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# (c) Alexander Solovyov, 2009-2011, under terms of the new BSD License
'''Command line arguments parser
import sys, traceback, getopt, types, textwrap, inspect, os, keyword, codecs
from itertools import imap
from functools import wraps
from collections import namedtuple, Callable
from contextlib import contextmanager
__all__ = ['Dispatcher', 'command', 'dispatch']
__version__ = '3.7'
__author__ = 'Alexander Solovyov'
__email__ = ''
def write(text, out=None):
'''Write output to a given stream (stdout by default).'''
out = out or sys.stdout
print >> out, text
# Needed on Python 2.x if text is str/bytes containing non-ascii
# characters and sys.stdout is replaced by a writer from the codecs
# module. text will be decoded as ascii giving the decode error.
except UnicodeDecodeError:
print >> out, text.decode('utf-8')
# Get the order of stdout/stderr correct on Windows. AFAICT this is only
# needed for the test environment but it's harmless otherwise.
def err(text):
'''Write output to stderr.'''
write(text, out=sys.stderr)
# encoding to use when decoding command line arguments
FSE_ENCODING = sys.getfilesystemencoding()
def decodearg(arg, arg_encoding=ARG_ENCODING):
'''Decode an argument from sys.argv'''
# python 2.x: have bytes, convert to unicode with given encoding
if sys.version_info < (3, 0):
return arg.decode(arg_encoding)
# python 3.x: have unicode
# arg has already been decoded with FSE_ENCODING
# In the default case we just return the arg as it is
if arg_encoding == FSE_ENCODING:
return arg
# Need to encode and redecode as arg_encoding
if == 'posix':
# On posix the argument was decoded using surrogate escape
arg = arg.encode(FSE_ENCODING, 'surrogateescape')
# On windows the 'mbcs' codec has no surrogate escape handler
arg = arg.encode(FSE_ENCODING)
return arg.decode(arg_encoding)
class Dispatcher(object):
'''Central object for command dispatching system.
- ``cmdtable``: dict of commands. Will be populated with functions,
decorated with ``Dispatcher.command``.
- ``globaloptions``: list of options which are applied to all
commands, will contain ``--help`` option at least.
- ``middleware``: global decorator for all commands.
def __init__(self, cmdtable=None, globaloptions=None, middleware=None):
self._cmdtable = CmdTable(cmdtable or {})
self._globaloptions = [Option(o) for o in (globaloptions or [])]
self.middleware = middleware
def globaloptions(self):
opts = self._globaloptions[:]
if not any( == 'help' for o in opts):
opts.append(Option(('h', 'help', False, 'display help')))
return opts
def cmdtable(self):
return self._cmdtable.copy()
def command(self, options=None, usage=None, name=None, shortlist=False,
hide=False, aliases=()):
'''Decorator to mark function to be used as command for CLI.
from opster import command, dispatch
def run(argument,
option=('o', 'default', 'help for option'),
no_short_name=('', False, 'help for this option')):
print argument, optionalargument, option, no_short_name
if __name__ == '__main__':
# or, if you want to have multiple subcommands:
if __name__ == '__main__':
Optional arguments:
- ``options``: options in format described later. If not supplied,
will be determined from function.
