# pmenke/fancy_writer

A simple IO wrapper for easier comment blocks, indentation and CSV output.
Ruby
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# FancyWriter

FancyWriter is a wrapper around an IO object that allows you to augment text blocks with whitespace indentation and comment symbols, and to format simple CSV data series. It uses a simple DSL for defining indentations, comment sections, and rules for symbol-separated value lists out of Enumerables.

This gem originated from the need to create files in a simple plain-text format in which indentation is important: The TextGrid file format of Praat, a software used for linguistic and phonetic analyses (see http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/).

After creating the code for indentation, I added the other methods, since they could easily benefit from the code that was already produced.

## Installation

gem 'fancy_writer'


And then execute:

$bundle  Or install it yourself as: $ gem install fancy_writer


## Basic usage

### Writing lines

Given an IO object that is suitable for writing (such as a file or stdout), FancyWriter can use this IO object for creating formatted output:

io = File.open('/foo/bar', 'w') # or any other writable IO
FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
w 'Hello World!'
end

produces

Hello World!


The methods write, w, and line can be used to your liking to create plain output. You can also pass multiple lines at once to such a method. Newlines are added automatically between each line. So,

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
w 'one', 'two', 'three'
end

produces

one
two
three


You can mark a section of your document with comment symbols by wrapping the section in a block given to the comment method (short version: c):

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
comment do
w 'This line is commented out.', 'This one, too.'
end
end
# This line is commented out.
# This one, too.


As you can see, Ruby-style comments are used by default (including a single trailing space to keep thind readable). To use another comment symbol, simply pass it as a parameter to the method:

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
comment('//') do
w 'This is a C style comment.'
end
comment('%') do
w 'This is a LaTeX style comment.'
end
end
// This is a C style comment.
% This is a LaTeX style comment.


You can suppress the space separator by passing false as a second parameter. In this case, you must specify the comment symbol parameter in any case.

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
comment('#', false) do
w 'This line is commented out.'
end
end
#This line is commented out.


### Indentation

Similar to comment blocks you can mark sections that should be indented by a certain amount of spaces (for tabs see below) with the indent method (short version: i):

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
w 'one'
indent do
w 'two'
indent do
w 'three'
end
end
end
one
two
three


You can see in this example that indentation (and also commenting) can be nested. Multiple indentations will be added / concatenated. By default, indentation uses two spaces. You can specify another amount of spaces by giving a number as a parameter. If you prefer tabs, you can use the method tab_indent (short version: t) – it works similar, but uses tabs instead of spaces and defaults to one tab symbol instead of two spaces.

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
w 'one'
tab_indent do
w 'I'm indented with one tab symbol.'
indent(8) do
end
end
end
  I'm indented with one tab symbol.


### Blocks

With "blocks" I refer to segments of text that have one single line that begins it and one line that ends it, and an additional body in between. Often, this body is indented. The following three-line samples show different examples of such blocks from different languages. Each first line is the beginning of a block, each second line its body, each third line its ending:

<div>
<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet...</p>
</div>
\begin{section}
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet...
\end{section}
@article{User1999,
author = {Joe User}
}


FancyWriter provides the block method (shortcut: b) to ease the process of creating such blocks. This method expects two or three parameters and a block. The first two parameters indicate the beginning and ending line, respectively. The third parameter is optional, it indicates the number of spaces to be used for indentation (its default is 2 spaces).

So, the first example above (the HTML one) can be produced with FancyWriter as follows:

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
block '<div>', '</div>' do
line '<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet...</p>'
end
end

While this feature in general does not appear to be very helpful, it can be used in combination with custom patterns (see below) to produce blocks dynamically.

### Symbol-separated values

If you pass an Enumerable to write_enum (short version: e), the underlying collection will be formatted as a symbol-separated list. By default, a comma will be used to separate values, and the values themselves will be used as-is:

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
write_enum [1,2,3,4]
end
1,2,3,4


You can specify another separator and a symbol used for quoting the single values by passing them to the writer object during initialization. So, in order to use a semicolon and single quotes, you can write:

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io, {enum_quote: "'", enum_separator: ";"}) do
write_enum [1,2,3,4]
end
'1';'2';'3';'4'


Note that also for this method, surrounding comment or indentation methods are evaluated, meaning that also formatted number sequences will be indented or commented out.

## An exhaustive example of basic usage

This is a somewhat artifical example, but it contains most of the methods in action.

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
comment '#' do
line 'This is an example file.'
line 'These comments explain the contents.'
end
line 'config:'
indent 4 do
line 'setting:'
indent 4 do
line 'some_key: some_value.'
comment do
line 'This is an inside comment.'
end
end
line 'data:'
indent 4 do
write_enum %w(1,2,3,4)
write_enum %w(5,6,7,8)
end
end
end
# This is an example file.
# These comments explain the contents.
config:
setting:
some_key: some_value.
# This is an inside comment.
data:
1,2,3,4
5,6,7,8


### Custom line patterns

If you are working with file formats that use repeated patterns (usually resulting from the language used), you can make your work even easier by defining named patterns. These are basically strings with some placeholders in them, which you can use to generate lines where these placeholders are substituted with parameters.

