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Overview

popphp is the main set of core components for the Pop PHP Framework. It provides the main Application object that can be configured to manage and interface with the underlying core components:

  • Router
  • Controller
  • Model
  • Modules
  • Event Manager
  • Service Locator

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Install

Install popphp using Composer.

composer require popphp/popphp

Or, require it in your composer.json file

"require": {
    "popphp/popphp" : "^4.0.0"
}

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Quickstart

Here's a config file for a basic HTTP web application with some routes in it:

app.http.php

<?php
return [
    'routes' => [
        '/' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'index'
        ],
        '*' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'error'
        ]
    ]
];

And here's a basic index.php front controller that will drive the application:

index.php

$app = new Pop\Application(include __DIR__ . '/config/app.http.php');
$app->run();

Any request that comes to that front controller will be routed accordingly. For example, the request /:

$ curl -i -X GET http://localhost/

would route to and execute the MyApp\Controller\IndexController->index method.

Any invalid request would route to the MyApp\Controller\IndexController->error method.

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Applications

Setting up an HTTP application

Here's an extended example of how to wire up a web application object with a configuration file that defines some basic routes:

app.http.php
<?php
return [
    'routes' => [
        '/' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'index'
        ],
        '/users[/]' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'users'
        ],
        '/edit/:id' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'edit'
        ],
        '*' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'error'
        ]
    ]
];

Then you can use include to push the configuration array into the application object. The application object will parse the routes array and register those routes with the application.

The index.php front controller for the web application would look like this:

index.php
$app = new Pop\Application(include __DIR__ . '/config/app.http.php');
$app->run();

An example of a valid request to the above HTTP application would be:

$ curl -i -X GET http://localhost/edit/1001

An example of an invalid request would be:

$ curl -i -X GET http://localhost/bad-request

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Setting up a CLI application

Here's an example of how to wire up a CLI-based application object with a configuration file that defines some basic routes:

app.cli.php
<?php
return [
    'routes' => [
        'help' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\ConsoleController',
            'action'     => 'help'
        ],
        'hello <name>' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\ConsoleController',
            'action'     => 'hello'
        ],
        '*' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\ConsoleController',
            'action'     => 'error'
        ]
    ]
];

The app.php front controller (or main script) for the CLI application would look like this:

app.php
$app = new Pop\Application(include __DIR__ . '/config/app.cli.php');
$app->run();

As before, the actions listed in the app.cli.php config above will be routed to methods within the MyApp\Controller\ConsoleController object, help() and hello($name) respectively. And like HTTP, a default error() action can be defined to handle invalid CLI commands.

An example of a valid request to the above CLI application would be:

$ php app.php hello Nick

An example of an invalid request would be:

$ php app.php bad request

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CLI Shortcut

Depending on your environment, a CLI front controller or script can be shortened to just a file basename (without the .php extension), for example:

$ ./app

But the script and its contents would have to be properly configured, for example:

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php

/* include any autoloader or other content */

$app = new Pop\Application(include __DIR__ . '/config/app.cli.php');
$app->run();

and set to be executable:

$ chmod 755 ./app

Then the CLI application can be accessed in a shortened, more concise way, like:

$ ./app hello Nick

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Flexible Constructor

The application object has a flexible constructor that allows you to inject any of the following in any order:

$app = new Pop\Application(
    $config,     // An array, an array-like object or an instance of Pop\Config\Config
    $autoloader, // An instance of Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader
    $router,     // An instance of Pop\Router\Router
    $services,   // An instance of Pop\Service\Locator
    $events,     // An instance of Pop\Event\Manager
    $modules,    // An instance of Pop\Module\Manager
);

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App Helper

There is an "app helper" class that provides access to any environmental variables set in the .env file as well as provides quick access to the current application object from anywhere in your application life cycle. When an application object is created and bootstrapped, it is automatically registered with this static class.

use Pop\App;

$app = App::get(); // Returns the instance of the Pop\Application object

At anytime in the application life cycle, you can use the API of the app helper class to access environmental variables, like this:

use Pop\App;

if (App::env('SOME_VALUE') == 'foo') {
    // Do something
}

Application Environment

The application environment variable sets what type of environment the current running app is in. Supported values for the APP_ENV variable are:

  • local
  • dev
  • testing
  • staging
  • production (or just prod)
use Pop\App;

if (App::isLocal()) {
    // Do something in the local environment
} else if (App::isProduction()) {
    // Do something in the production environment
}