- ``usage``: usage string for function, replaces ``%name`` with name
of program or subcommand. In case if it's subcommand and ``%name``
is not present, usage is prepended by ``name``
- ``name``: used for multiple subcommands. Defaults to wrapped
function name
- ``shortlist``: if command should be included in shortlist. Used
only with multiple subcommands
- ``hide``: if command should be hidden from help listing. Used only
with multiple subcommands, overrides ``shortlist``
- ``aliases``: list of aliases for command
If defined, options should be a list of 4-tuples in format::
(shortname, longname, default, help)
- ``shortname`` is a single letter which can be used then as an option
specifier on command line (like ``-a``). Will be not used if contains
falsy value (empty string, for example)
- ``longname`` - main identificator of an option, can be used as on a
command line with double dashes (like ``--longname``)
- ``default`` value for an option, type of it determines how option
will be processed
- ``help`` string displayed as a help for an option when asked to
def wrapper(func):
options_ = [Option(o) for o in (options or guess_options(func))]
except TypeError:
options_ = []
cmdname = name or name_from_python(func.__name__)
scriptname_ = name or sysname()
if usage is None:
usage_ = guess_usage(func, options_)
usage_ = usage
prefix = hide and '~' or (shortlist and '^' or '')
cmdname = prefix + cmdname
if aliases:
cmdname = cmdname + '|' + '|'.join(aliases)
self._cmdtable[cmdname] = (func, options_, usage_)
def help_func(scriptname=None):
scriptname = scriptname or sysname()
return help_cmd(func, usage_, options_, aliases, scriptname)
def command(argv=None, scriptname=None):
scriptname = scriptname or sysname()
merge_globalopts(self.globaloptions, options_)
if argv is None:
argv = sys.argv[1:]
with exchandle(, scriptname):
args, opts = process(argv, options_)
if opts.pop('help', False):
with exchandle(, scriptname):
with help_workaround(func, scriptname):
return call_cmd(scriptname, func, options_)(*args, **opts)
except ErrorHandled:
return -1
func.usage = usage_ = help_func
func.command = command
func.opts = options_
func.orig = func
func.scriptname = scriptname_
def inner(*args, **opts):
return call_cmd_regular(func, options_)(*args, **opts)
# Store this for help_workaround
func._inner = inner
return inner
return wrapper
def nest(self, name, dispatcher, help, hide=False, shortlist=False):
'''Add another dispatcher as a subcommand.'''
dispatcher.__doc__ = help
prefix = hide and '~' or (shortlist and '^' or '')
self._cmdtable[prefix + name] = dispatcher, [], None
def dispatch(self, args=None, scriptname=None):
'''Dispatch command line arguments using subcommands.
- ``args``: list of arguments, default: ``sys.argv[1:]``
if args is None:
args = sys.argv[1:]
scriptname = scriptname or sysname()
# Add help function to the table
cmdtable = self.cmdtable
help_func = help_(cmdtable, self.globaloptions, scriptname)
cmdtable['help'] = help_func, [], '[TOPIC]'
autocomplete(cmdtable, args, self.middleware)
with exchandle(help_func):
cmd, func, args, options = cmdparse(args, cmdtable,
if isinstance(func, Dispatcher):
return func.dispatch(args, scriptname=scriptname + ' ' + cmd)
with exchandle(help_func, cmd):
args, opts = process(args, options)
if not cmd:
cmd, func, args, opts = ('help', help_func, ['shortlist'], {})
if opts.pop('help', False):
cmd, func, args, opts = ('help', help_func, [cmd], {})
mw = cmd != '_completion' and self.middleware or None
with exchandle(help_func, cmd):
with help_workaround(func, cmd, help_func):
return call_cmd(cmd, func, options, mw)(*args, **opts)
except ErrorHandled:
return -1
_dispatcher = None
def command(options=None, usage=None, name=None, shortlist=False, hide=False,
global _dispatcher
if not _dispatcher:
_dispatcher = Dispatcher()
return _dispatcher.command(options=options, usage=usage, name=name,
shortlist=shortlist, hide=hide, aliases=aliases)
command.__doc__ = Dispatcher.command.__doc__
def dispatch(args=None, cmdtable=None, globaloptions=None, middleware=None,
global _dispatcher
if not _dispatcher:
_dispatcher = Dispatcher(cmdtable, globaloptions, middleware)
if cmdtable:
_dispatcher._cmdtable = CmdTable(cmdtable)
if globaloptions:
_dispatcher._globaloptions = [Option(o) for o in globaloptions]
if middleware:
_dispatcher.middleware = middleware
return _dispatcher.dispatch(args, scriptname)
dispatch.__doc__ = Dispatcher.dispatch.__doc__
# --------
# Help
# --------
def help_(cmdtable, globalopts, scriptname):
'''Help generator for a command table.
def help_inner(name=None, *args, **opts):
'''Show help for a given help topic or a help overview.
