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<!-- $PostgreSQL: pgsql/doc/src/sgml/installation.sgml,v 1.348.2.5 2010/09/09 17:19:46 tgl Exp $ -->
<chapter id="installation">
<title><![%standalone-include[<productname>PostgreSQL</>]]>
Installation from Source Code</title>
<indexterm zone="installation">
<primary>installation</primary>
</indexterm>
<para>
This <![%standalone-include;[document]]>
<![%standalone-ignore;[chapter]]> describes the installation of
<productname>PostgreSQL</productname> using the source code
distribution. (If you are installing a pre-packaged distribution,
such as an RPM or Debian package, ignore this
<![%standalone-include;[document]]>
<![%standalone-ignore;[chapter]]>
and read the packager's instructions instead.)
</para>
<sect1 id="install-short">
<title>Short Version</title>
<para>
<synopsis>
./configure
gmake
su
gmake install
adduser postgres
mkdir /usr/local/pgsql/data
chown postgres /usr/local/pgsql/data
su - postgres
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres -D /usr/local/pgsql/data &gt;logfile 2&gt;&amp;1 &amp;
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/createdb test
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/psql test
</synopsis>
The long version is the rest of this
<![%standalone-include;[document.]]>
<![%standalone-ignore;[chapter.]]>
</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="install-requirements">
<title>Requirements</title>
<para>
In general, a modern Unix-compatible platform should be able to run
<productname>PostgreSQL</>.
The platforms that had received specific testing at the
time of release are listed in <xref linkend="supported-platforms">
below. In the <filename>doc</> subdirectory of the distribution
there are several platform-specific <acronym>FAQ</> documents you
might wish to consult if you are having trouble.
</para>
<para>
The following software packages are required for building
<productname>PostgreSQL</>:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>make</primary>
</indexterm>
<acronym>GNU</> <application>make</> is required; other
<application>make</> programs will <emphasis>not</> work.
<acronym>GNU</> <application>make</> is often installed under
the name <filename>gmake</filename>; this document will always
refer to it by that name. (On some systems
<acronym>GNU</acronym> <application>make</> is the default tool with the name
<filename>make</>.) To test for <acronym>GNU</acronym>
<application>make</application> enter:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake --version</userinput>
</screen>
It is recommended to use version 3.79.1 or later.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
You need an <acronym>ISO</>/<acronym>ANSI</> C compiler (at least
C89-compliant). Recent
versions of <productname>GCC</> are recommendable, but
<productname>PostgreSQL</> is known to build using a wide variety
of compilers from different vendors.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
<application>tar</> is required to unpack the source
distribution, in addition to either
<application>gzip</> or <application>bzip2</>.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>readline</primary>
</indexterm>
<indexterm>
<primary>libedit</primary>
</indexterm>
The <acronym>GNU</> <productname>Readline</> library is used by
default. It allows <application>psql</application> (the
PostgreSQL command line SQL interpreter) to remember each
command you type, and allows you to use arrow keys to recall and
edit previous commands. This is very helpful and is strongly
recommended. If you don't want to use it then you must specify
the <option>--without-readline</option> option to
<filename>configure</>. As an alternative, you can often use the
BSD-licensed <filename>libedit</filename> library, originally
developed on <productname>NetBSD</productname>. The
<filename>libedit</filename> library is
GNU <productname>Readline</productname>-compatible and is used if
<filename>libreadline</filename> is not found, or if
<option>--with-libedit-preferred</option> is used as an
option to <filename>configure</>. If you are using a package-based
Linux distribution, be aware that you need both the
<literal>readline</> and <literal>readline-devel</> packages, if
those are separate in your distribution.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>zlib</primary>
</indexterm>
The <productname>zlib</productname> compression library is
used by default. If you don't want to use it then you must
specify the <option>--without-zlib</option> option to
<filename>configure</filename>. Using this option disables
support for compressed archives in <application>pg_dump</> and
<application>pg_restore</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<para>
The following packages are optional. They are not required in the
default configuration, but they are needed when certain build
options are enabled, as explained below:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
To build the server programming language
<application>PL/Perl</application> you need a full
<productname>Perl</productname> installation, including the
<filename>libperl</filename> library and the header files.
Since <application>PL/Perl</application> will be a shared
library, the <indexterm><primary>libperl</primary></indexterm>
<filename>libperl</filename> library must be a shared library
also on most platforms. This appears to be the default in
recent <productname>Perl</productname> versions, but it was not
in earlier versions, and in any case it is the choice of whomever
installed Perl at your site.
If you intend to make more than incidental use of
<application>PL/Perl</application>, you should ensure that the
<productname>Perl</productname> installation was built with the
<literal>usemultiplicity</> option enabled (<literal>perl -V</>
will show whether this is the case).
</para>
<para>
If you don't have the shared library but you need one, a message
like this will appear during the <productname>PostgreSQL</>
build to point out this fact:
<screen>
*** Cannot build PL/Perl because libperl is not a shared library.
*** You might have to rebuild your Perl installation. Refer to
*** the documentation for details.
</screen>
(If you don't follow the on-screen output you will merely notice
that the <application>PL/Perl</application> library object,
<filename>plperl.so</filename> or similar, will not be
installed.) If you see this, you will have to rebuild and
install <productname>Perl</productname> manually to be able to
build <application>PL/Perl</application>. During the
configuration process for <productname>Perl</productname>,
request a shared library.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
To build the <application>PL/Python</> server programming
language, you need a <productname>Python</productname>
installation with the header files and
the <application>distutils</application> module. The minimum
required version is <productname>Python</productname>
2.2. <productname>Python 3</productname> is supported if it's
version 3.1 or later; but see
<![%standalone-include[the <application>PL/Python</> documentation]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="plpython-python23">]]>
when using Python 3.
</para>
<para>
Since <application>PL/Python</application> will be a shared
library, the <indexterm><primary>libpython</primary></indexterm>
<filename>libpython</filename> library must be a shared library
also on most platforms. This is not the case in a default
<productname>Python</productname> installation. If after
building and installing <productname>PostgreSQL</> you have a file called
<filename>plpython.so</filename> (possibly a different
extension), then everything went well. Otherwise you should
have seen a notice like this flying by:
<screen>
*** Cannot build PL/Python because libpython is not a shared library.
*** You might have to rebuild your Python installation. Refer to
*** the documentation for details.
</screen>
That means you have to rebuild (part of) your
<productname>Python</productname> installation to create this
shared library.
</para>
<para>
If you have problems, run <productname>Python</> 2.3 or later's
configure using the <literal>--enable-shared</> flag. On some
operating systems you don't have to build a shared library, but
you will have to convince the <productname>PostgreSQL</> build
system of this. Consult the <filename>Makefile</filename> in
the <filename>src/pl/plpython</filename> directory for details.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
To build the <application>PL/Tcl</application>
procedural language, you of course need a <productname>Tcl</>
installation. If you are using a pre-8.4 release of
<productname>Tcl</>, ensure that it was built without multithreading
support.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
To enable Native Language Support (<acronym>NLS</acronym>), that
is, the ability to display a program's messages in a language
other than English, you need an implementation of the
<application>Gettext</> <acronym>API</acronym>. Some operating
systems have this built-in (e.g., <systemitem
class="osname">Linux</>, <systemitem class="osname">NetBSD</>,
<systemitem class="osname">Solaris</>), for other systems you
can download an add-on package from <ulink
url="http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/"></ulink>.
If you are using the <application>Gettext</> implementation in
the <acronym>GNU</acronym> C library then you will additionally
need the <productname>GNU Gettext</productname> package for some
utility programs. For any of the other implementations you will
not need it.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
You need <application>Kerberos</>, <productname>OpenSSL</>,
<productname>OpenLDAP</>, and/or
<application>PAM</>, if you want to support authentication or
encryption using those services.
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<para>
If you are building from a <productname>Git</productname> tree instead of
using a released source package, or if you want to do server development,
you also need the following packages:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>flex</primary>
</indexterm>
<indexterm>
<primary>lex</primary>
</indexterm>
<indexterm>
<primary>bison</primary>
</indexterm>
<indexterm>
<primary>yacc</primary>
</indexterm>
GNU <application>Flex</> and <application>Bison</>
are needed to build from a Git checkout, or if you changed the actual
scanner and parser definition files. If you need them, be sure
to get <application>Flex</> 2.5.31 or later and
<application>Bison</> 1.875 or later. Other <application>lex</>
and <application>yacc</> programs cannot be used.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>perl</primary>
</indexterm>
<application>Perl</> 5.8 or later is needed to build from a Git checkout,
or if you changed the input files for any of the build steps that
use Perl scripts. If building on Windows you will need
<application>Perl</> in any case.
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<para>
If you need to get a <acronym>GNU</acronym> package, you can find
it at your local <acronym>GNU</acronym> mirror site (see <ulink
url="http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html"></>
for a list) or at <ulink
url="ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/"></ulink>.
</para>
<para>
Also check that you have sufficient disk space. You will need about
100 MB for the source tree during compilation and about 20 MB for
the installation directory. An empty database cluster takes about
35 MB; databases take about five times the amount of space that a
flat text file with the same data would take. If you are going to
run the regression tests you will temporarily need up to an extra
150 MB. Use the <command>df</command> command to check free disk
space.
</para>
</sect1>
<![%standalone-ignore;[
<sect1 id="install-getsource">
<title>Getting The Source</title>
<para>
The <productname>PostgreSQL</> &version; sources can be obtained by
anonymous FTP from <ulink
url="ftp://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v&version;/postgresql-&version;.tar.gz"></ulink>.
Other download options can be found on our website:
<ulink url="http://www.postgresql.org/download/"></ulink>. After you
have obtained the file, unpack it:
<screen>
<userinput>gunzip postgresql-&version;.tar.gz</userinput>
<userinput>tar xf postgresql-&version;.tar</userinput>
</screen>
This will create a directory
<filename>postgresql-&version;</filename> under the current directory
with the <productname>PostgreSQL</> sources.
