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Pollenium is an application agnostic gossip network designed to work in the browser.

⚠️ This whitepaper is not finalized

Gossip Networks

A gossip network is a method of propogating a message that does not rely on the trust of a central party. Gossip networks propogate messages analagous to rumors: one party tells their peers, each of whom tells their peers. Assuming a sufficient proportion of peers honestly re-propogate the message, it is possible to sufficiently guarantee all parties will receive the message.

Current Applications of Gossip Networks

The following is a non-exhaustive list of gossip networks currently in use:

  1. The Bitcoin blockchain (along with most public blockchains) uses a gossip network to propogate requests to transfer assets as well as blocks of confirmed asset transfers
  2. TOR uses a gossip network to propogate entry gateways for hidden services
  3. BitTorrent uses a gossip network to propogate peer entry notifications

Application Gnostic vs Application Agnostic Systems

When a system is designed for a specific set of purposes, we say it is "gnostic". On the other hand, when they are designed to be general purpose and support a wide variety of applications, we say it is "agnostic".

Gnostic Agnostic
Computers Gaming Consoles, Calculators Desktop Computers, Mobile Phones
Messaging eMail, Slack TC/IP, HTTP, WebRTC
Blockchains Bitcoin Ethereum
File Sharing Youtube, Imgur DropBox, BitTorrent

Clearly, "gnostic" and "agnostic" exist on a spectrum with fuzzy boundaries.

In "Current Application of Gossip Networks", we listed three gossip networks. Notably, all three use gnostic gossip networks, meaning they were designed to support a specific application. While gnostic gossip networks can offer more efficient solutions, they must be developed individually for each application.

Current Application Agnostic Gossip Networks

There are two main application agnostic gossip networks:

  1. Whisper
  2. BitMessage

Both these gossip networks are fundamentally very similar in design. Pollenium, also, does not fundamentally differ from the design of these current application agnostic gossip networks.

The following three design decisions are shared between Whisper, BitMessage, and Pollenium:

  1. Hashcash for spam prevention
  2. XOR based peer rankings

Rather than make any fundamental design changes, Pollenium makes an important implementation change. Both Whisper and BitMessage use TCP/IP for networking and message propogation. Pollenium uses WebRTC in order to solve the "Alpha vs Beta Peer Problem".

The Alpha vs Beta Peer Problem

Alpha vs Beta Devices

On the internet, not all devices are equal. Some devices are first-class citizens, which we refer to as "alpha" while others are second-class citizens, which we refer to as "beta".

Alpha devices have the ability to receive a message from any device on the internet, alpha or beta.

Beta devices, on the other hand, can only connect to alpha devices. Furthermore, messages between alpha and beta devices must originate with beta devices.

Sending Device Receiving Device Success?
Alpha Alpha
Alpha Beta
Beta Alpha
Beta Beta

Alpha devices are an absolute necessity for commercial service providers such as Google and Facebook. However, beta devices are common for consumer internet usage. Alpha devices are also more expensive and/or more difficult to setup and operate.

Device Type Typical Marginal Cost Ease Typical User
Virtual machine from cloud hosting company Alpha $5/month Medium Commercial service provider
Operating system software on desktop computer with configured router Alpha $0 Low Technically savy user
Browser software Beta $0 High Everyone
Mobile phone app Beta $0 High Everyone

Implications for Gossip Networks

While gossip network are often described as "peer to peer", they are in practice "beta peer to alpha peer to beta peer". This is due not to the fundamental properties of gossip networks, but rather due to the reality of the internet in the real world.

Earlier we stated that the message propogation guarentees of gossip networks were based on a sufficient proportion of honest peers. However, that was based on the assumption that all peers had equal ability to connect to their peers. Since some peers are alpha peers and other peers are beta peers, we also require a sufficient proportion of honest alpha peers.

Since alpha devices are typically more expensive and/or cumbersome, it is unwise to expect a sufficient subset of peers to run them voluntarily. This greatly restricts the potential of gossip networks in application design.


WebRTC is a relatively recent technology adopted by W3C, the organization that creates web standards. WebRTC is now implemented in most web browsers. WebRTC allows for a full range of communication between alpha and beta devices.

Sending Device Receiving Device Success?
Alpha Alpha
Alpha Beta
Beta Alpha
Beta Beta

While WebRTC is not the only solution, it is the only solution that runs in web browsers.

Signaling Servers

While WebRTC does allow the full range of communication between alpha and beta devices, it does have on major drawback. It requires a centralized and trustworthy signaling server to help devices connect. However, it is not necessary that a sufficient proportion of signaling servers be trustworthy. Rather, only a single signaling server is required to be trustworthy. Furthermore, no messages are passed to or from the signaling server, minimizing the damage an untrustworthy signaling server can inflict to censorship of individual peers, rather than selective censorship of individual messages.

Pollenium Design

The following section contains a mid-level overview of Pollenium.


Pollenium contains no additional layers of encryption. WebRTC connections are already encrypted, and no additional encryption is required. Communication between Pollenium clients and signaling servers are encrypted if the signaling servers support WSS. For this reason, signaling servers should implement WSS and clients should only connect to signaling servers over WSS.


A FRIENDSHIP is a WebRTC connection between two CLIENTs on the Pollenium network.

FRIENDSHIPs are INTROVERTED or EXTROVERTED in respect to a CLIENT, depending on weather the CLIENT originated the FRIENDSHIP.