With no arguments, print a list of commands with short help messages.
Given a command name, print help for that command.
def helplist():
hlp = {}
# determine if any command is marked for shortlist
shortlist = (name == 'shortlist' and
any(imap(lambda x: x.startswith('^'), cmdtable)))
for cmd, info in cmdtable.items():
if cmd.startswith('~'):
continue # do not display hidden commands
if shortlist and not cmd.startswith('^'):
continue # short help contains only marked commands
cmd = cmd.lstrip('^~')
doc = pretty_doc_string(info[0])
hlp[cmd] = doc.strip().splitlines()[0].rstrip()
hlplist = sorted(hlp)
maxlen = max(map(len, hlplist))
write('usage: %s <command> [options]' % scriptname)
for cmd in hlplist:
doc = hlp[cmd]
write(' %-*s %s' % (maxlen, cmd.split('|', 1)[0], doc))
if not cmdtable:
return err('No commands specified!')
if not name or name == 'shortlist':
return helplist()
aliases, (cmd, options, usage) = findcmd(name, cmdtable)
if isinstance(cmd, Dispatcher):
recurse = help_(cmd.cmdtable, globalopts, scriptname + ' ' + name)
return recurse(*args, **opts)
options = list(options)
merge_globalopts(globalopts, options)
return help_cmd(cmd, usage, options, aliases[1:],
scriptname + ' ' + aliases[0])
return help_inner
def help_cmd(func, usage, options, aliases, scriptname=None):
'''Show help for given command.
- ``func``: function to generate help for (``func.__doc__`` is taken)
- ``usage``: usage string
- ``options``: options in usual format
>>> def test(*args, **opts):
... """that's a test command
... you can do nothing with this command"""
... pass
>>> opts = [('l', 'listen', 'localhost',
... 'ip to listen on'),
... ('p', 'port', 8000,
... 'port to listen on'),
... ('d', 'daemonize', False,
... 'daemonize process'),
... ('', 'pid-file', '',
... 'name of file to write process ID to')]
>>> help_cmd(test, '%name [-l HOST] [NAME]', opts, (), 'test')
test [-l HOST] [NAME]
that's a test command
you can do nothing with this command
-l --listen ip to listen on (default: localhost)
-p --port port to listen on (default: 8000)
-d --daemonize daemonize process
--pid-file name of file to write process ID to
options = [Option(o) for o in options] # only for doctest
usage = replace_name(usage, scriptname)
if aliases:
write('\naliases: ' + ', '.join(aliases))
doc = pretty_doc_string(func)
write('\n' + doc.strip() + '\n')
for line in help_options(options):
def help_options(options):
'''Generator for help on options.
yield 'options:\n'
output = []
for o in options:
default = o.default_value()
default = default and ' (default: %s)' % default or ''
output.append(('%2s%s' % (o.short and '-%s' % o.short, and ' --%s' %,
'%s%s' % (o.helpmsg, default)))
opts_len = max([len(first) for first, second in output if second] or [0])
for first, second in output:
if second:
# wrap description at 78 chars
second = textwrap.wrap(second, width=(78 - opts_len - 3))
pad = '\n' + ' ' * (opts_len + 3)
yield ' %-*s %s' % (opts_len, first, pad.join(second))
yield ' %s' % first
# --------
# Options process
# --------
def merge_globalopts(globalopts, opts):
'''Merge the global options with the subcommand options'''
for o in globalopts:
# Don't include global option if long name matches
if any(( == for x in opts)):
# Don't use global option short name if already used
if any((x.short and x.short == o.short for x in opts)):
o = o._replace(short='')
# Factory for creating _Option instances. Intended to be the entry point to
# the *Option classes here.
def Option(opt):
'''Create Option instance from tuple of option data.'''