Maintenance Mode

The MAINTENANCE_MODE variable can be set to either true or false to put the application into a controlled "down" state while upgrades and/or maintenance are being performed.

use Pop\App;

if (App::isDown()) {
    // Handle the app in "maintenance mode"
}

The full API is:

  • App::config(?string $key = null)
  • App::name()
  • App::url()
  • App::env(string $key, mixed $default = null)
  • App::environment(mixed $env = null)
  • App::isLocal()
  • App::isDev()
  • App::isTesting()
  • App::isStaging()
  • App::isProduction()
  • App::isDown()
  • App::isUp()

And the above static methods are also available on the application object instance as well:

  • $app->name()
  • $app->url()
  • $app->env(string $key, mixed $default = null)
  • $app->environment(mixed $env = null)
  • $app->isLocal()
  • $app->isDev()
  • $app->isTesting()
  • $app->isStaging()
  • $app->isProduction()
  • $app->isDown()
  • $app->isUp()

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Router

The router object is one of the main components of a Pop application. It serves as the gatekeeper that routes requests to their proper controller. It works for both HTTP web applications and CLI-based applications. The router object will auto-detect the environment and use the correct router matching object for it.

With the app.http.php config above, the actions listed will be routed to methods within the MyApp\Controller\IndexController object, index(), users(), edit($id) and error() respectively.

The route /users[/] allows for an optional trailing slash. The route /edit/:id is expecting a value that will populate the $id parameter that will be passed into the edit($id) method, such as /edit/1001. Failure to have the ID segment of the URL will result in a non-match, or invalid route.

If you don't want to be so strict about the parameters passed into a method or function, you can make the parameter optional like this: /edit[/:id]. The respective method signature would be edit($id = null).

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HTTP Routes

Here is a list of possible route syntax options for HTTP applications:

HTTP Route What's Expected
/foo/:bar/:baz The 2 params are required
/foo/:bar[/:baz] First param required, last one is optional
/foo/:bar/:baz* One required param, one required param that is a collection (array)
/foo/:bar[/:baz*] One required param, one optional param that is a collection (array)

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CLI Routes

Here is a list of possible route syntax options for CLI applications:

CLI Route What's Expected
foo bar Two commands are required
foo bar|baz Two commands are required, the 2nd can accept 2 values
foo [bar|baz] The second command is optional and can accept 2 values
foo <name> [<email>] First parameter required, 2nd parameter optional
foo --name=|-n [-e|--email=] First option value required, 2nd option value is optional
foo [--option|-o] Option with both long and short formats

Options are passed as the last parameter injected into the route parameters of the route method or function. The $options parameter will be an array. When the options are simple flags, the values in the array are booleans:

function($name, $email = null, array $options = []) { }
./foo -p --verbose John john@test.com
$options = [
    'p'       => true,
    'verbose' => true,
];

Option values will populate the $options parameter in key/value pairs, like this:

./foo [-n|--name=]
./foo -nJohn
./foo --name=John
$options = ['name' => 'John'];

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Dynamic Routing

There is support for dynamic routing for both HTTP and CLI applications. The reserved route keywords controller and action are used to map the route to a matched controller class and respective action method within that class. You could define a dynamic HTTP route like this:

<?php
return [
    'routes' => [
        '/:controller/:action[/:param]' => [
            'prefix' => 'MyApp\Controller\\'
        ]
    ]
];

which will map a route like

/users/edit/1001
MyApp\Controller\UsersController->edit($id)

A dynamic CLI route like would work in a similar fashion:

<?php
return [
    'routes' => [
        'foo <controller> <action> [<param>]' => [
            'prefix' => 'MyApp\Controller\\'
        ]
    ]
];

which will map a route like

./foo users edit 1001
MyApp\Controller\UsersController->edit($id)

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Controllers

The controller object is the 'C' in the MVC design pattern and gives you the ability to encapsulate the behavior and functionality of how the routes behave and are handled. But it should be noted that you don't have to use a full controller object. For smaller applications, you can use anything that is callable, like a closure. An example of that would be:

use Pop\Application;
use Pop\Router\Router;

$routes = [
    '/hello' => [
        'controller' => function() {
            echo 'Hello World';
        }
    ],
    '/hello/:name' => [
        'controller' => function($name) {
            echo 'Hello ' . $name;
        }
    ]
];

$app = new Application(new Router($routes));
$app->run();

But, for most large-scale applications, it would be best to use a full controller object to manage the overall behavior or what is to happen for specific routes. The base controller object is an abstract controller class Pop\Controller\AbstractController, which implements Pop\Controller\ControllerInterface. The base functionality is fairly simple and allows you to build and structure your controller as needed. The only base functionality wired in is a dispatch method that handles the actual dispatching of the appropriate method and also the default action methods to set up what happens with a route/method isn't matched (typically used for error handling.)

