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Racket-based implementation of Adapton

The purpose of this repo is to provide a home for the development of Adapton for the Racket programming langauge.


Racket is a powerful functional langauge that can be found here:

Adapton provides a set of tools that the user can leverage to reason about his or her programming. In addition, it defines a number of functions that accumulate information about the flow of the program into a DCG (directed computation graph). The goal of Adapton is to make use of laziness and the data collected into the DCG to optimize re-computation of areas of the program that have been changed, without having to re-compute the entire program.

There are a number of papers on Adapton by Matthew Hammer, the first of which can be found here:

Using Adapton

Adapton has two key data structures: cells and nodes. Cells are structures which contain mutable boxes. Inside these boxes the user should place input values. In the mergesort example, the list provided to mergesort is a list of cells that contain values. The cell structure enables us to keep track of when an input is mutated and which nodes make use of the data stored in a given cell. This in turn enables us to visualize the implications of mutating a cell. Your algorithm should operate on some combination of cells and nodes.

A node contains a delayed function evaluation, called a thunk. Forcing a node evaluates the thunk contained in that node, and keeps track of whether or not that node creates or forces other nodes. The successor / predecessor relationships between nodes, other nodes, and cells forms the algorithm's DCG. In addition, nodes are memoized, which means that forcing a node that has already been forced at some point in the past will make use of the result of the last force.

Learning to program with thunks (nodes) and mutable inputs (cells) can be difficult, just like learning to program lazily can be difficult. There are, however, situations where the power gained by programming in this way can be worth the effort.

Understanding the code in this repo

The code in this repo is seperated into several files to make it more managable. Each file in the repo has a brief comment at the top of the file that describes the code stored within. In addition, each function within each file will have a brief purpose statement and some information about the use of that file. Further, each function has a few tests ABOVE its definition which are intended to help an outside viewer understand what the function DOES before they see how it WORKS.

As of right now (August 2015), the easiest way to write code that works with Adapton is to import the files containing the "meat" of Adapton to a new file that will contain your algorithm. Once your code is written, either import the "tools-for-testing" file, or consider creating a new file for your tests that leverages the code in the files related to testing.

If you are using DrRacket, you can right click on any function and select "go to source file" to open the file containing the function definition.


There is code throughout the repo that builds a visual representation of the DCG of your program. Obviously this code will effect performance, and so can be turned off by setting the parameter "graphing-on" to false (#f) in the file "graphing.rkt". If you choose to leave graphing enabled, the results of the graphing are automatically stored in the file graph.gmv in the same directory as the "graphing.rkt" file. You can modifiy the location and name of this file in "graphing.rkt".

To view the graph that is built you will need graphmovie, which can be downloaded here:

Once you have graphmovie download, simply open "graph.html" in your browser and open the .gmv file containing your graph.

It is worth noting that when the graph.gmv file is cleared and a new graph is created each time your code is compiled. If you do not re-compile your code, changes will simply be added to the graph that currently exists in "graph.gmv". This means that you perfrom some computations and load your DCG, and then go back and mutate your inputs. This will dirty your DCG, which will be reflected in graph.gmv until you re-compile.


Racket-based implementation of Adapton






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