if isinstance(opt, BaseOption):
return opt
# Extract and validate contents of tuple
short, name, default, helpmsg = opt[:4]
completer = opt[4] if len(opt) > 4 else None
if short and len(short) != 1:
raise OpsterError(
'Short option should be only a single character: %s' % short)
if not name:
raise OpsterError(
'Long name should be defined for every option')
pyname = name_to_python(name)
args = pyname, name, short, default, helpmsg, completer
# Find matching _Option subclass and return instance
# nb. the order of testing matters
for Type in (BoolOption, ListOption, DictOption, FuncOption,
TupleOption, UnicodeOption, LiteralOption):
if Type.matches(default):
return Type(*args)
raise OpsterError('Cannot figure out type for option %s' % name)
def CmdTable(cmdtable):
'''Factory to convert option tuples in a cmdtable'''
newtable = {}
for name, (func, opts, usage) in cmdtable.items():
newtable[name] = (func, [Option(o) for o in opts], usage)
return newtable
# Superclass for all option classes
class BaseOption(namedtuple('Option', (
'pyname', 'name', 'short', 'default', 'helpmsg', 'completer'))):
has_parameter = True
type = None
def __repr__(self):
return (super(BaseOption, self).__repr__()
.replace('Option', self.__class__.__name__, 1))
def matches(cls, default):
'''Returns True if this is appropriate Option for the default value.'''
return isinstance(default, cls.type)
def default_state(self):
'''Generate initial state value from provided default value.'''
return self.default
def update_state(self, state, new):
'''Update state after encountering an option on the command line.'''
return new
def convert(self, final):
'''Generate the resulting python value from the final state.'''
return final
def default_value(self):
'''Shortcut to obtain the default value when option arg not provided.'''
return self.convert(self.default_state())
class LiteralOption(BaseOption):
'''Literal option type (including string, int, float, etc.)'''
type = object
def convert(self, final):
'''Generate the resulting python value from the final state.'''
if final is self.default:
return final
return type(self.default)(final)
class UnicodeOption(BaseOption):
'''Handle unicode values, decoding input'''
type = unicode
def convert(self, final):
return decodearg(final)
class BoolOption(BaseOption):
'''Boolean option type.'''
has_parameter = False
type = (bool, types.NoneType)
def convert(self, final):
return bool(final)
def update_state(self, state, new):
return not self.default
class ListOption(BaseOption):
'''List option type.'''
type = list
def default_state(self):
return list(self.default)
def update_state(self, state, new):
return state
class DictOption(BaseOption):
'''Dict option type.'''
type = dict
def default_state(self):
return dict(self.default)
def update_state(self, state, new):
k, v = new.split('=')
except ValueError:
msg = "wrong definition: %r (should be in format KEY=VALUE)"
raise getopt.GetoptError(msg % new)
state[k] = v
return state
class TupleOption(BaseOption):
'''Tuple option type.'''
type = tuple
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
self._option = Option(('', '_', self.default[0], ''))
def default_state(self):
return self._option.default
def update_state(self, state, new):
return self._option.update_state(state, new)
def convert(self, final):
finalval = self._option.convert(final)
if finalval not in self.default:
msg = "unrecognised value: %r (should be one of %s)"
msg = msg % (final, ', '.join(str(v) for v in self.default))
raise getopt.GetoptError(msg)
return finalval
class FuncOption(BaseOption):
'''Function option type.'''
