Web automation DSL on top of webdriver (and nokogiri)
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README.md

Pincers Build Status

Pincers is a jQuery inspired Ruby DSL on top of webdriver or plain net/http. In other words: an easy to use set of functions that allow you to scrape or automate navigation on a Javascript intensive webpage.

pincers diagram

Example

require 'pincers'

Pincers.for_webdriver :chrome do |pincers|
  pincers.goto "https://github.com"
  pincers.search("input[name=q]").set("pincers")
  pincers.search("form[action='/search']").submit

  pincers_repo = pincers.search(".repo-list-item").first
  name = pincers_repo.search("h3 a").text
  stars = pincers_repo.search("a[href$=stargazers]").text

  puts "The repo #{name} has #{stars} stars"
end
Great! But I already know ( selenium | watir | mechanize | nokogiri ) ... why do I need this?

The jQuery interface solves DOM element traversal in a very practical way that most programmers feel comfortable with. When using any of the options listed above, we found ourselves missing jQuery's ease of use.

Also, by harnessing the power of nokogiri, pincers lets you extract complex data like tables or lists in a fraction of the time required by using pure webdriver. Take a look at Read-only Results.

Features:

  • Full support for jQuery selectors.
  • Simple interface, also like jQuery, you will only interact with one pincers-object type.
  • Sensible waiting conventions, built for dynamic webpages.
  • Support for both webdriver and net/http + nokogiri backends using the same DSL.
  • Ability to switch to nokogiri for parsing (keeping the same DSL) for heavy duty data extraction. Take a look at Read-only Results.
  • Ability to preform random http requests impersonating the current browser (cookies and headers).

Install

To install just run:

gem install pincers

Or add to your Gemfile and run bundle install:

gem 'pincers'

Basic usage

Create a new pincers root context using your favorite browser:

Pincers.for_webdriver :chrome do |pincers|
  # do something, driver object will be discarded at the end of the block.
end

You can also pass a webdriver object, or another symbol like :firefox or :phantomjs.

NOTE: You can also use the pincers DSL on top of our non-webdriver backend.

Cleaning up

It is posible to use the Pincers.for_webdriver factory method without a block, you will need to manually release the associated resources by calling close after you are done:

pincers = Pincers.for_webdriver :chrome
# do something
pincers.close # release webdriver resources

Basic Navigation

The first thing to do is to navigate to some url:

pincers.goto 'www.crabfarm.io'

Searching

If you have used jQuery before, all this will sound quite familiar to you.

Consider the following HTML structure for the examples below:

<body>
  <div id="first-parent" class="my-class">
    <p id="first-child" class="child-class other-class">Foo</p>
    <p id="second-child" class="child-class">Bar</p>
  </div>
  <div id="second-parent" class="my-class">
    <p id="third-child" class="child-class">Imateapot</p>
  </div>
  <p id="fourth-child" class="child-class">Imateapot</p>
</body>

Most element traversing in pincers is done via jQuery extended selectors using the search method:

# Select the second parent by jumping through loops:
pincers.search(".my-class:has(p:contains('Imateapo'))")

This call will return another context contaning all elements matching the given selector. The context object is an enumerable that yields single element contexts, so you can use pincers methods on separate elements too:

pincers.search('.my-class').map do |div|
  div.search('.child-class') # div is also a contex!
end

Pincers contexts also have first and last methods that return the first and last element wrapped on a separate context.

pincers.search('.my-class').first # first is also a context!

Searching over a context will search among all contained elements children:

parents = pincers.search('.my-class')
parents.search('.child-class') # will select all childs except fourth-child

If you don't feel comfortable using css, pincers also provides a more idiomatic search method, it allows you to search by tag, contents, class or any attribute:

pincers.search(tag: 'p', class: 'some-class other-class')
pincers.search(tag: 'input', value: 'email@crabfarm.io')
pincers.search(content: 'Title')

Context properties

Retrieve the concatenated text contents for all matched elements.

pincers.search('#first-parent').search('.child-class').text # = 'FooBar'

Retrieve the concatenated html contents for all matched elements.

pincers.search('.child-class').to_html # will dump all p elements in our example.

First element properties

There are several methods that when called on a context will only apply to the first element contained by that context:

Retrieve an attribute from the first matching element:

pincers.search('.child-class')[:id] # = 'first-child'
pincers.search('.child-class').attribute('id') # same as above

Retrieve the tag name from an element:

pincers.search('.child-class').tag # = 'p'

Retrieve an array with all classes from the first matching element:

pincers.search('.child-class').classes # = ['child-class', 'other-class']

Element interaction

The following methods change the element or document state and are only available in some backends. Like the Single Element Properties, when called, these methods only affect the first element in the context.