Change into that directory for the rest
of the installation procedure.
</para>
<para>
You can also get the source directly from the version control repository, see
<xref linkend="sourcerepo">.
</para>
</sect1>
]]>
<sect1 id="install-upgrading">
<title>Upgrading</title>
<indexterm zone="install-upgrading">
<primary>upgrading</primary>
</indexterm>
<para>
These instructions assume that your existing installation is under the
<filename>/usr/local/pgsql</> directory, and that the data area is in
<filename>/usr/local/pgsql/data</>. Substitute your paths
appropriately.
</para>
<para>
The internal data storage format typically changes in every major
release of <productname>PostgreSQL</>. Therefore, if you are upgrading
an existing installation that does not have a version number of
<quote>&majorversion;.x</quote>, you must back up and restore your
data. If you are upgrading from <productname>PostgreSQL</>
<quote>&majorversion;.x</quote>, the new version can use your current
data files so you should skip the backup and restore steps below because
they are unnecessary.
</para>
<procedure>
<step>
<para>
If making a backup, make sure that your database is not being updated.
This does not affect the integrity of the backup, but the changed
data would of course not be included. If necessary, edit the
permissions in the file <filename>/usr/local/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf</>
(or equivalent) to disallow access from everyone except you.
</para>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>pg_dumpall</primary>
<secondary>use during upgrade</secondary>
</indexterm>
To back up your database installation, type:
<screen>
<userinput>pg_dumpall &gt; <replaceable>outputfile</></userinput>
</screen>
If you need to preserve OIDs (such as when using them as
foreign keys), then use the <option>-o</option> option when running
<application>pg_dumpall</>.
</para>
<para>
To make the backup, you can use the <application>pg_dumpall</application>
command from the version you are currently running. For best
results, however, try to use the <application>pg_dumpall</application>
command from <productname>PostgreSQL</productname> &version;,
since this version contains bug fixes and improvements over older
versions. While this advice might seem idiosyncratic since you
haven't installed the new version yet, it is advisable to follow
it if you plan to install the new version in parallel with the
old version. In that case you can complete the installation
normally and transfer the data later. This will also decrease
the downtime.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Shut down the old server:
<screen>
<userinput>pg_ctl stop</>
</screen>
On systems that have <productname>PostgreSQL</> started at boot time,
there is probably a start-up file that will accomplish the same thing. For
example, on a <systemitem class="osname">Red Hat Linux</> system one
might find that this works:
<screen>
<userinput>/etc/rc.d/init.d/postgresql stop</userinput>
</screen>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
If restoring from backup, rename or delete the old installation
directory. It is a good idea to rename the directory, rather than
delete it, in case you have trouble and need to revert to it. Keep
in mind the directory might consume significant disk space. To rename
the directory, use a command like this:
<screen>
<userinput>mv /usr/local/pgsql /usr/local/pgsql.old</>
</screen>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Install the new version of <productname>PostgreSQL</productname> as
outlined in <![%standalone-include[the next section.]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="install-procedure">.]]>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Create a new database cluster if needed. Remember that you must
execute these commands while logged in to the special database user
account (which you already have if you are upgrading).
<programlisting>
<userinput>/usr/local/pgsql/bin/initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data</>
</programlisting>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Restore your previous <filename>pg_hba.conf</> and any
<filename>postgresql.conf</> modifications.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Start the database server, again using the special database user
account:
<programlisting>
<userinput>/usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres -D /usr/local/pgsql/data</>
</programlisting>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Finally, restore your data from backup with:
<screen>
<userinput>/usr/local/pgsql/bin/psql -d postgres -f <replaceable>outputfile</></userinput>
</screen>
using the <emphasis>new</> <application>psql</>.
</para>
</step>
</procedure>
<para>
Further discussion appears in
<![%standalone-include[the documentation,]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="migration">,]]>
including instructions on how the previous installation can continue
running while the new installation is installed.
</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="install-procedure">
<title>Installation Procedure</title>
<procedure>
<step id="configure">
<title>Configuration</>
<indexterm zone="configure">
<primary>configure</primary>
</indexterm>
<para>
The first step of the installation procedure is to configure the
source tree for your system and choose the options you would like.
This is done by running the <filename>configure</> script. For a
default installation simply enter:
<screen>
<userinput>./configure</userinput>
</screen>
This script will run a number of tests to determine values for various
system dependent variables and detect any quirks of your
operating system, and finally will create several files in the
build tree to record what it found. You can also run
<filename>configure</filename> in a directory outside the source
tree, if you want to keep the build directory separate. This
procedure is also called a
<indexterm><primary>VPATH</primary></indexterm><firstterm>VPATH</firstterm>
build. Here's how:
<screen>
<userinput>mkdir build_dir</userinput>
<userinput>cd build_dir</userinput>
<userinput>/path/to/source/tree/configure [options go here]</userinput>
<userinput>gmake</userinput>
</screen>
</para>
<para>
The default configuration will build the server and utilities, as
well as all client applications and interfaces that require only a
C compiler. All files will be installed under
<filename>/usr/local/pgsql</> by default.
</para>
<para>
You can customize the build and installation process by supplying one
or more of the following command line options to
<filename>configure</filename>:
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--prefix=<replaceable>PREFIX</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Install all files under the directory <replaceable>PREFIX</>
instead of <filename>/usr/local/pgsql</filename>. The actual
files will be installed into various subdirectories; no files
will ever be installed directly into the
<replaceable>PREFIX</> directory.
</para>
<para>
If you have special needs, you can also customize the
individual subdirectories with the following options. However,
if you leave these with their defaults, the installation will be
relocatable, meaning you can move the directory after
installation. (The <literal>man</> and <literal>doc</>
locations are not affected by this.)
</para>
<para>
For relocatable installs, you might want to use
<filename>configure</filename>'s <literal>--disable-rpath</>
option. Also, you will need to tell the operating system how
to find the shared libraries.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--exec-prefix=<replaceable>EXEC-PREFIX</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
You can install architecture-dependent files under a
different prefix, <replaceable>EXEC-PREFIX</>, than what
<replaceable>PREFIX</> was set to. This can be useful to
share architecture-independent files between hosts. If you
omit this, then <replaceable>EXEC-PREFIX</> is set equal to
<replaceable>PREFIX</> and both architecture-dependent and
independent files will be installed under the same tree,
which is probably what you want.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--bindir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Specifies the directory for executable programs. The default
is <filename><replaceable>EXEC-PREFIX</>/bin</>, which
normally means <filename>/usr/local/pgsql/bin</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--sysconfdir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Sets the directory for various configuration files,
<filename><replaceable>PREFIX</>/etc</> by default.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--libdir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Sets the location to install libraries and dynamically loadable
modules. The default is
<filename><replaceable>EXEC-PREFIX</>/lib</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--includedir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Sets the directory for installing C and C++ header files. The
default is <filename><replaceable>PREFIX</>/include</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--datarootdir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Sets the root directory for various types of read-only data
files. This only sets the default for some of the following
options. The default is
<filename><replaceable>PREFIX</>/share</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--datadir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Sets the directory for read-only data files used by the
installed programs. The default is
<filename><replaceable>DATAROOTDIR</></>. Note that this has
nothing to do with where your database files will be placed.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--localedir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Sets the directory for installing locale data, in particular
message translation catalog files. The default is
<filename><replaceable>DATAROOTDIR</>/locale</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--mandir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
The man pages that come with <productname>PostgreSQL</> will be installed under
this directory, in their respective
<filename>man<replaceable>x</></> subdirectories.
The default is <filename><replaceable>DATAROOTDIR</>/man</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--docdir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Sets the root directory for installing documentation files,
except <quote>man</> pages. This only sets the default for
the following options. The default value for this option is
<filename><replaceable>DATAROOTDIR</>/doc/postgresql</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--htmldir=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
The HTML-formatted documentation for
<productname>PostgreSQL</productname> will be installed under
this directory. The default is
<filename><replaceable>DATAROOTDIR</></>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<note>
<para>
Care has been taken to make it possible to install
<productname>PostgreSQL</> into shared installation locations
(such as <filename>/usr/local/include</filename>) without
interfering with the namespace of the rest of the system. First,
the string <quote><literal>/postgresql</literal></quote> is
automatically appended to <varname>datadir</varname>,
<varname>sysconfdir</varname>, and <varname>docdir</varname>,
unless the fully expanded directory name already contains the
string <quote><literal>postgres</></quote> or
<quote><literal>pgsql</></quote>. For example, if you choose
<filename>/usr/local</filename> as prefix, the documentation will
be installed in <filename>/usr/local/doc/postgresql</filename>,
but if the prefix is <filename>/opt/postgres</filename>, then it
will be in <filename>/opt/postgres/doc</filename>. The public C
header files of the client interfaces are installed into
<varname>includedir</varname> and are namespace-clean. The
internal header files and the server header files are installed
into private directories under <varname>includedir</varname>. See
the documentation of each interface for information about how to
access its header files. Finally, a private subdirectory will
also be created, if appropriate, under <varname>libdir</varname>
for dynamically loadable modules.
</para>
</note>
</para>
<para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-includes=<replaceable>DIRECTORIES</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
<replaceable>DIRECTORIES</> is a colon-separated list of
directories that will be added to the list the compiler
searches for header files. If you have optional packages
(such as GNU <application>Readline</>) installed in a non-standard
location,
you have to use this option and probably also the corresponding
<option>--with-libraries</> option.
</para>
<para>
Example: <literal>--with-includes=/opt/gnu/include:/usr/sup/include</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-libraries=<replaceable>DIRECTORIES</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
<replaceable>DIRECTORIES</> is a colon-separated list of
directories to search for libraries. You will probably have
to use this option (and the corresponding
<option>--with-includes</> option) if you have packages
installed in non-standard locations.
