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/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
*
* clauses.c
* routines to manipulate qualification clauses
*
* Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2019, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
* Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
*
*
* IDENTIFICATION
* src/backend/optimizer/util/clauses.c
*
* HISTORY
* AUTHOR DATE MAJOR EVENT
* Andrew Yu Nov 3, 1994 clause.c and clauses.c combined
*
*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
*/
#include "postgres.h"
#include "access/htup_details.h"
#include "catalog/pg_aggregate.h"
#include "catalog/pg_class.h"
#include "catalog/pg_language.h"
#include "catalog/pg_operator.h"
#include "catalog/pg_proc.h"
#include "catalog/pg_type.h"
#include "executor/executor.h"
#include "executor/functions.h"
#include "funcapi.h"
#include "miscadmin.h"
#include "nodes/makefuncs.h"
#include "nodes/nodeFuncs.h"
#include "optimizer/clauses.h"
#include "optimizer/cost.h"
#include "optimizer/planmain.h"
#include "optimizer/prep.h"
#include "optimizer/var.h"
#include "parser/analyze.h"
#include "parser/parse_agg.h"
#include "parser/parse_coerce.h"
#include "parser/parse_func.h"
#include "rewrite/rewriteManip.h"
#include "tcop/tcopprot.h"
#include "utils/acl.h"
#include "utils/builtins.h"
#include "utils/datum.h"
#include "utils/fmgroids.h"
#include "utils/lsyscache.h"
#include "utils/memutils.h"
#include "utils/syscache.h"
#include "utils/typcache.h"
typedef struct
{
PlannerInfo *root;
AggSplit aggsplit;
AggClauseCosts *costs;
} get_agg_clause_costs_context;
typedef struct
{
ParamListInfo boundParams;
PlannerInfo *root;
List *active_fns;
Node *case_val;
bool estimate;
} eval_const_expressions_context;
typedef struct
{
int nargs;
List *args;
int *usecounts;
} substitute_actual_parameters_context;
typedef struct
{
int nargs;
List *args;
int sublevels_up;
} substitute_actual_srf_parameters_context;
typedef struct
{
char *proname;
char *prosrc;
} inline_error_callback_arg;
typedef struct
{
char max_hazard; /* worst proparallel hazard found so far */
char max_interesting; /* worst proparallel hazard of interest */
List *safe_param_ids; /* PARAM_EXEC Param IDs to treat as safe */
} max_parallel_hazard_context;
static bool contain_agg_clause_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static bool get_agg_clause_costs_walker(Node *node,
get_agg_clause_costs_context *context);
static bool find_window_functions_walker(Node *node, WindowFuncLists *lists);
static bool contain_subplans_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static bool contain_mutable_functions_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static bool contain_volatile_functions_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static bool contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static bool max_parallel_hazard_walker(Node *node,
max_parallel_hazard_context *context);
static bool contain_nonstrict_functions_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static bool contain_context_dependent_node(Node *clause);
static bool contain_context_dependent_node_walker(Node *node, int *flags);
static bool contain_leaked_vars_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static Relids find_nonnullable_rels_walker(Node *node, bool top_level);
static List *find_nonnullable_vars_walker(Node *node, bool top_level);
static bool is_strict_saop(ScalarArrayOpExpr *expr, bool falseOK);
static Node *eval_const_expressions_mutator(Node *node,
eval_const_expressions_context *context);
static bool contain_non_const_walker(Node *node, void *context);
static bool ece_function_is_safe(Oid funcid,
eval_const_expressions_context *context);
static List *simplify_or_arguments(List *args,
eval_const_expressions_context *context,
bool *haveNull, bool *forceTrue);
static List *simplify_and_arguments(List *args,
eval_const_expressions_context *context,
bool *haveNull, bool *forceFalse);
static Node *simplify_boolean_equality(Oid opno, List *args);
static Expr *simplify_function(Oid funcid,
Oid result_type, int32 result_typmod,
Oid result_collid, Oid input_collid, List **args_p,
bool funcvariadic, bool process_args, bool allow_non_const,
eval_const_expressions_context *context);
static List *reorder_function_arguments(List *args, HeapTuple func_tuple);
static List *add_function_defaults(List *args, HeapTuple func_tuple);
static List *fetch_function_defaults(HeapTuple func_tuple);
static void recheck_cast_function_args(List *args, Oid result_type,
HeapTuple func_tuple);
static Expr *evaluate_function(Oid funcid, Oid result_type, int32 result_typmod,
Oid result_collid, Oid input_collid, List *args,
bool funcvariadic,
HeapTuple func_tuple,
eval_const_expressions_context *context);
static Expr *inline_function(Oid funcid, Oid result_type, Oid result_collid,
Oid input_collid, List *args,
bool funcvariadic,
HeapTuple func_tuple,
eval_const_expressions_context *context);
static Node *substitute_actual_parameters(Node *expr, int nargs, List *args,
int *usecounts);
static Node *substitute_actual_parameters_mutator(Node *node,
substitute_actual_parameters_context *context);
static void sql_inline_error_callback(void *arg);
static Expr *evaluate_expr(Expr *expr, Oid result_type, int32 result_typmod,
Oid result_collation);
static Query *substitute_actual_srf_parameters(Query *expr,
int nargs, List *args);
static Node *substitute_actual_srf_parameters_mutator(Node *node,
substitute_actual_srf_parameters_context *context);
static bool tlist_matches_coltypelist(List *tlist, List *coltypelist);
/*****************************************************************************
* OPERATOR clause functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* make_opclause
* Creates an operator clause given its operator info, left operand
* and right operand (pass NULL to create single-operand clause),
* and collation info.