Let's take a look at what the MyApp\Controller\IndexController class from the above web example might look like:

<?php

namespace MyApp\Controller;

use Pop\Controller\AbstractController;

class IndexController extends AbstractController
{

    // This is the default value
    protected string $defaultAction = 'error';

    // This is the default value
    protected string $maintenanceAction = 'maintenance';


    public function index()
    {
        // Do something for the index page
    }

    public function users()
    {
        // Do something for the users page
    }

    public function edit($id)
    {
        // Edit user with $id
    }

    public function error()
    {
        // Handle a non-match route request
    }

    public function maintenance()
    {
        // Handle requests that come in while the application is in maintenance mode
    }

}

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Models

The model object is the 'M' in the MVC design pattern and gives you the ability to map your data to an object that can be consumed and utilized by the other parts of you application. An abstract model class is provided, Pop\Model\AbstractModel, and it represents a basic data object the acts more or less like any array or value object. It has a single property data, implements ArrayAccess, Countable and IteratorAggregate. Once you extend the abstract model class, you build in the logic needed to handle the business logic in your application.

Data Models

Going one level further, the abstract class Pop\Model\AbstractDataModel is also available, which provides a tightly integrated API which some common interactions with a database and its records. The basic requirements are that there is a model class that extends the abstract data model and a subsequent related table class (see the pop-db documentation for more info.) In the example below, the classes MyApp\Model\User and MyApp\Table\Users are created, and by that naming convention, they are linked together.

<?php

namespace MyApp\Table;

use Pop\Db\Record;

class Users extends Record
{

}
<?php

namespace MyApp\Model;

use Pop\Model\AbstractModel;

class User extends AbstractDataModel
{

}

The available API in the data model object is:

Static Methods

  • fetchAll(?string $sort = null, mixed $limit = null, mixed $page = null, bool $asArray = true): array|Collection
  • fetch(mixed $id, bool $asArray = true): array|Record
  • createNew(array $data, bool $asArray = true): array|Record
  • filterBy(mixed $filters = null, mixed $select = null): static

Instance Methods

  • getAll(?string $sort = null, mixed $limit = null, mixed $page = null, bool $asArray = true): array|Collection
  • getById(mixed $id, bool $asArray = true): array|Record
  • create(array $data, bool $asArray = true): array|Record
  • update(mixed $id, array $data, bool $asArray = true): array|Record
  • replace(mixed $id, array $data, bool $asArray = true): array|Record
  • delete(mixed $id): int
  • remove(array $ids): int
  • count(): int
  • describe(bool $native = false, bool $full = false): array
  • hasRequirements(): bool
  • validate(array $data): bool|array
  • filter(mixed $filters = null, mixed $select = null): AbstractDataModel
  • select(mixed $select = null): AbstractDataModel

Create new

use MyApp\Model\User;

$user = User::createNew($userData);

Update

use MyApp\Model\User;

$userModel = new User();
$user = $userModel->update(1, $userData);

The update() method acts like a PATCH call and replace() acts like a PUT call and will replace and reset all model data.

Delete

use MyApp\Model\User;

$userModel = new User();
$userModel->delete(1);
$userModel->remove([2, 3, 4]);

Fetch

use MyApp\Model\User;

$users = User::fetchAll();
$user  = User::fetch(1);

Filter and sort

use MyApp\Model\User;

$users = User::filter('username LIKE myuser%')->getAll('-id', '10', 2);

The above call filters the search by the filter string and sorts by ID DESC (-id). Also, it sets the limit to 10 and starts the page offset on the second page.

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Modules

Modules can be thought of as "mini-application objects" that allow you to extend the functionality of your application. Module objects accept similar configuration parameters as an application object, such as routes, services and events. Additionally, it accepts a prefix configuration value as well to allow the module to register itself with the application autoloader. Here's an example of what a module might look like and how you'd register it with an application:

Configuration Array

In the example below, the module configuration is passed into the application object. From there, an instance of the base module object is created and the configuration is passed into it. The newly created module object is then registered with the module manager within the application object.