type = Callable
def default_state(self):
return None
def convert(self, final):
return self.default(final)
def process(args, options):
>>> opts = [('l', 'listen', 'localhost',
... 'ip to listen on'),
... ('p', 'port', 8000,
... 'port to listen on'),
... ('d', 'daemonize', False,
... 'daemonize process'),
... ('', 'pid-file', '',
... 'name of file to write process ID to')]
>>> print process(['-l', '', '--pi', 'test', 'all'], opts)
(['all'], {'pid_file': 'test', 'daemonize': False, 'port': 8000, 'listen': ''})
options = [Option(o) for o in options] # only for doctest
# Parse arguments and options
args, opts = getopts(args, options)
# Default values
state = dict((o.pyname, o.default_state()) for o in options)
# Update for each option on the command line
for o, val in opts:
state[o.pyname] = o.update_state(state[o.pyname], val)
# Convert to required type
for o in options:
state[o.pyname] = o.convert(state[o.pyname])
except ValueError:
raise getopt.GetoptError('invalid option value %r for option %r'
% (state[o.pyname],
return args, state
def getopts(args, options, preparse=False):
'''Parse args and options from raw args.
If preparse is True, option processing stops at first non-option.
argmap = {}
shortlist, namelist = '', []
for o in options:
argmap['-' + o.short] = argmap['--' +] = o
# getopt wants indication that it takes a parameter
short, name = o.short,
if o.has_parameter:
if short:
short += ':'
name += '='
if short:
shortlist += short
# gnu_getopt will stop at first non-option argument
if preparse:
shortlist = '+' + shortlist
# getopt.gnu_getopt allows options after the first non-option
opts, args = getopt.gnu_getopt(args, shortlist, namelist)
# map the option argument names back to their Option instances
opts = [(argmap[opt], val) for opt, val in opts]
return args, opts
# --------
# Subcommand system
# --------
def cmdparse(args, cmdtable, globalopts):
'''Parse arguments list to find a command, options and arguments.
# pre-parse arguments here using global options to find command name,
# which is first non-option entry
args_new, opts = getopts(args, globalopts, preparse=True)
args = list(args)
if args_new:
cmdarg = args_new[0]
aliases, info = findcmd(cmdarg, cmdtable)
cmd = aliases[0]
possibleopts = list(info[1])
merge_globalopts(globalopts, possibleopts)
return cmd, info[0] or None, args, possibleopts
return None, None, args, globalopts
def aliases_(cmdtable_key):
'''Get aliases from a command table key.'''
return cmdtable_key.lstrip("^~").split("|")
def findpossible(cmd, table):
'''Return cmd -> (aliases, command table entry) for each matching command.
choice = {}
for e in table.keys():
aliases = aliases_(e)
found = None
if cmd in aliases:
found = cmd
for a in aliases:
if a.startswith(cmd):
found = a
if found is not None:
choice[found] = (aliases, table[e])
return choice
def findcmd(cmd, table):
"""Return (aliases, command table entry) for command string."""
choice = findpossible(cmd, table)
if cmd in choice:
return choice[cmd]
if len(choice) > 1:
clist = choice.keys()
raise AmbiguousCommand(cmd, clist)
if choice:
return choice.values()[0]
raise UnknownCommand(cmd)
# --------
# Helpers
# --------
def guess_options(func):
'''Get options definitions from function
They should be declared in a following way:
def func(longname=(shortname, default, help)):
See docstring of ``command()`` for description of those variables.
args, _, _, defaults = inspect.getargspec(func)
except ValueError: # has keyword-only arguments
for o in guess_options_py3k(func):
yield o
for name, option in zip(args[-len(defaults):], defaults):
if not isinstance(option, tuple):
yield (option[0], name_from_python(name)) + option[1:]
def guess_options_py3k(func):
'''Get options definitions from function with keyword-only arguments
They should be declared in a following way:
def func(*, longname=(shortname, default, help)):
See docstring of ``command()`` for description of those variables.