</para>
<para>
Example: <literal>--with-libraries=/opt/gnu/lib:/usr/sup/lib</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--enable-nls<optional>=<replaceable>LANGUAGES</replaceable></optional></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Enables Native Language Support (<acronym>NLS</acronym>),
that is, the ability to display a program's messages in a
language other than English.
<replaceable>LANGUAGES</replaceable> is an optional space-separated
list of codes of the languages that you want supported, for
example <literal>--enable-nls='de fr'</>. (The intersection
between your list and the set of actually provided
translations will be computed automatically.) If you do not
specify a list, then all available translations are
installed.
</para>
<para>
To use this option, you will need an implementation of the
<application>Gettext</> API; see above.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-pgport=<replaceable>NUMBER</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Set <replaceable>NUMBER</> as the default port number for
server and clients. The default is 5432. The port can always
be changed later on, but if you specify it here then both
server and clients will have the same default compiled in,
which can be very convenient. Usually the only good reason
to select a non-default value is if you intend to run multiple
<productname>PostgreSQL</> servers on the same machine.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-perl</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build the <application>PL/Perl</> server-side language.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-python</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build the <application>PL/Python</> server-side language.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-tcl</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build the <application>PL/Tcl</> server-side language.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-tclconfig=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</replaceable></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Tcl installs the file <filename>tclConfig.sh</filename>, which
contains configuration information needed to build modules
interfacing to Tcl. This file is normally found automatically
at a well-known location, but if you want to use a different
version of Tcl you can specify the directory in which to look
for it.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-gssapi</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build with support for GSSAPI authentication. On many
systems, the GSSAPI (usually a part of the Kerberos installation)
system is not installed in a location
that is searched by default (e.g., <filename>/usr/include</>,
<filename>/usr/lib</>), so you must use the options
<option>--with-includes</> and <option>--with-libraries</> in
addition to this option. <filename>configure</> will check
for the required header files and libraries to make sure that
your GSSAPI installation is sufficient before proceeding.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-krb5</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build with support for Kerberos 5 authentication. On many
systems, the Kerberos system is not installed in a location
that is searched by default (e.g., <filename>/usr/include</>,
<filename>/usr/lib</>), so you must use the options
<option>--with-includes</> and <option>--with-libraries</> in
addition to this option. <filename>configure</> will check
for the required header files and libraries to make sure that
your Kerberos installation is sufficient before proceeding.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-krb-srvnam=<replaceable>NAME</></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
The default name of the Kerberos service principal (also used
by GSSAPI).
<literal>postgres</literal> is the default. There's usually no
reason to change this unless you have a Windows environment,
in which case it must be set to upper case
<literal>POSTGRES</literal>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<indexterm>
<primary>OpenSSL</primary>
<seealso>SSL</seealso>
</indexterm>
<term><option>--with-openssl</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build with support for <acronym>SSL</> (encrypted)
connections. This requires the <productname>OpenSSL</>
package to be installed. <filename>configure</> will check
for the required header files and libraries to make sure that
your <productname>OpenSSL</> installation is sufficient
before proceeding.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-pam</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build with <acronym>PAM</><indexterm><primary>PAM</></>
(Pluggable Authentication Modules) support.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-ldap</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build with <acronym>LDAP</><indexterm><primary>LDAP</></>
support for authentication and connection parameter lookup (see
<![%standalone-include[the documentation about client authentication
and libpq]]><![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="libpq-ldap"> and
<xref linkend="auth-ldap">]]> for more information). On Unix,
this requires the <productname>OpenLDAP</> package to be
installed. On Windows, the default <productname>WinLDAP</>
library is used. <filename>configure</> will check for the required
header files and libraries to make sure that your
<productname>OpenLDAP</> installation is sufficient before
proceeding.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--without-readline</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Prevents use of the <application>Readline</> library
(and <application>libedit</> as well). This option disables
command-line editing and history in
<application>psql</application>, so it is not recommended.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-libedit-preferred</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Favors the use of the BSD-licensed <application>libedit</> library
rather than GPL-licensed <application>Readline</>. This option
is significant only if you have both libraries installed; the
default in that case is to use <application>Readline</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-bonjour</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build with Bonjour support. This requires Bonjour support
in your operating system. Recommended on Mac OS X.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-ossp-uuid</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Use the <ulink url="http://www.ossp.org/pkg/lib/uuid/">OSSP UUID
library</ulink> when building <filename>contrib/uuid-ossp</>.
The library provides functions to generate
UUIDs.<indexterm><primary>UUID</primary></indexterm>
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-libxml</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Build with libxml (enables SQL/XML support). Libxml version 2.6.23 or
later is required for this feature.
</para>
<para>
Libxml installs a program <command>xml2-config</command> that
can be used to detect the required compiler and linker
options. PostgreSQL will use it automatically if found. To
specify a libxml installation at an unusual location, you can
either set the environment variable
<envar>XML2_CONFIG</envar> to point to the
<command>xml2-config</command> program belonging to the
installation, or use the options
<option>--with-includes</option> and
<option>--with-libraries</option>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-libxslt</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Use libxslt when building <filename>contrib/xml2</>.
<filename>contrib/xml2</> relies on this library to perform
XSL transformations of XML.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--disable-integer-datetimes</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Disable support for 64-bit integer storage for timestamps and
intervals, and store datetime values as floating-point
numbers instead. Floating-point datetime storage was the
default in <productname>PostgreSQL</productname> releases
prior to 8.4, but it is now deprecated, because it does not
support microsecond precision for the full range of
<type>timestamp</type> values. However, integer-based
datetime storage requires a 64-bit integer type. Therefore,
this option can be used when no such type is available, or
for compatibility with applications written for prior
versions of <productname>PostgreSQL</productname>. See
<![%standalone-include[the documentation about datetime datatypes]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="datatype-datetime">]]>
for more information.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--disable-float4-byval</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Disable passing float4 values <quote>by value</>, causing them
to be passed <quote>by reference</> instead. This option costs
performance, but may be needed for compatibility with old
user-defined functions that are written in C and use the
<quote>version 0</> calling convention. A better long-term
solution is to update any such functions to use the
<quote>version 1</> calling convention.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--disable-float8-byval</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Disable passing float8 values <quote>by value</>, causing them
to be passed <quote>by reference</> instead. This option costs
performance, but may be needed for compatibility with old
user-defined functions that are written in C and use the
<quote>version 0</> calling convention. A better long-term
solution is to update any such functions to use the
<quote>version 1</> calling convention.
Note that this option affects not only float8, but also int8 and some
related types such as timestamp.
On 32-bit platforms, <option>--disable-float8-byval</> is the default
and it is not allowed to select <option>--enable-float8-byval</>.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-segsize=<replaceable>SEGSIZE</replaceable></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Set the <firstterm>segment size</>, in gigabytes. Large tables are
divided into multiple operating-system files, each of size equal
to the segment size. This avoids problems with file size limits
that exist on many platforms. The default segment size, 1 gigabyte,
is safe on all supported platforms. If your operating system has
<quote>largefile</> support (which most do, nowadays), you can use
a larger segment size. This can be helpful to reduce the number of
file descriptors consumed when working with very large tables.
But be careful not to select a value larger than is supported
by your platform and the file systems you intend to use. Other
tools you might wish to use, such as <application>tar</>, could
also set limits on the usable file size.
It is recommended, though not absolutely required, that this value
be a power of 2.
Note that changing this value requires an initdb.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-blocksize=<replaceable>BLOCKSIZE</replaceable></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Set the <firstterm>block size</>, in kilobytes. This is the unit
of storage and I/O within tables. The default, 8 kilobytes,
is suitable for most situations; but other values may be useful
in special cases.
The value must be a power of 2 between 1 and 32 (kilobytes).
Note that changing this value requires an initdb.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-wal-segsize=<replaceable>SEGSIZE</replaceable></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Set the <firstterm>WAL segment size</>, in megabytes. This is
the size of each individual file in the WAL log. It may be useful
to adjust this size to control the granularity of WAL log shipping.
The default size is 16 megabytes.
The value must be a power of 2 between 1 and 64 (megabytes).
Note that changing this value requires an initdb.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-wal-blocksize=<replaceable>BLOCKSIZE</replaceable></option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Set the <firstterm>WAL block size</>, in kilobytes. This is the unit
of storage and I/O within the WAL log. The default, 8 kilobytes,
is suitable for most situations; but other values may be useful
in special cases.
The value must be a power of 2 between 1 and 64 (kilobytes).
Note that changing this value requires an initdb.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--disable-spinlocks</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Allow the build to succeed even if <productname>PostgreSQL</>
has no CPU spinlock support for the platform. The lack of
spinlock support will result in poor performance; therefore,
this option should only be used if the build aborts and
informs you that the platform lacks spinlock support. If this
option is required to build <productname>PostgreSQL</> on
your platform, please report the problem to the
<productname>PostgreSQL</> developers.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--disable-thread-safety</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Disable the thread-safety of client libraries. This prevents
concurrent threads in <application>libpq</application> and
<application>ECPG</application> programs from safely controlling
their private connection handles.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--with-system-tzdata=<replaceable>DIRECTORY</replaceable></option></term>
<indexterm>
<primary>time zone data</primary>
</indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>
<productname>PostgreSQL</> includes its own time zone database,
which it requires for date and time operations. This time zone
database is in fact compatible with the <quote>zoneinfo</> time zone
database provided by many operating systems such as FreeBSD,
Linux, and Solaris, so it would be redundant to install it again.
When this option is used, the system-supplied time zone database
in <replaceable>DIRECTORY</replaceable> is used instead of the one
included in the PostgreSQL source distribution.
