: 'Welcome user, you are signed in.'
+ admin:
+ signed_in: 'Hello admin!'
The Devise mailer uses a similar pattern to create subject messages:
- en:
- devise:
- mailer:
- confirmation_instructions:
- subject: 'Hello everybody!'
- user_subject: 'Hello User! Please confirm your email'
- reset_password_instructions:
- subject: 'Reset instructions'
+ devise:
+ mailer:
+ confirmation_instructions:
+ subject: 'Hello everybody!'
+ user_subject: 'Hello User! Please confirm your email'
+ reset_password_instructions:
+ subject: 'Reset instructions'
Take a look at our locale file to check all available messages. You may also be interested in one of the many translations that are available on our wiki:
-=== Test helpers
+### Test helpers
Devise includes some tests helpers for functional specs. To use them, you just need to include Devise::TestHelpers in your test class and use the sign_in and sign_out method. Such methods have the same signature as in controllers:
- sign_in :user, @user # sign_in(scope, resource)
- sign_in @user # sign_in(resource)
+sign_in :user, @user # sign_in(scope, resource)
+sign_in @user # sign_in(resource)
- sign_out :user # sign_out(scope)
- sign_out @user # sign_out(resource)
+sign_out :user # sign_out(scope)
+sign_out @user # sign_out(resource)
You can include the Devise Test Helpers in all of your tests by adding the following to the bottom of your test/test_helper.rb file:
- class ActionController::TestCase
- include Devise::TestHelpers
- end
+class ActionController::TestCase
+ include Devise::TestHelpers
If you're using RSpec and want the helpers automatically included within all +describe+ blocks, add a file called spec/support/devise.rb with the following contents:
- RSpec.configure do |config|
- config.include Devise::TestHelpers, :type => :controller
- end
+RSpec.configure do |config|
+ config.include Devise::TestHelpers, :type => :controller
Do not use such helpers for integration tests such as Cucumber or Webrat. Instead, fill in the form or explicitly set the user in session. For more tips, check the wiki (
-=== Omniauth
+### Omniauth
Devise comes with Omniauth support out of the box to authenticate from other providers. You can read more about Omniauth support in the wiki:
-=== Other ORMs
+### Other ORMs
Devise supports ActiveRecord (default) and Mongoid. To choose other ORM, you just need to require it in the initializer file.
-=== Migrating from other solutions
+### Migrating from other solutions
Devise implements encryption strategies for Clearance, Authlogic and Restful-Authentication. To make use of these strategies, you need set the desired encryptor in the encryptor initializer config option and add :encryptable to your model. You might also need to rename your encrypted password and salt columns to match Devise's fields (encrypted_password and password_salt).
-== Troubleshooting
+## Troubleshooting
-=== Heroku
+### Heroku
Using devise on Heroku with Ruby on Rails 3.1 requires setting:
- config.assets.initialize_on_precompile = false
+config.assets.initialize_on_precompile = false
Read more about the potential issues at
-== Additional information
+## Additional information
-=== Warden
+### Warden
Devise is based on Warden, which is a general Rack authentication framework created by Daniel Neighman. We encourage you to read more about Warden here:
-=== Contributors
+### Contributors
We have a long list of valued contributors. Check them all at:
-=== Maintainers
+### Maintainers
* José Valim (
* Carlos Antônio da Silva (
* Rodrigo Flores (
-== License
+## License
MIT License. Copyright 2012 Plataforma Tecnologia.

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