To set the text on a text input

pincers.search('input#some-input').set 'sometext'

Choose a select box option by it's label

pincers.search('select#some-select').set 'Some Label'

Choose a select box option by the option text

pincers.search('select#some-select').set 'Option text'

Or by the option value

pincers.search('select#some-select').set by_value: 'option-value'

Change a checkbox or radio button state

pincers.search('input#some-checkbox').set # check
pincers.search('input#some-checkbox').set false # uncheck

Click on a button (or any other element)

pincers.search('a#some-link').click

Submit a form directly

pincers.css('form').submit

Hover over an element

pincers.search('div#some-menu').hover

Root properties

The root context has some special methods to access document properties.

To get the document title

pincers.title

To get the document url

pincers.url
pincers.uri # same as url but returns an URI object

To get the document driver itself (webdriver driver or nokogiri root node)

pincers.document

Advanced topics

Read-only results

Using webdriver to extract data that requires iterating over big lists or lots of table rows can be painfully slow. To process big datasets pincers provides the readonly method, that transforms the webdriver backed result into a nokogiri backed one.

list_contents = pincers.search('#long-list').readonly do |list|
  # operating over list is very fast
  list.search('li').map &:text
end

Chenso backend

The chenso backend provides a performant way of navigating simple pages (similar to mechanize). It uses net/http + nokogiri instead of webdriver and provides support for most pincers features.

Chenso doesn't do javascript so waiting is disabled on chenso backed pincer objects.

To use the chenso backend just use the for_chenso factory method to generate a new pincers context:

Pincers.for_chenso do |pincers|
  # same DSL as the webdriver backed context.
end

Chenso also supports client SSL certificate, to use a client certificate use the ssl_cert and ssl_key options:

Pincers.for_chenso(
  ssl_cert: OpenSSL::X509::Certificate.new(File.read('./client.cert.pem')),
  ssl_key: OpenSSL::PKey::RSA.new(File.read('./client.key.pem'))
)

Navigating frames

Pincers operations can only target one frame at a time. By default, the top frame is selected when location is changed. To switch to a diferent frame use the goto method with the frame: option:

pincers.goto 'http://www.someurlwithfram.es'
pincers.goto frame: pincers.search('#my-frame')
pincers.text # this will return the '#my-frame' frame contents

Tip: You can also use a selector directly

pincers.goto frame: '#my-frame'

To navigate back to the top frame after working on a child frame use the special identifier :top:

pincers.goto frame: :top

Waiting for a condition

In javascript enabled backends like webdriver, even though pincers will do it's best to do most of the waiting, it is sometimes necessary to wait for an special condition before interacting with an element:

pincers.search('#my-async-stuff').wait(:enabled)

It's posible to wait on the following states:

  • :present: wait for element to be visible
  • :actionable: wait for element to be able to receive input
  • :enabled: wait for input to be enabled
  • Any valid DOM property, like :disabled or :value

Its also possible to wait for custom conditions by passing a block, the process will wait until the block stops returning false (only false, not nil).

pincers.search('#my-async-stuff').wait { |r| r.count > 10 }

When using a custom condition, you can also wait for the block not to raise a navigation error.

pincers.search('#async-button').wait { |r| r.click } # wait until click succeeds

By default, the waiting process times out in 10 seconds. This can be changed by setting the Pincers.config.wait_timeout property or by calling the search function with the timeout: option:

pincers.search('#my-async-stuff').wait(:enabled, timeout: 5.0)

Downloading a resource

You can download resources from the currently loaded document using the download method on a link, image or any other element that has a src attribute. Javascript triggered downloads are not supported by this method

dl = pincers.search('#a-download-link').download
dl.content # the resource data as string
dl.content_type # the resource content type
dl.save('/some-file.txt') # store resource in file

Driver options

Pincers tries its best to configure the webdriver bridge in a way it will fit most use cases. If you need to further configure the driver for a special situation the following options are available when using the for_webdriver method:

  • :proxy: either an url like www.myproxy.com:40 or a selenium Proxy object.
  • :wait_timeout: default wait timeout for element lookup and any call to context.wait
  • :page_timeout: page load timeout, in ms, defaults to 60 seconds.
  • any valid webdriver configuration key

Its also posible to call for_webdriver with an already created webdriver object:

pincers = Pincers.for_webdriver some_driver_object

If this creation method is used, then only the page_timeout and wait_timeout are options are available.

Accessing the underlying backend objects

Sometimes (hopefully not too often) you will need to access the original webdriver or nokogiri api. Pincers provides a couple of methods for you to do so.

To get the document handler itself call document on the root context.

pincers.document # webdriver driver or nokogiri root node

To get the contained nodes on a pincers context use elements

pincers.search('foo').elements # array of webdriver elements or nokogiri nodes.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Credits

Thank you contributors!

Crabfarm

Pincers is part of the Crabfarm Framework.

License

Pincers is © 2015 Platanus, spa. It is free software and may be redistributed under the MIT License terms specified in the LICENSE file.