<replaceable>DIRECTORY</replaceable> must be specified as an
absolute path. <filename>/usr/share/zoneinfo</filename> is a
likely directory on some operating systems. Note that the
installation routine will not detect mismatching or erroneous time
zone data. If you use this option, you are advised to run the
regression tests to verify that the time zone data you have
pointed to works correctly with <productname>PostgreSQL</>.
</para>
<para>
This option is mainly aimed at binary package distributors
who know their target operating system well. The main
advantage of using this option is that the PostgreSQL package
won't need to be upgraded whenever any of the many local
daylight-saving time rules change. Another advantage is that
PostgreSQL can be cross-compiled<indexterm><primary>cross
compilation</primary></indexterm> more straightforwardly if the
time zone database files do not need to be built during the
installation.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--without-zlib</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>zlib</primary>
</indexterm>
Prevents use of the <application>Zlib</> library. This disables
support for compressed archives in <application>pg_dump</application>
and <application>pg_restore</application>.
This option is only intended for those rare systems where this
library is not available.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--enable-debug</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Compiles all programs and libraries with debugging symbols.
This means that you can run the programs in a debugger
to analyze problems. This enlarges the size of the installed
executables considerably, and on non-GCC compilers it usually
also disables compiler optimization, causing slowdowns. However,
having the symbols available is extremely helpful for dealing
with any problems that might arise. Currently, this option is
recommended for production installations only if you use GCC.
But you should always have it on if you are doing development work
or running a beta version.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--enable-coverage</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
If using GCC, all programs and libraries are compiled with
code coverage testing instrumentation. When run, they
generate files in the build directory with code coverage
metrics.
<![%standalone-ignore[See <xref linkend="regress-coverage">
for more information.]]> This option is for use only with GCC
and when doing development work.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--enable-profiling</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
If using GCC, all programs and libraries are compiled so they
can be profiled. On backend exit, a subdirectory will be created
that contains the <filename>gmon.out</> file for use in profiling.
This option is for use only with GCC and when doing development work.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--enable-cassert</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Enables <firstterm>assertion</> checks in the server, which test for
many <quote>cannot happen</> conditions. This is invaluable for
code development purposes, but the tests can slow down the
server significantly.
Also, having the tests turned on won't necessarily enhance the
stability of your server! The assertion checks are not categorized
for severity, and so what might be a relatively harmless bug will
still lead to server restarts if it triggers an assertion
failure. This option is not recommended for production use, but
you should have it on for development work or when running a beta
version.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--enable-depend</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Enables automatic dependency tracking. With this option, the
makefiles are set up so that all affected object files will
be rebuilt when any header file is changed. This is useful
if you are doing development work, but is just wasted overhead
if you intend only to compile once and install. At present,
this option only works with GCC.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--enable-dtrace</option></term>
<listitem>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>DTrace</primary>
</indexterm>
Compiles <productname>PostgreSQL</productname> with support for the
dynamic tracing tool DTrace.
<![%standalone-ignore[See <xref linkend="dynamic-trace">
for more information.]]>
</para>
<para>
To point to the <command>dtrace</command> program, the
environment variable <envar>DTRACE</envar> can be set. This
will often be necessary because <command>dtrace</command> is
typically installed under <filename>/usr/sbin</filename>,
which might not be in the path.
</para>
<para>
Extra command-line options for the <command>dtrace</command> program
can be specified in the environment variable
<envar>DTRACEFLAGS</envar>. On Solaris,
to include DTrace support in a 64-bit binary, you must specify
<literal>DTRACEFLAGS="-64"</> to configure. For example,
using the GCC compiler:
<screen>
./configure CC='gcc -m64' --enable-dtrace DTRACEFLAGS='-64' ...
</screen>
Using Sun's compiler:
<screen>
./configure CC='/opt/SUNWspro/bin/cc -xtarget=native64' --enable-dtrace DTRACEFLAGS='-64' ...
</screen>
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</para>
<para>
If you prefer a C compiler different from the one
<filename>configure</filename> picks, you can set the
environment variable <envar>CC</> to the program of your choice.
By default, <filename>configure</filename> will pick
<filename>gcc</filename> if available, else the platform's
default (usually <filename>cc</>). Similarly, you can override the
default compiler flags if needed with the <envar>CFLAGS</envar> variable.
</para>
<para>
You can specify environment variables on the
<filename>configure</filename> command line, for example:
<screen>
<userinput>./configure CC=/opt/bin/gcc CFLAGS='-O2 -pipe'</>
</screen>
</para>
<para>
Here is a list of the significant variables that can be set in
this manner:
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>BISON</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Bison program
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>CC</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
C compiler
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>CFLAGS</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
options to pass to the C compiler
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>CPP</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
C preprocessor
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>CPPFLAGS</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
options to pass to the C preprocessor
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>DTRACE</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
location of the <command>dtrace</command> program
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>DTRACEFLAGS</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
options to pass to the <command>dtrace</command> program
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>FLEX</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Flex program
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>LDFLAGS</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
options to use when linking either executables or shared libraries
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>LDFLAGS_EX</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
additional options for linking executables only
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>LDFLAGS_SL</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
additional options for linking shared libraries only
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>MSGFMT</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
<command>msgfmt</command> program for native language support
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>PERL</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Full path to the Perl interpreter. This will be used to
determine the dependencies for building PL/Perl.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>PYTHON</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Full path to the Python interpreter. This will be used to
determine the dependencies for building PL/Python. Also,
whether Python 2 or 3 is specified here (or otherwise
implicitly chosen) determines which variant of the PL/Python
language becomes available. See
<![%standalone-include[the <application>PL/Python</>
documentation]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="plpython-python23">]]>
for more information.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>TCLSH</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
Full path to the Tcl interpreter. This will be used to
determine the dependencies for building PL/Tcl, and it will
be substituted into Tcl scripts.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>XML2_CONFIG</envar></term>
<listitem>
<para>
<command>xml2-config</command> program used to locate the
libxml installation.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</para>
</step>
<step id="build">
<title>Build</title>
<para>
To start the build, type:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake</userinput>
</screen>
(Remember to use <acronym>GNU</> <application>make</>.) The build
will take a few minutes depending on your
hardware. The last line displayed should be:
<screen>
All of PostgreSQL is successfully made. Ready to install.
</screen>
</para>
<para>
If you want to build everything that can be built, including the
documentation (HTML and man pages), and the additional modules
(<filename>contrib</filename>), type instead:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake world</userinput>
</screen>
The last line displayed should be:
<screen>
PostgreSQL, contrib and HTML documentation successfully made. Ready to install.
</screen>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<title>Regression Tests</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>regression test</primary>
</indexterm>
<para>
If you want to test the newly built server before you install it,
you can run the regression tests at this point. The regression
tests are a test suite to verify that <productname>PostgreSQL</>
runs on your machine in the way the developers expected it
to. Type:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake check</userinput>
</screen>
(This won't work as root; do it as an unprivileged user.)
<![%standalone-include[The file
<filename>src/test/regress/README</> and the
documentation contain]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="regress"> contains]]>
detailed information about interpreting the test results. You can
repeat this test at any later time by issuing the same command.
</para>
</step>
<step id="install">
<title>Installing the Files</title>
<note>
<para>
If you are upgrading an existing system and are going to install
the new files over the old ones, be sure to back up
your data and shut down the old server before proceeding, as explained in
<xref linkend="install-upgrading"> above.
</para>
</note>
<para>
To install <productname>PostgreSQL</> enter:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake install</userinput>
</screen>
This will install files into the directories that were specified
in <xref linkend="configure">. Make sure that you have appropriate
permissions to write into that area. Normally you need to do this
step as root. Alternatively, you can create the target
directories in advance and arrange for appropriate permissions to
be granted.
</para>
<para>
To install the documentation (HTML and man pages), enter:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake install-docs</userinput>
</screen>
</para>
<para>
If you built the world above, type instead:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake install-world</userinput>
</screen>
This also installs the documentation.
</para>
<para>
You can use <literal>gmake install-strip</literal> instead of
<literal>gmake install</literal> to strip the executable files and
libraries as they are installed. This will save some space. If
you built with debugging support, stripping will effectively
remove the debugging support, so it should only be done if
debugging is no longer needed. <literal>install-strip</literal>
tries to do a reasonable job saving space, but it does not have
perfect knowledge of how to strip every unneeded byte from an
executable file, so if you want to save all the disk space you
possibly can, you will have to do manual work.
</para>
<para>
The standard installation provides all the header files needed for client
application development as well as for server-side program
development, such as custom functions or data types written in C.
(Prior to <productname>PostgreSQL</> 8.0, a separate <literal>gmake
install-all-headers</> command was needed for the latter, but this
step has been folded into the standard install.)
</para>
<formalpara>
<title>Client-only installation:</title>
<para>
If you want to install only the client applications and
interface libraries, then you can use these commands:
<screen>
<userinput>gmake -C src/bin install</>
<userinput>gmake -C src/include install</>
<userinput>gmake -C src/interfaces install</>
<userinput>gmake -C doc install</>
</screen>
<filename>src/bin</> has a few binaries for server-only use,
but they are small.
</para>
</formalpara>
</step>
</procedure>
<formalpara>
<title>Registering <application>eventlog</> on <systemitem
class="osname">Windows</>:</title>
<para>
To register a <systemitem class="osname">Windows</> <application>eventlog</>
library with the operating system, issue this command after installation:
<screen>
<userinput>regsvr32 <replaceable>pgsql_library_directory</>/pgevent.dll</>
</screen>
This creates registry entries used by the event viewer.
</para>
</formalpara>
<formalpara>
<title>Uninstallation:</title>
<para>
To undo the installation use the command <command>gmake
uninstall</>. However, this will not remove any created directories.