spec = inspect.getfullargspec(func)
for name, option in spec.kwonlydefaults.items():
yield (option[0], name_from_python(name)) + option[1:]
def guess_usage(func, options):
'''Get usage definition for a function
usage = ['%name']
if options:
arginfo = inspect.getargspec(func)
except ValueError: # keyword-only args
arginfo = inspect.getfullargspec(func)
optnames = [ for o in options]
nonoptional = len(arginfo.args) - len(arginfo.defaults or ())
for i, arg in enumerate(arginfo.args):
if arg not in optnames:
usage.append((i > nonoptional - 1 and '[%s]' or '%s')
% arg.upper())
if arginfo.varargs:
usage.append('[%s ...]' % arginfo.varargs.upper())
return ' '.join(usage)
def help_workaround(func, scriptname, help_func=None):
'''Context manager to temporarily replace'''
# Retrieve inner if function is command wrapped
func = getattr(func, '_inner', func)
# Ignore function that was not command wrapped
if not hasattr(func, 'help'):
# Wrap the with block with a replaced help function
help =
help_func = help_func or help
try: = lambda: help_func(scriptname)
finally: = help
def exchandle(help_func, cmd=None):
'''Context manager to turn internal exceptions into printed help messages.
Handles internal opster exceptions by printing help and raising
ErrorHandled. Other exceptions are propagated.
yield # execute the block in the 'with' statement
except UnknownCommand as e:
err("unknown command: '%s'" % e)
except AmbiguousCommand as e:
err("command '%s' is ambiguous:\n %s" %
(e.args[0], ' '.join(e.args[1])))
except ParseError as e:
err('%s: %s\n' % (e.args[0], e.args[1].strip()))
except getopt.GetoptError as e:
err('error: %s\n' % e)
except OpsterError as e:
err('%s' % e)
# abort if a handled exception was raised
raise ErrorHandled()
def call_cmd(name, func, opts, middleware=None):
'''Wrapper for command call, catching situation with insufficient arguments.
# depth is necessary when there is a middleware in setup
arginfo = inspect.getargspec(func)
except ValueError:
arginfo = inspect.getfullargspec(func)
if middleware:
tocall = middleware(func)
depth = 2
tocall = func
depth = 1
def inner(*args, **kwargs):
# NOTE: this is not very nice, but it fixes problem with
# TypeError: func() got multiple values for 'argument'
# Would be nice to find better way
prepend = []
start = None
if arginfo.varargs and len(args) > (len(arginfo.args) - len(kwargs)):
for o in opts:
if o.pyname in arginfo.args:
if start is None:
start = arginfo.args.index(o.pyname)
if start is not None: # do we have to prepend anything
args = (args[:start] +
tuple(kwargs.pop(x) for x in prepend) +
return tocall(*args, **kwargs)
except TypeError:
if len(traceback.extract_tb(sys.exc_info()[2])) == depth:
raise ParseError(name, "invalid arguments")
return inner
def call_cmd_regular(func, opts):
'''Wrapper for command for handling function calls from Python.
# This would raise an error if there were any keyword-only arguments
arginfo = inspect.getargspec(func)
except ValueError:
return call_cmd_regular_py3k(func, opts)
def inner(*args, **kwargs):
# Map from argument names to Option instances
opt_args = dict((o.pyname, o) for o in opts)
# Pull any recognised args out of kwargs and splice them with the
# positional arguments to give a flat positional arg list
remaining = list(args)
args = []
defaults_offset = len(arginfo.args) - len(arginfo.defaults)
for n, argname in enumerate(arginfo.args):
# Option arguments MUST be given as keyword arguments
if argname in opt_args:
if argname in kwargs:
argval = kwargs.pop(argname)
argval = opt_args[argname].default_value()
# Take a positional argument
elif remaining:
argval = remaining.pop(0)
# Find the default value of the positional argument
elif n >= defaults_offset:
argval = arginfo.defaults[n - defaults_offset]
raise TypeError('Not enough positional arguments')
# Accumulate the args in order
# Combine the remaining positional arguments that go to varargs
args = args + remaining
# kwargs is any keyword arguments that were not recognised as options
return func(*args, **kwargs)
return inner
def call_cmd_regular_py3k(func, opts):
'''call_cmd_regular for functions with keyword only arguments'''
spec = inspect.getfullargspec(func)
def inner(*args, **kwargs):
# Replace the option arguments with their default values
for o in opts:
if o.pyname not in kwargs:
kwargs[o.pyname] = o.default_value()
return func(*args, **kwargs)
return inner
def replace_name(usage, name):
'''Replace name placeholder with a command name.'''