With the possibility to generate named patterns, you can create your own small DSL for the file format you are working with. This can save time and make your code more legible.

Let me give an example with the following segment of an Apache configuration file (let us further assume that you somehow need to generate these config files in your Ruby scripts from some source):

User wwwrun
Listen 80
DocumentRoot "/srv/www/htdocs"


Two things are important here: this configuration file follows a predefined syntax, and there are elements that repeat themselves. For these, you could define named patterns which serve several purposes: You do not need to spell out the complete line, you avoid repetition of formatting, and you can reduce errors. If you look at the end of the sample, you see many similar lines. If you define one pattern for them, you follow the DRY principle, you reduce the number of places to look for if a bug occurs, and you get a cleaner way of generating the file contents.

If you want to use named patterns, you need to delay the calling of the formatting method, because you need to insert the configuration fist. Thus, you do not call the formatting method directly on the newly created object as in the examples above, or like this:

FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io) do
# calls to line, block, comment, etc.
end

Instead, you assign the FancyWriter instance to a variable, perform the configuration, and finally call convert on the instance and give it a block with your formatting wishes:

@writer = FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io)
# Do your named pattern configuration here
@writer.convert do
# NOW, we can start writing!
# insert your calls to line, block, comment, etc.
end

In this example, you can see how a named pattern can be inserted using the add_line_config method. It expects a symbol (containing the name of the pattern) and the pattern itself. The symbol should follow the rules for method names in Ruby. You will see why in a few moments.

The named pattern follows a convention similar to the one used for the sprintf string formatting. The difference is that names are used, such as %method. These names will, during text generation, be replaced with matching values from the hash passed to your custom line method. Thus, if you pass a hash containing the entry method: "mime", then all occurrences of %method in that pattern will be replaced with mime. Literal % characters can be expressed by doubling them in the pattern: %%.

The pattern defined above basically inserts a line starting with 'LoadModule', and then a formatting of two parameters that you can give it during calling. You will be able to call this named pattern as if you call the pattern name as a method (that's why the pattern name should follow these rules).

You can generate the four module configurations from the example with this code:

@writer = FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io)
# Do your named pattern configuration here
@writer.convert do
end

In a similar fashion, you could add patterns for the other lines in the configuration file.

### Custom block patterns

Similar to this, you can also add patterns that create custom blocks. In these blocks, the beginning and ending text will be interpolated with the values you pass to the block. The functionality is similar to the one used for custom line patterns, with the following exceptions:

You configure a new block as follows:

@writer.add_block_config block_name, begin_pattern, end_pattern, indentation
• block_name is the symbol to be used for the method call.
• begin_pattern and end_pattern are patterns for the strings that you want to use to surround your block. Here, you can add %field definitions in places where you want to put a variable value.
• indentation declares the number of spaces to use for block indentation.

The difference in calling a block pattern is that you pass a (Ruby) block to it that contains rules for creating the body of the block:

@writer.add_block_config :xml_tag, '<%tagname>', '</%tagname>', 2
@writer.convert do1
xml_tag tagname: 'div' do
xml_tag tagname: 'p' do
line 'Hello world!'
end
end
end

thus produces

<div>
<p>
Hello World!
</p>
</div>

(Of course there are dozens of better and more efficient ways to actually output XML, this is supposed to be just a comprehensible example.)

## Issues

### Context and scope

It is not possible at the moment to access member variables inside a FancyIO.new block. This is due to the way instance_eval works (which is used internally to evaluate the formatting blocks). If you need access to the context of the calling object,

1. use accessor methods instead of variables,
2. add caller: self to the options passed during creation of the fancy writer object:
FancyWriter::FancyIO.new(io, {..., caller: self}) do
...
end

Then, the writer will know about the context of the object. Internally, it will try to send method calls to the origin object whenever method_missing reports a method call for which the writer does not have a counterpart.

Found another problem? Is something not working? Contact me, ideally by creating an issue on Github.

https://github.com/pmenke/fancy_writer/issues

Please browse existing issues first, to avoid double postings.

## Release history

### 1.0.2 – named pattern support (6 Feb 2015)

• #4 implemented. Adds support for custom line patterns
• #2 implemented. Adds support for custom block patterns

### 1.0.1 – block support (6 Feb 2015)

• #1 implemented. Adds support for blocks
• #3 implemented. Minor code improvements

### 1.0.0 – initial version (28 Mar 2014)

• First version of the gem, basic support for lines, comments, indentation.

## Contributing

Any ideas are welcome! Either

1. Fork it ( http://github.com//fancy_writer/fork )
2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
5. Create new Pull Request

or create an issue on github:

https://github.com/pmenke/fancy_writer/issues

Please browse existing issues first, to avoid double postings.