</para>
</formalpara>
<formalpara>
<title>Cleaning:</title>
<para>
After the installation you can free disk space by removing the built
files from the source tree with the command <command>gmake
clean</>. This will preserve the files made by the <command>configure</command>
program, so that you can rebuild everything with <command>gmake</>
later on. To reset the source tree to the state in which it was
distributed, use <command>gmake distclean</>. If you are going to
build for several platforms within the same source tree you must do
this and re-configure for each platform. (Alternatively, use
a separate build tree for each platform, so that the source tree
remains unmodified.)
</para>
</formalpara>
<para>
If you perform a build and then discover that your <command>configure</>
options were wrong, or if you change anything that <command>configure</>
investigates (for example, software upgrades), then it's a good
idea to do <command>gmake distclean</> before reconfiguring and
rebuilding. Without this, your changes in configuration choices
might not propagate everywhere they need to.
</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="install-post">
<title>Post-Installation Setup</title>
<sect2>
<title>Shared Libraries</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>shared library</primary>
</indexterm>
<para>
On some systems with shared libraries
you need to tell the system how to find the newly installed
shared libraries. The systems on which this is
<emphasis>not</emphasis> necessary include <systemitem
class="osname">BSD/OS</>, <systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</>,
<systemitem class="osname">HP-UX</>, <systemitem
class="osname">IRIX</>, <systemitem class="osname">Linux</>,
<systemitem class="osname">NetBSD</>, <systemitem
class="osname">OpenBSD</>, <systemitem class="osname">Tru64
UNIX</> (formerly <systemitem class="osname">Digital UNIX</>), and
<systemitem class="osname">Solaris</>.
</para>
<para>
The method to set the shared library search path varies between
platforms, but the most widely-used method is to set the
environment variable <envar>LD_LIBRARY_PATH</> like so: In Bourne
shells (<command>sh</>, <command>ksh</>, <command>bash</>, <command>zsh</>):
<programlisting>
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/pgsql/lib
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
</programlisting>
or in <command>csh</> or <command>tcsh</>:
<programlisting>
setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH /usr/local/pgsql/lib
</programlisting>
Replace <literal>/usr/local/pgsql/lib</> with whatever you set
<option><literal>--libdir</></> to in <xref linkend="configure">.
You should put these commands into a shell start-up file such as
<filename>/etc/profile</> or <filename>~/.bash_profile</>. Some
good information about the caveats associated with this method can
be found at <ulink
url="http://xahlee.org/UnixResource_dir/_/ldpath.html"></ulink>.
</para>
<para>
On some systems it might be preferable to set the environment
variable <envar>LD_RUN_PATH</envar> <emphasis>before</emphasis>
building.
</para>
<para>
On <systemitem class="osname">Cygwin</systemitem>, put the library
directory in the <envar>PATH</envar> or move the
<filename>.dll</filename> files into the <filename>bin</filename>
directory.
</para>
<para>
If in doubt, refer to the manual pages of your system (perhaps
<command>ld.so</command> or <command>rld</command>). If you later
get a message like:
<screen>
psql: error in loading shared libraries
libpq.so.2.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
</screen>
then this step was necessary. Simply take care of it then.
</para>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary>ldconfig</primary>
</indexterm>
If you are on <systemitem class="osname">BSD/OS</>, <systemitem
class="osname">Linux</>, or <systemitem class="osname">SunOS 4</>
and you have root access you can run:
<programlisting>
/sbin/ldconfig /usr/local/pgsql/lib
</programlisting>
(or equivalent directory) after installation to enable the
run-time linker to find the shared libraries faster. Refer to the
manual page of <command>ldconfig</> for more information. On
<systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</>, <systemitem
class="osname">NetBSD</>, and <systemitem
class="osname">OpenBSD</> the command is:
<programlisting>
/sbin/ldconfig -m /usr/local/pgsql/lib
</programlisting>
instead. Other systems are not known to have an equivalent
command.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Environment Variables</title>
<indexterm>
<primary><envar>PATH</envar></primary>
</indexterm>
<para>
If you installed into <filename>/usr/local/pgsql</> or some other
location that is not searched for programs by default, you should
add <filename>/usr/local/pgsql/bin</> (or whatever you set
<option><literal>--bindir</></> to in <xref linkend="configure">)
into your <envar>PATH</>. Strictly speaking, this is not
necessary, but it will make the use of <productname>PostgreSQL</>
much more convenient.
</para>
<para>
To do this, add the following to your shell start-up file, such as
<filename>~/.bash_profile</> (or <filename>/etc/profile</>, if you
want it to affect all users):
<programlisting>
PATH=/usr/local/pgsql/bin:$PATH
export PATH
</programlisting>
If you are using <command>csh</> or <command>tcsh</>, then use this command:
<programlisting>
set path = ( /usr/local/pgsql/bin $path )
</programlisting>
</para>
<para>
<indexterm>
<primary><envar>MANPATH</envar></primary>
</indexterm>
To enable your system to find the <application>man</>
documentation, you need to add lines like the following to a
shell start-up file unless you installed into a location that is
searched by default:
<programlisting>
MANPATH=/usr/local/pgsql/man:$MANPATH
export MANPATH
</programlisting>
</para>
<para>
The environment variables <envar>PGHOST</> and <envar>PGPORT</>
specify to client applications the host and port of the database
server, overriding the compiled-in defaults. If you are going to
run client applications remotely then it is convenient if every
user that plans to use the database sets <envar>PGHOST</>. This
is not required, however; the settings can be communicated via command
line options to most client programs.
</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<![%standalone-include;[
<sect1 id="install-getting-started">
<title>Getting Started</title>
<para>
The following is a quick summary of how to get <productname>PostgreSQL</> up and
running once installed. The main documentation contains more information.
</para>
<procedure>
<step>
<para>
Create a user account for the <productname>PostgreSQL</>
server. This is the user the server will run as. For production
use you should create a separate, unprivileged account
(<quote>postgres</> is commonly used). If you do not have root
access or just want to play around, your own user account is
enough, but running the server as root is a security risk and
will not work.
<screen>
<userinput>adduser postgres</>
</screen>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Create a database installation with the <command>initdb</>
command. To run <command>initdb</> you must be logged in to your
<productname>PostgreSQL</> server account. It will not work as
root.
<screen>
root# <userinput>mkdir /usr/local/pgsql/data</>
root# <userinput>chown postgres /usr/local/pgsql/data</>
root# <userinput>su - postgres</>
postgres$ <userinput>/usr/local/pgsql/bin/initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data</>
</screen>
</para>
<para>
The <option>-D</> option specifies the location where the data
will be stored. You can use any path you want, it does not have
to be under the installation directory. Just make sure that the
server account can write to the directory (or create it, if it
doesn't already exist) before starting <command>initdb</>, as
illustrated here.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
At this point, if you did not use the <command>initdb</> <literal>-A</>
option, you might want to modify <filename>pg_hba.conf</> to control
local access to the server before you start it. The default is to
trust all local users.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
The previous <command>initdb</> step should have told you how to
start up the database server. Do so now. The command should look
something like:
<programlisting>
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres -D /usr/local/pgsql/data
</programlisting>
This will start the server in the foreground. To put the server
in the background use something like:
<programlisting>
nohup /usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres -D /usr/local/pgsql/data \
&lt;/dev/null &gt;&gt;server.log 2&gt;&amp;1 &lt;/dev/null &amp;
</programlisting>
</para>
<para>
To stop a server running in the background you can type:
<programlisting>
kill `cat /usr/local/pgsql/data/postmaster.pid`
</programlisting>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Create a database:
<screen>
<userinput>createdb testdb</>
</screen>
Then enter:
<screen>
<userinput>psql testdb</>
</screen>
to connect to that database. At the prompt you can enter SQL
commands and start experimenting.
</para>
</step>
</procedure>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="install-whatnow">
<title>What Now?</title>
<para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
The <productname>PostgreSQL</> distribution contains a
comprehensive documentation set, which you should read sometime.
After installation, the documentation can be accessed by
pointing your browser to
<filename>/usr/local/pgsql/doc/html/index.html</>, unless you
changed the installation directories.
</para>
<para>
The first few chapters of the main documentation are the Tutorial,
which should be your first reading if you are completely new to
<acronym>SQL</> databases. If you are familiar with database
concepts then you want to proceed with part on server
administration, which contains information about how to set up
the database server, database users, and authentication.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
Usually, you will want to modify your computer so that it will
automatically start the database server whenever it boots. Some
suggestions for this are in the documentation.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
Run the regression tests against the installed server (using
<command>gmake installcheck</command>). If you didn't run the
tests before installation, you should definitely do it now. This
is also explained in the documentation.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
By default, <productname>PostgreSQL</> is configured to run on
minimal hardware. This allows it to start up with almost any
hardware configuration. The default configuration is, however,
not designed for optimum performance. To achieve optimum
performance, several server parameters must be adjusted, the two
most common being <varname>shared_buffers</varname> and
<varname>work_mem</varname>.
Other parameters mentioned in the documentation also affect
performance.
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</sect1>
]]>
<sect1 id="supported-platforms">
<title>Supported Platforms</title>
<para>
A platform (that is, a CPU architecture and operating system combination)
is considered supported by the <productname>PostgreSQL</> development
community if the code contains provisions to work on that platform and
it has recently been verified to build and pass its regression tests
on that platform. Currently, most testing of platform compatibility
is done automatically by test machines in the
<ulink url="http://buildfarm.postgresql.org/">PostgreSQL Build Farm</ulink>.
If you are interested in using <productname>PostgreSQL</> on a platform
that is not represented in the build farm, but on which the code works
or can be made to work, you are strongly encouraged to set up a build
farm member machine so that continued compatibility can be assured.
</para>
<para>
In general, <productname>PostgreSQL</> can be expected to work on
these CPU architectures: x86, x86_64, IA64, PowerPC,
PowerPC 64, S/390, S/390x, Sparc, Sparc 64, Alpha, ARM, MIPS, MIPSEL, M68K,
and PA-RISC. Code support exists for M32R, NS32K, and VAX, but these
architectures are not known to have been tested recently. It is often
possible to build on an unsupported CPU type by configuring with
<option>--disable-spinlocks</option>, but performance will be poor.