if '%name' in usage:
return usage.replace('%name', name, 1)
return name + ' ' + usage
def sysname():
'''Returns name of executing file.'''
name = sys.argv[0]
if os.path.isabs(name) or os.path.dirname(name) == '.':
return os.path.basename(name)
return name
def pretty_doc_string(item):
'''Doc string with adjusted indentation level of the 2nd line and beyond.'''
raw_doc = item.__doc__ or '(no help text available)'
lines = raw_doc.strip().splitlines()
if len(lines) <= 1:
return raw_doc
indent = len(lines[1]) - len(lines[1].lstrip())
return '\n'.join([lines[0]] + map(lambda l: l[indent:], lines[1:]))
def name_from_python(name):
if name.endswith('_') and keyword.iskeyword(name[:-1]):
name = name[:-1]
return name.replace('_', '-')
def name_to_python(name):
name = name.replace('-', '_')
if keyword.iskeyword(name):
return name + '_'
return name
# --------
# Autocomplete system
# --------
# Borrowed from PIP
def autocomplete(cmdtable, args, middleware):
'''Command and option completion.
Enable by sourcing one of the completion shell scripts (bash or zsh).
# Don't complete if user hasn't sourced bash_completion file.
if 'OPSTER_AUTO_COMPLETE' not in os.environ:
cwords = os.environ['COMP_WORDS'].split()[1:]
cword = int(os.environ['COMP_CWORD'])
current = cwords[cword - 1]
except IndexError:
current = ''
commands = []
for k in cmdtable.keys():
commands += aliases_(k)
# command
if cword == 1:
print ' '.join(filter(lambda x: x.startswith(current), commands))
# command options
elif cwords[0] in commands:
idx = -2 if current else -1
options = []
aliases, (cmd, opts, usage) = findcmd(cwords[0], cmdtable)
for o in opts:
short = '-%s' % o.short
name = '--%s' %
options += [short, name]
completer = o.completer
if cwords[idx] in (short, name) and completer:
if middleware:
completer = middleware(completer)
args = completer(current)
print ' '.join(args),
print ' '.join((o for o in options if o.startswith(current)))
# opster bash completion start
complete -o default -F _opster_completion %s
# opster bash completion end
# opster zsh completion start
function _opster_completion {
local words cword
read -Ac words
read -cn cword
reply=( $( COMP_WORDS="$words[*]" \\
COMP_CWORD=$(( cword-1 )) \\
OPSTER_AUTO_COMPLETE=1 $words[1] ) )
compctl -K _opster_completion %s
# opster zsh completion end
@command(name='_completion', hide=True)
def completion(type=('t', 'bash', 'Completion type (bash or zsh)'),
# kwargs will catch every global option, which we get
# anyway, because middleware is skipped
'''Outputs completion script for bash or zsh.'''
prog_name = os.path.split(sys.argv[0])[1]
print COMPLETIONS[type].strip() % prog_name
# --------
# Exceptions
# --------
class OpsterError(Exception):
'Base opster exception'
class AmbiguousCommand(OpsterError):
'Raised if command is ambiguous'
class UnknownCommand(OpsterError):
'Raised if command is unknown'
class ParseError(OpsterError):
'Raised on error in command line parsing'
class QuitError(OpsterError):
'Raised to exit script with a message to the user'
class ErrorHandled(OpsterError):
'Raised to signal that opster is aborting the command'
# API to expose QuitError for opster users
command.Error = QuitError
if __name__ == '__main__':
import doctest