$application = new Pop\Application();

$moduleConfig = [
    'routes' => [
        '/' => [
            'controller' => 'MyModule\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'index'
        ]
    ],
    'prefix' => 'MyModule\\'
];

$application->register('my-module', $moduleConfig);

Module Instance

In the example below, a module object is created and passed directly into the application object. The module object is then registered with the module manager within the application object.

$application = new Pop\Application();

$myModule = new Pop\Module\Module([
    'name'   => 'my-module',
    'routes' => [
        '/' => [
            'controller' => 'MyModule\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'index'
        ]
    ],
    'prefix' => 'MyModule\\'
];

$application->register($myModule);

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Custom Modules

You can pass your own custom module objects into the application as well, as long as they implement the interface Pop\Module\ModuleInterface provided. As the example below shows, you can create a new instance of your custom module and pass that into the application. The benefit of doing this is to allow you to extend the base module class and methods and provide any additional functionality that may be needed. In doing it this way, however, you will have to register your module's namespace prefix with the application's autoloader prior to registering the module with the application so that the application can properly detect and load the module's source files.

$application->autoloader->addPsr4('MyModule\\', __DIR__ . '/modules/mymodule/src');

$myModule = new MyModule\Module([
    'routes' => [
        '/' => [
            'controller' => 'MyModule\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'index'
        ]
    ]
]);

$application->register('myModule', $myModule);

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Module Manager

The module manager provides a way to extend the core functionality of your application. The module manager object is really a collection object of actual module objects that serves as the bridge to integrate the modules with the application. You can think of the module objects themselves as "mini application objects" because, like the application object, they can take a configuration array that will wire up routes and other settings specific to the module.

Here's an example of a way to inject a module into an application. You'll want to register the autoloader with the application so that it can handle the appropriate loading of the module files and classes within the application.

// Using Composer's autoloader
$autoloader = require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

$app = new Pop\Application($autoloader, include __DIR__ . '/config/app.php');

// $myModuleConfig contains the config settings for the
// module, such as the autoload prefix and the routes
$app->register(new MyModule($myModuleConfig));

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Event Manager

The event manager provides a way to hook specific events and functionality into certain points in the application's life cycle. The default hook points with the application object are:

  • app.init
  • app.route.pre
  • app.dispatch.pre
  • app.dispatch.post
  • app.error

You can simply register callable objects with the event manager to have them be called at that time in the application's life cycle:

$app->on('app.route.pre', function($application) {
    // Do some pre-route stuff
});

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Service Locator

The service locator provides a way to make common services available throughout the application's life cycle. You can set them up at the beginning of the application and call them any time during the application's life cycle.

$app->setService('foo', 'MyApp\FooService');

From inside a controller object:

<?php
namespace MyApp\Controller;

use Pop\Controller\AbstractController;

class IndexController extends AbstractController
{
    public function index()
    {
        $foo = $this->application->services['foo'];
        // Do something with the 'foo' service
    }
}

Service Container

If you are in an area of the application where you don't have direct access to the application's service locator, you can use the globally available service container:

<?php
namespace MyApp\Controller;

use Pop\Service\Container;
use Pop\Controller\AbstractController;

class IndexController extends AbstractController
{
    public function index()
    {
        // 'default' is the default service container. Other service containers may be available.
        $foo = Container::get('default')->get('foo');
        // Do something with the 'foo' service
    }
}

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Configuration Tips

In the above examples, both the application and module config arrays can have a routes key set that defines the routes of the application or module. Additionally, the keys events and services are allowed as well, so an application or module can be wired up all from the configuration array:

<?php
return [
    'routes'   => [
        '/' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'index'
        ],
        '/users[/]' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'users'
        ],
        '/edit/:id' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'edit'
        ],
        '*' => [
            'controller' => 'MyApp\Controller\IndexController',
            'action'     => 'error'
        ]
    ],
    'services' => [
        'session' => [
            'call' => 'Pop\Session\Session::getInstance'
        ]
    ],
    'events' => [
        [
            'name'     => 'app.route.post',
            'action'   => 'MyApp\Event\Foo::bootstrap',
            'priority' => 1000
        ]
    ]
];

The config also supports the keys prefix, psr-0 and src for autoloading purposes. The default is to autoload with PSR-4, unless the psr-0 key is set to true.

<?php
return [
    'prefix' => 'MyModule\\',
    'src'    => __DIR__ . '/../src',
];

Helper Functions

The helper functions available from the pop-utils component are automatically loaded within the application object's boostrap call. If this is not desired, a configuration setting called helper_functions (set to false) can be passed to prevent them from loading:

$app = new Pop\Application([
    'helper_functions' => false
]);

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