</para>
<para>
<productname>PostgreSQL</> can be expected to work on these operating
systems: Linux (all recent distributions), Windows (Win2000 SP4 and later),
FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, Mac OS X, AIX, HP/UX, IRIX, Solaris, Tru64 Unix,
and UnixWare. Other Unix-like systems may also work but are not currently
being tested. In most cases, all CPU architectures supported by
a given operating system will work. Look in
the <xref linkend="installation-platform-notes"> below to see if
there is information
specific to your operating system, particularly if using an older system.
</para>
<para>
If you have installation problems on a platform that is known
to be supported according to recent build farm results, please report
it to <email>pgsql-bugs@postgresql.org</email>. If you are interested
in porting <productname>PostgreSQL</> to a new platform,
<email>pgsql-hackers@postgresql.org</email> is the appropriate place
to discuss that.
</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="installation-platform-notes">
<title>Platform-Specific Notes</title>
<para>
This section documents additional platform-specific issues
regarding the installation and setup of PostgreSQL. Be sure to
read the installation instructions, and in
particular <xref linkend="install-requirements"> as well. Also,
check <![%standalone-include[the
file <filename>src/test/regress/README</> and the documentation]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="regress">]]> regarding the
interpretation of regression test results.
</para>
<para>
Platforms that are not covered here have no known platform-specific
installation issues.
</para>
<sect2 id="installation-notes-aix">
<title>AIX</title>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-aix">
<primary>AIX</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>
PostgreSQL works on AIX, but getting it installed properly can be
challenging. AIX versions from 4.3.3 to 6.1 are considered supported.
You can use GCC or the native IBM compiler xlc. In
general, using recent versions of AIX and PostgreSQL helps. Check
the build farm for up to date information about which versions of
AIX are known to work.
</para>
<para>
The minimum recommended fix levels for supported AIX versions are:
</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term>AIX 4.3.3</term>
<listitem><para>Maintenance Level 11 + post ML11 bundle</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term>AIX 5.1</term>
<listitem><para>Maintenance Level 9 + post ML9 bundle</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term>AIX 5.2</term>
<listitem><para>Technology Level 10 Service Pack 3</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term>AIX 5.3</term>
<listitem><para>Technology Level 7</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term>AIX 6.1</term>
<listitem><para>Base Level</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>
To check your current fix level, use
<command>oslevel -r</command> in AIX 4.3.3 to AIX 5.2 ML 7, or
<command>oslevel -s</command> in later versions.
</para>
<para>
Use the following <command>configure</command> flags in addition
to your own if you have installed Readline or libz in
<literal>/usr/local</>:
<literal>--with-includes=/usr/local/include
--with-libraries=/usr/local/lib</literal>.
</para>
<sect3>
<title>GCC issues</title>
<para>
On AIX 5.3, there have been some problems getting PostgreSQL to
compile and run using GCC.
</para>
<para>
You will want to use a version of GCC subsequent to 3.3.2,
particularly if you use a prepackaged version. We had good
success with 4.0.1. Problems with earlier versions seem to have
more to do with the way IBM packaged GCC than with actual issues
with GCC, so that if you compile GCC yourself, you might well
have success with an earlier version of GCC.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Unix-domain sockets broken</title>
<para>
AIX 5.3 has a problem
where <structname>sockaddr_storage</structname> is not defined to
be large enough. In version 5.3, IBM increased the size of
<structname>sockaddr_un</structname>, the address structure for
Unix-domain sockets, but did not correspondingly increase the
size of <structname>sockaddr_storage</structname>. The result of
this is that attempts to use Unix-domain sockets with PostgreSQL
lead to libpq overflowing the data structure. TCP/IP connections
work OK, but not Unix-domain sockets, which prevents the
regression tests from working.
</para>
<para>
The problem was reported to IBM, and is recorded as bug report
PMR29657. If you upgrade to maintenance level 5300-03 or later,
that will include this fix. A quick workaround
is to alter <symbol>_SS_MAXSIZE</symbol> to 1025 in
<filename>/usr/include/sys/socket.h</filename>. In either case,
recompile PostgreSQL once you have the corrected header file.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Internet address issues</title>
<para>
PostgreSQL relies on the system's <function>getaddrinfo</> function
to parse IP addresses in <varname>listen_addresses</>,
<filename>pg_hba.conf</>, etc. Older versions of AIX have assorted
bugs in this function. If you have problems related to these settings,
updating to the appropriate AIX fix level shown above
should take care of it.
</para>
<!-- http://archives.postgresql.org/message-id/6064jt6cfm.fsf_-_@dba2.int.libertyrms.com -->
<para>
One user reports:
</para>
<para>
When implementing PostgreSQL version 8.1 on AIX 5.3, we
periodically ran into problems where the statistics collector
would <quote>mysteriously</quote> not come up successfully. This
appears to be the result of unexpected behavior in the IPv6
implementation. It looks like PostgreSQL and IPv6 do not play
very well together on AIX 5.3.
</para>
<para>
Any of the following actions <quote>fix</quote> the problem.
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
Delete the IPv6 address for localhost:
<screen>
(as root)
# ifconfig lo0 inet6 ::1/0 delete
</screen>
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
Remove IPv6 from net services. The
file <filename>/etc/netsvc.conf</filename> on AIX is roughly
equivalent to <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> on
Solaris/Linux. The default, on AIX, is thus:
<programlisting>
hosts=local,bind
</programlisting>
Replace this with:
<programlisting>
hosts=local4,bind4
</programlisting>
to deactivate searching for IPv6 addresses.
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<warning>
<para>
This is really a workaround for problems relating
to immaturity of IPv6 support, which improved visibly during the
course of AIX 5.3 releases. It has worked with AIX version 5.3,
but does not represent an elegant solution to the problem. It has
been reported that this workaround is not only unnecessary, but
causes problems on AIX 6.1, where IPv6 support has become more mature.
</para>
</warning>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Memory management</title>
<!-- http://archives.postgresql.org/message-id/603bgqmpl9.fsf@dba2.int.libertyrms.com -->
<para>
AIX can be somewhat peculiar with regards to the way it does
memory management. You can have a server with many multiples of
gigabytes of RAM free, but still get out of memory or address
space errors when running applications. One example
is <command>createlang</command> failing with unusual errors.
For example, running as the owner of the PostgreSQL installation:
<screen>
-bash-3.00$ createlang plperl template1
createlang: language installation failed: ERROR: could not load library "/opt/dbs/pgsql748/lib/plperl.so": A memory address is not in the address space for the process.
</screen>
Running as a non-owner in the group possessing the PostgreSQL
installation:
<screen>
-bash-3.00$ createlang plperl template1
createlang: language installation failed: ERROR: could not load library "/opt/dbs/pgsql748/lib/plperl.so": Bad address
</screen>
Another example is out of memory errors in the PostgreSQL server
logs, with every memory allocation near or greater than 256 MB
failing.
</para>
<para>
The overall cause of all these problems is the default bittedness
and memory model used by the server process. By default, all
binaries built on AIX are 32-bit. This does not depend upon
hardware type or kernel in use. These 32-bit processes are
limited to 4 GB of memory laid out in 256 MB segments using one
of a few models. The default allows for less than 256 MB in the
heap as it shares a single segment with the stack.
</para>
<para>
In the case of the <command>createlang</command> example, above,
check your umask and the permissions of the binaries in your
PostgreSQL installation. The binaries involved in that example
were 32-bit and installed as mode 750 instead of 755. Due to the
permissions being set in this fashion, only the owner or a member
of the possessing group can load the library. Since it isn't
world-readable, the loader places the object into the process'
heap instead of the shared library segments where it would
otherwise be placed.
</para>
<para>
The <quote>ideal</quote> solution for this is to use a 64-bit
build of PostgreSQL, but that is not always practical, because
systems with 32-bit processors can build, but not run, 64-bit
binaries.
</para>
<para>
If a 32-bit binary is desired, set <symbol>LDR_CNTRL</symbol> to
<literal>MAXDATA=0x<replaceable>n</replaceable>0000000</literal>,
where 1 &lt;= n &lt;= 8, before starting the PostgreSQL server,
and try different values and <filename>postgresql.conf</filename>
settings to find a configuration that works satisfactorily. This
use of <symbol>LDR_CNTRL</symbol> tells AIX that you want the
server to have <symbol>MAXDATA</symbol> bytes set aside for the
heap, allocated in 256 MB segments. When you find a workable
configuration,
<command>ldedit</command> can be used to modify the binaries so
that they default to using the desired heap size. PostgreSQL can
also be rebuilt, passing <literal>configure
LDFLAGS="-Wl,-bmaxdata:0x<replaceable>n</replaceable>0000000"</literal>
to achieve the same effect.
</para>
<para>
For a 64-bit build, set <envar>OBJECT_MODE</envar> to 64 and
pass <literal>CC="gcc -maix64"</literal>
and <literal>LDFLAGS="-Wl,-bbigtoc"</literal>
to <command>configure</command>. (Options for
<command>xlc</command> might differ.) If you omit the export of
<envar>OBJECT_MODE</envar>, your build may fail with linker errors. When
<envar>OBJECT_MODE</envar> is set, it tells AIX's build utilities
such as <command>ar</>, <command>as</>, and <command>ld</> what
type of objects to default to handling.
</para>
<para>
By default, overcommit of paging space can happen. While we have
not seen this occur, AIX will kill processes when it runs out of
memory and the overcommit is accessed. The closest to this that
we have seen is fork failing because the system decided that
there was not enough memory for another process. Like many other
parts of AIX, the paging space allocation method and
out-of-memory kill is configurable on a system- or process-wide
basis if this becomes a problem.