For example, if CLIENT{A} originated a FRIENDSHIP{A->B} with CLIENT{B}, we say FRIENDSHIP{A->B} is EXTROVERTED in respect to CLIENT{A} and INTROVERTED in respect to CLIENT{B} .

The mechanism for a CLIENT{A} to originate FRIENDSHIP{A->B} is the creation of OFFER{A}. OFFER{A} is relayed using a signaling server to CLIENT{B}. CLIENT{B} uses OFFER{A} to create ANSWER{B} which is then relayed using the same signaling server to CLIENT{A}. Once CLIENT{B} possesses OFFER{A} and CLIENT{A} posesses CLIENT{B}, FRIENDSHIP{A->B} can be created.

CLIENTs default toward INTROVERTED FRIENDSHIPs, and only attempt EXTROVERTED FRIENDSHIPs when no valid OFFERs are available.


  1. A USERinstantiates a Pollenium client CLIENT{USER} with
    1. Addresses of one or multiple signaling servers
    2. A FRIENDSHIPS_MAX{USER} which describes the maximum number of FRIENDSHIP{USER}s CLIENT{USER} will make
  2. CLIENT{USER} randomly generates a NONCE{USER}
  3. CLIENT{USER} connects to the signaling servers using websockets
  4. The signaling servers sends a list of known OFFER{PEER}s to CLIENT{USER}. Each OFFER{PEER} contains:
    1. The NONCE{PEER} of the CLIENT{PEER} that created OFFER{PEER}
    2. A SESSION_DESCRIPTION_PROTOCOL{PEER} which contains information necessary for CLIENT{USER} to negotiate a WebRTC connection with CLIENT{PEER}
  5. Upon downloading each OFFER{PEER} from a signaling server, CLIENT{USER}:
    1. Checks the NONCE{PEER} of OFFER{PEER} to ensure it does not have an existing FRIENDSHIP with CLIENT{PEER}
    2. Adds the OFFER{PEER} into a list of known OFFER{PEER}s ranked by NONCE_DISTANCE{USER, PEER} where: NONCE_DISTANCE{USER, PEER} = XOR{NONCE{USER}, NONCE{PEER}}
    1. CLIENT{USER} initiates an WebRTC connection using information in SESSION_DESCRIPTION_PROTOCOL{PEER}
    2. CLIENT{USER} creates an ANSWER{USER} with the following information:
    3. The NONCE{USER} of the CLIENT{USER}
    4. The OFFER_ID{OFFER{PEER}} , derived by hashing OFFER{PEER}
    5. A SESSION_DESCRIPTION_PROTOCOL{USER} which contains information necessary for CLIENT{PEER} to negotiate a WebRTC connection with CLIENT{USER}
    6. The ANSWER{USER} is uploaded to the signaling server which relayed the OFFER{PEER}
    7. Using the OFFER_ID{OFFER{PEER}} included in the ANSWER{USER}, the signaling server relays the ANSWER{USER} to CLIENT{PEER}
    8. CLIENT{PEER} completes the WebRTC connection using information in SESSION_DESCRIPTION_PROTOCOL{USER}
  7. CLIENT{USER} will repeat step 6 until either:
    1. The number of FRIENDSHIP{USER}s is equal to FRIENDSHIP_MAX{USER}
    2. The signaling servers stop fail to relay additional OFFER{PEER}s for a predetermined time
  8. If CLIENT{USER} has not reached FRIENDSHIP_MAX and the signaling servers fail to relay additional OFFER{PEER}s, CLIENT{USER} wil then start attempting EXTROVERTED FRIENDSHIPs, i.e. FRIENDSHIP{USER->PEER}
    1. CLIENT{USER} creates OFFER{USER} and uploads it to the signaling servers
    2. Step 6 is repeated, with the roles of USER and PEER reversed


CLIENTs may receives more OFFER{PEER}s than its FRIENDSHIP_MAX. CLIENTs should rank OFFER{PEER}s by their CLIENT_NONCE{PEER}. To do so, the DISTANCE{USER, PEER} between two peers is calculated by taking the bitwise XOR of CLIENT_NONCE{PEER} and CLIENT_NONCE{USER}.


Clients prioritize FRIENDSHIPs with the lowest DISTANCE{USER, PEER}, terminating FRIENDSHIPs with the highest DISTANCE{USER, PEER} if necessary..


A MISSIVE is a message sent between two CLIENTs on the pollenium network. Each MISSIVE contains the following:

Field Length Description
VERSION 1 The version id, which is currently only 0.
TIMESTAMP 5 Epoch time (seconds) the MISSIVE was created
APPLICATION_ID 32 An aplication-unique identifier
APPLICATION_DATA Dynamic Arbitrary application data
NONCE 32 The

Like other application-agnostic gossip networks, Pollenium uses proof of work to prioritize MISSIVEs.

When generating a MISSIVE a CLIENT will choose a whole-number DIFFICULTY between 0 and 255 inclusive.

DIFFICULTY ⋹ {0, 1, ..., 254, 255}

The CLIENT will then derive a MISSIVE_ID_MAX using the following formula:

A = 2 ^ (255 - DIFFICULTY)

All MISSIVES with a VERSION of 0 have a COVER of 69.

The CLIENT will then generate random NONCEs and derive the MISSIVE_ID until it finds a MISSIVE_ID less than or equal to MISSIVE_ID_MAX.


FRIENDSHIP_ID is the SHA256 hash of the encoded MISSIVE.

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