</para>
<bibliography>
<title>References and resources</title>
<biblioentry>
<biblioset relation="article">
<title><ulink url="http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/aixprggd/genprogc/lrg_prg_support.htm">Large Program Support</ulink></title>
</biblioset>
<biblioset relation="book">
<title>AIX Documentation: General Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging Programs</title>
</biblioset>
</biblioentry>
<biblioentry>
<biblioset relation="article">
<title><ulink url="http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/aixprggd/genprogc/address_space.htm">Program Address Space Overview</ulink></title>
</biblioset>
<biblioset relation="book">
<title>AIX Documentation: General Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging Programs</title>
</biblioset>
</biblioentry>
<biblioentry>
<biblioset relation="article">
<title><ulink url="http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/v5r3/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/aixbman/prftungd/resmgmt2.htm">Performance Overview of the Virtual Memory Manager (VMM)</ulink></title>
</biblioset>
<biblioset relation="book">
<title>AIX Documentation: Performance Management Guide</title>
</biblioset>
</biblioentry>
<biblioentry>
<biblioset relation="article">
<title><ulink url="http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/v5r3/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/aixbman/prftungd/memperf7.htm">Page Space Allocation</ulink></title>
</biblioset>
<biblioset relation="book">
<title>AIX Documentation: Performance Management Guide</title>
</biblioset>
</biblioentry>
<biblioentry>
<biblioset relation="article">
<title><ulink url="http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/v5r3/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/aixbman/prftungd/memperf6.htm">Paging-space thresholds tuning</ulink></title>
</biblioset>
<biblioset relation="book">
<title>AIX Documentation: Performance Management Guide</title>
</biblioset>
</biblioentry>
<biblioentry>
<title><ulink url=" http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245674.html?Open">Developing and Porting C and C++ Applications on AIX</ulink></title>
<publisher>
<publishername>IBM Redbook</publishername>
</publisher>
</biblioentry>
</bibliography>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installation-notes-cygwin">
<title>Cygwin</title>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-cygwin">
<primary>Cygwin</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>
PostgreSQL can be built using Cygwin, a Linux-like environment for
Windows, but that method is inferior to the native Windows build
<![%standalone-ignore[(see <xref linkend="install-windows">)]]> and
is no longer recommended.
</para>
<para>
When building from source, proceed according to the normal
installation procedure (i.e., <literal>./configure;
make</literal>; etc.), noting the following-Cygwin specific
differences:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
Set your path to use the Cygwin bin directory before the
Windows utilities. This will help prevent problems with
compilation.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
The GNU make command is called <command>make</command>, not <command>gmake</command>.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
The <command>adduser</command> command is not supported; use
the appropriate user management application on Windows NT,
2000, or XP. Otherwise, skip this step.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
The <command>su</command> command is not supported; use ssh to
simulate su on Windows NT, 2000, or XP. Otherwise, skip this
step.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
OpenSSL is not supported.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
Start <command>cygserver</command> for shared memory support.
To do this, enter the command <literal>/usr/sbin/cygserver
&amp;</literal>. This program needs to be running anytime you
start the PostgreSQL server or initialize a database cluster
(<command>initdb</command>). The
default <command>cygserver</command> configuration may need to
be changed (e.g., increase <symbol>SEMMNS</symbol>) to prevent
PostgreSQL from failing due to a lack of system resources.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
The parallel regression tests (<literal>make check</literal>)
can generate spurious regression test failures due to
overflowing the <function>listen()</function> backlog queue
which causes connection refused errors or hangs. You can limit
the number of connections using the make
variable <varname>MAX_CONNECTIONS</varname> thus:
<programlisting>
make MAX_CONNECTIONS=5 check
</programlisting>
(On some systems you can have up to about 10 simultaneous
connections).
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<para>
It is possible to install <command>cygserver</command> and the
PostgreSQL server as Windows NT services. For information on how
to do this, please refer to the <filename>README</filename>
document included with the PostgreSQL binary package on Cygwin.
It is installed in the
directory <filename>/usr/share/doc/Cygwin</filename>.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installation-notes-hpux">
<title>HP-UX</title>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-hpux">
<primary>HP-UX</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>
PostgreSQL 7.3+ should work on Series 700/800 PA-RISC machines
running HP-UX 10.X or 11.X, given appropriate system patch levels
and build tools. At least one developer routinely tests on HP-UX
10.20, and we have reports of successful installations on HP-UX
11.00 and 11.11.
</para>
<para>
Aside from the PostgreSQL source distribution, you will need GNU
make (HP's make will not do), and either GCC or HP's full ANSI C
compiler. If you intend to build from Git sources rather than a
distribution tarball, you will also need Flex (GNU lex) and Bison
(GNU yacc). We also recommend making sure you are fairly
up-to-date on HP patches. At a minimum, if you are building 64
bit binaries on on HP-UX 11.11 you may need PHSS_30966 (11.11) or a
successor patch otherwise <command>initdb</command> may hang:
<literallayout>
PHSS_30966 s700_800 ld(1) and linker tools cumulative patch
</literallayout>
On general principles you should be current on libc and ld/dld
patches, as well as compiler patches if you are using HP's C
compiler. See HP's support sites such
as <ulink url="http://itrc.hp.com"></ulink> and
<ulink url="ftp://us-ffs.external.hp.com/"></ulink> for free
copies of their latest patches.
</para>
<para>
If you are building on a PA-RISC 2.0 machine and want to have
64-bit binaries using GCC, you must use GCC 64-bit version. GCC
binaries for HP-UX PA-RISC and Itanium are available from
<ulink url="http://www.hp.com/go/gcc"></ulink>. Don't forget to
get and install binutils at the same time.
</para>
<para>
If you are building on a PA-RISC 2.0 machine and want the compiled
binaries to run on PA-RISC 1.1 machines you will need to specify
<option>+DAportable</option> in <envar>CFLAGS</envar>.
</para>
<para>
If you are building on a HP-UX Itanium machine, you will need the
latest HP ANSI C compiler with its dependent patch or successor
patches:
<literallayout>
PHSS_30848 s700_800 HP C Compiler (A.05.57)
PHSS_30849 s700_800 u2comp/be/plugin library Patch
</literallayout>
</para>
<para>
If you have both HP's C compiler and GCC's, then you might want to
explicitly select the compiler to use when you
run <command>configure</command>:
<programlisting>
./configure CC=cc
</programlisting>
for HP's C compiler, or
<programlisting>
./configure CC=gcc
</programlisting>
for GCC. If you omit this setting, then configure will
pick <command>gcc</command> if it has a choice.
</para>
<para>
The default install target location
is <filename>/usr/local/pgsql</filename>, which you might want to
change to something under <filename>/opt</filename>. If so, use
the
<option>--prefix</option> switch to <command>configure</command>.
</para>
<para>
In the regression tests, there might be some low-order-digit
differences in the geometry tests, which vary depending on which
compiler and math library versions you use. Any other error is
cause for suspicion.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installation-notes-irix">
<title>IRIX</title>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-irix">
<primary>IRIX</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>
PostgreSQL has been reported to run successfully on MIPS r8000,
r10000 (both ip25 and ip27) and r12000(ip35) processors, running
IRIX 6.5.5m, 6.5.12, 6.5.13, and 6.5.26 with MIPSPro compilers
version 7.30, 7.3.1.2m, 7.3, and 7.4.4m.
</para>
<para>
You will need the MIPSPro full ANSI C compiler. There are
problems trying to build with GCC. It is a known GCC bug (not
fixed as of version 3.0) related to using functions that return
certain kinds of structures. This bug affects functions like
<function>inet_ntoa</>, <function>inet_lnaof</>, <function>inet_netof</>, <function>inet_makeaddr</>,
and <function>semctl</>. It is supposed to be fixed by forcing
code to link those functions with libgcc, but this has not been
tested yet.
</para>
<para>
It is known that version 7.4.1m of the MIPSPro compiler generates
incorrect code. The symptom is <quote>invalid primary checkpoint
record</quote> when trying to start the database.) Version 7.4.4m
is OK; the status of intermediate versions is uncertain.
</para>
<para>
There may be a compilation problem like the following:
<screen>
cc-1020 cc: ERROR File = pqcomm.c, Line = 427
The identifier "TCP_NODELAY" is undefined.
if (setsockopt(port->sock, IPPROTO_TCP, TCP_NODELAY,
</screen>
Some versions include TCP definitions
in <filename>sys/xti.h</filename>, so it is necessary to
add <literal>#include &lt;sys/xti.h&gt;</literal>
in <filename>src/backend/libpq/pqcomm.c</> and in
<filename>src/interfaces/libpq/fe-connect.c</>. If you encounter
this, please let us know so we can develop a proper fix.
</para>
<para>
In the regression tests, there might be some low-order-digit
differences in the geometry tests, depending on which FPU are you
using. Any other error is cause for suspicion.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installation-notes-mingw">
<title>MinGW/Native Windows</title>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-mingw">
<primary>MinGW</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>
PostgreSQL for Windows can be built using MinGW, a Unix-like build
environment for Microsoft operating systems, or using
Microsoft's <productname>Visual C++</productname> compiler suite.
The MinGW build variant uses the normal build system described in
this chapter; the Visual C++ build works completely differently
and is described in <![%standalone-include[the
documentation]]><![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="install-windows">]]>.
It is a fully native build and uses no additional software like
MinGW. A ready-made installer is available on the main
PostgreSQL web site.
</para>
<para>
The native Windows port requires a 32 or 64-bit version of Windows
2000 or later. Earlier operating systems do
not have sufficient infrastructure (but Cygwin may be used on
those). MinGW, the Unix-like build tools, and MSYS, a collection
of Unix tools required to run shell scripts
like <command>configure</command>, can be downloaded
from <ulink url="http://www.mingw.org/"></ulink>. Neither is
required to run the resulting binaries; they are needed only for
creating the binaries.
</para>
<para>
After you have everything installed, it is suggested that you
run <application>psql</application>
under <command>CMD.EXE</command>, as the MSYS console has
buffering issues.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installation-notes-sco">
<title>SCO OpenServer and SCO UnixWare</title>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-sco">
<primary>SCO</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-sco">
<primary>UnixWare</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>
PostgreSQL can be built on SCO UnixWare 7 and SCO OpenServer 5.
On OpenServer, you can use either the OpenServer Development Kit
or the Universal Development Kit. However, some tweaking may be
needed, as described below.
</para>
<sect3>
<title>Skunkware</title>
<para>
You should locate your copy of the SCO Skunkware CD. The
Skunkware CD is included with UnixWare 7 and current versions of
OpenServer 5. Skunkware includes ready-to-install versions of
many popular programs that are available on the Internet. For
example, gzip, gunzip, GNU Make, Flex, and Bison are all
included. For UnixWare 7.1, this CD is now labeled "Open License
Software Supplement". If you do not have this CD, the software
on it is available
from <ulink url="http://www.sco.com/skunkware/"></ulink>.
</para>
<para>
Skunkware has different versions for UnixWare and OpenServer.
Make sure you install the correct version for your operating
system, except as noted below.
</para>
<para>
On UnixWare 7.1.3 and beyond, the GCC compiler is included on the
UDK CD as is GNU Make.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>GNU Make</title>
<para>
You need to use the GNU Make program, which is on the Skunkware
CD. By default, it installs
as <filename>/usr/local/bin/make</filename>. To avoid confusion
with the SCO <filename>make</filename> program, you may want to rename GNU <filename>make</filename> to
<filename>gmake</filename>.
</para>
<para>
As of UnixWare 7.1.3 and above, the GNU Make program is is the
OSTK portion of the UDK CD, and is
in <filename>/usr/gnu/bin/gmake</filename>.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Readline</title>
<para>
The Readline library is on the Skunkware CD. But it is not
included on the UnixWare 7.1 Skunkware CD. If you have the
UnixWare 7.0.0 or 7.0.1 Skunkware CDs, you can install it from
there. Otherwise,
try <ulink url="http://www.sco.com/skunkware/"></ulink>.
</para>
<para>
By default, Readline installs into <filename>/usr/local/lib</> and
<filename>/usr/local/include</>. However, the
PostgreSQL <command>configure</command> program will not find it
there without help. If you installed Readline, then use the
following options to <command>configure</command>:
<programlisting>
./configure --with-libraries=/usr/local/lib --with-includes=/usr/local/include
</programlisting>
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Using the UDK on OpenServer</title>
<para>
If you are using the new Universal Development Kit (UDK) compiler
on OpenServer, you need to specify the locations of the UDK
libraries:
<programlisting>
./configure --with-libraries=/udk/usr/lib --with-includes=/udk/usr/include
</programlisting>
Putting these together with the Readline options from above:
<programlisting>
./configure --with-libraries="/udk/usr/lib /usr/local/lib" --with-includes="/udk/usr/include /usr/local/include"
</programlisting>
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Reading the PostgreSQL man pages</title>
<para>
By default, the PostgreSQL man pages are installed into
<filename>/usr/local/pgsql/man</filename>. By default, UnixWare
does not look there for man pages. To be able to read them you
need to modify the
<varname>MANPATH</varname> variable
in <filename>/etc/default/man</filename>, for example:
<programlisting>
MANPATH=/usr/lib/scohelp/%L/man:/usr/dt/man:/usr/man:/usr/share/man:scohelp:/usr/local/man:/usr/local/pgsql/man
</programlisting>
</para>
<para>
On OpenServer, some extra research needs to be invested to make
the man pages usable, because the man system is a bit different
from other platforms. Currently, PostgreSQL will not install
them at all.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>C99 Issues with the 7.1.1b Feature Supplement</title>
<para>
For compilers earlier than the one released with OpenUNIX 8.0.0
(UnixWare 7.1.2), including the 7.1.1b Feature Supplement, you
may need to specify <option>-Xb</option>
in <varname>CFLAGS</varname> or the <varname>CC</varname>
environment variable. The indication of this is an error in
compiling <filename>tuplesort.c</filename> referencing inline
functions. Apparently there was a change in the 7.1.2(8.0.0)
compiler and beyond.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Threading on UnixWare</title>
<para>
For threading, you<emphasis>must</emphasis> use <option>-Kpthread</option>
on <emphasis>all</emphasis> libpq-using programs. libpq
uses <function>pthread_*</function> calls, which are only
available with the
<option>-Kpthread</>/<option>-Kthread</> flag.
</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installation-notes-solaris">
<title>Solaris</title>
<indexterm zone="installation-notes-solaris">
<primary>Solaris</primary>
<secondary>installation on</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>
PostgreSQL is well-supported on Solaris. The more up to date your
operating system, the fewer issues you will experience; details
below.
</para>
<para>
Note that PostgreSQL is bundled with Solaris 10 (from update 2).
Official packages are also available on
<ulink url="http://pgfoundry.org/projects/solarispackages/"></ulink>.
Packages for older Solaris versions (8, 9) you can be obtained
from <ulink url="http://www.sunfreeware.com/"></ulink> or
<ulink url="http://www.blastwave.org/"></ulink>.
</para>
<sect3>
<title>Required tools</title>
<para>
You can build with either GCC or Sun's compiler suite. For
better code optimization, Sun's compiler is strongly recommended
on the SPARC architecture. We have heard reports of problems
when using GCC 2.95.1; gcc 2.95.3 or later is recommended. If
you are using Sun's compiler, be careful not to select
<filename>/usr/ucb/cc</filename>;
use <filename>/opt/SUNWspro/bin/cc</filename>.
</para>
<para>
You can download Sun Studio
from <ulink url="http://developers.sun.com/sunstudio/downloads/"></ulink>.
Many of GNU tools are integrated into Solaris 10, or they are
present on the Solaris companion CD. If you like packages for
older version of Solaris, you can find these tools
at <ulink url="http://www.sunfreeware.com"></ulink>
or <ulink url="http://www.blastwave.org"></ulink>. If you prefer
sources, look
at <ulink url="http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html"></ulink>.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Problems with OpenSSL</title>
<para>
When you build PostgreSQL with OpenSSL support you might get
compilation errors in the following files:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>src/backend/libpq/crypt.c</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>src/backend/libpq/password.c</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>src/interfaces/libpq/fe-auth.c</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>src/interfaces/libpq/fe-connect.c</filename></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
This is because of a namespace conflict between the standard
<filename>/usr/include/crypt.h</filename> header and the header
files provided by OpenSSL.
</para>
<para>
Upgrading your OpenSSL installation to version 0.9.6a fixes this
problem. Solaris 9 and above has a newer version of OpenSSL.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>configure complains about a failed test program</title>
<para>
If <command>configure</command> complains about a failed test
program, this is probably a case of the run-time linker being
unable to find some library, probably libz, libreadline or some
other non-standard library such as libssl. To point it to the
right location, set the <envar>LDFLAGS</envar> environment
variable on the <command>configure</command> command line, e.g.,
<programlisting>
configure ... LDFLAGS="-R /usr/sfw/lib:/opt/sfw/lib:/usr/local/lib"
</programlisting>
See
the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ld</><manvolnum>1</></citerefentry>
man page for more information.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>64-bit build sometimes crashes</title>
<para>
On Solaris 7 and older, the 64-bit version of libc has a buggy
<function>vsnprintf</function> routine, which leads to erratic
core dumps in PostgreSQL. The simplest known workaround is to
force PostgreSQL to use its own version of <function>vsnprintf</function> rather than
the library copy. To do this, after you
run <command>configure</command> edit a file produced by
<command>configure</command>:
In <filename>src/Makefile.global</filename>, change the line
<programlisting>
LIBOBJS =
</programlisting>
to read
<programlisting>
LIBOBJS = snprintf.o
</programlisting>
(There might be other files already listed in this variable.
Order does not matter.) Then build as usual.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Compiling for optimal performance</title>
<para>
On the SPARC architecture, Sun Studio is strongly recommended for
compilation. Try using the <option>-xO5</option> optimization
flag to generate significantly faster binaries. Do not use any
flags that modify behavior of floating-point operations
and <varname>errno</varname> processing (e.g.,
<option>-fast</option>). These flags could raise some
nonstandard PostgreSQL behavior for example in the date/time
computing.
</para>
<para>
If you do not have a reason to use 64-bit binaries on SPARC,
prefer the 32-bit version. The 64-bit operations are slower and
64-bit binaries are slower than the 32-bit variants. And on
other hand, 32-bit code on the AMD64 CPU family is not native,
and that is why 32-bit code is significant slower on this CPU
family.
</para>
<para>
Some tricks for tuning PostgreSQL and Solaris for performance can
be found
at <ulink url="http://www.sun.com/servers/coolthreads/tnb/applications_postgresql.jsp"></ulink>.
This article is primary focused on T2000 platform, but many of
the recommendations are also useful on other hardware with
Solaris.
</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Using DTrace for tracing PostgreSQL</title>
<para>
Yes, using DTrace is possible. See <![%standalone-include[the
documentation]]>
<![%standalone-ignore[<xref linkend="dynamic-trace">]]> for further
information. You can also find more information in this
article: <ulink url="http://blogs.sun.com/robertlor/entry/user_level_dtrace_probes_in"></ulink>.
</para>
<para>
If you see the linking of the <command>postgres</command> executable abort with an
error message like:
<screen>
Undefined first referenced
symbol in file
AbortTransaction utils/probes.o
CommitTransaction utils/probes.o
ld: fatal: Symbol referencing errors. No output written to postgres
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
gmake: *** [postgres] Error 1
</screen>
your DTrace installation is too old to handle probes in static
functions. You need Solaris 10u4 or newer.
</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
</chapter>
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