*/
Expr *
make_opclause(Oid opno, Oid opresulttype, bool opretset,
Expr *leftop, Expr *rightop,
Oid opcollid, Oid inputcollid)
{
OpExpr *expr = makeNode(OpExpr);
expr->opno = opno;
expr->opfuncid = InvalidOid;
expr->opresulttype = opresulttype;
expr->opretset = opretset;
expr->opcollid = opcollid;
expr->inputcollid = inputcollid;
if (rightop)
expr->args = list_make2(leftop, rightop);
else
expr->args = list_make1(leftop);
expr->location = -1;
return (Expr *) expr;
}
/*
* get_leftop
*
* Returns the left operand of a clause of the form (op expr expr)
* or (op expr)
*/
Node *
get_leftop(const Expr *clause)
{
const OpExpr *expr = (const OpExpr *) clause;
if (expr->args != NIL)
return linitial(expr->args);
else
return NULL;
}
/*
* get_rightop
*
* Returns the right operand in a clause of the form (op expr expr).
* NB: result will be NULL if applied to a unary op clause.
*/
Node *
get_rightop(const Expr *clause)
{
const OpExpr *expr = (const OpExpr *) clause;
if (list_length(expr->args) >= 2)
return lsecond(expr->args);
else
return NULL;
}
/*****************************************************************************
* NOT clause functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* not_clause
*
* Returns t iff this is a 'not' clause: (NOT expr).
*/
bool
not_clause(Node *clause)
{
return (clause != NULL &&
IsA(clause, BoolExpr) &&
((BoolExpr *) clause)->boolop == NOT_EXPR);
}
/*
* make_notclause
*
* Create a 'not' clause given the expression to be negated.
*/
Expr *
make_notclause(Expr *notclause)
{
BoolExpr *expr = makeNode(BoolExpr);
expr->boolop = NOT_EXPR;
expr->args = list_make1(notclause);
expr->location = -1;
return (Expr *) expr;
}
/*
* get_notclausearg
*
* Retrieve the clause within a 'not' clause
*/
Expr *
get_notclausearg(Expr *notclause)
{
return linitial(((BoolExpr *) notclause)->args);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* OR clause functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* or_clause
*
* Returns t iff the clause is an 'or' clause: (OR { expr }).
*/
bool
or_clause(Node *clause)
{
return (clause != NULL &&
IsA(clause, BoolExpr) &&
((BoolExpr *) clause)->boolop == OR_EXPR);
}
/*
* make_orclause
*
* Creates an 'or' clause given a list of its subclauses.
*/
Expr *
make_orclause(List *orclauses)
{
BoolExpr *expr = makeNode(BoolExpr);
expr->boolop = OR_EXPR;
expr->args = orclauses;
expr->location = -1;
return (Expr *) expr;
}
/*****************************************************************************
* AND clause functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* and_clause
*
* Returns t iff its argument is an 'and' clause: (AND { expr }).
*/
bool
and_clause(Node *clause)
{
return (clause != NULL &&
IsA(clause, BoolExpr) &&
((BoolExpr *) clause)->boolop == AND_EXPR);
}
/*
* make_andclause
*
* Creates an 'and' clause given a list of its subclauses.
*/
Expr *
make_andclause(List *andclauses)
{
BoolExpr *expr = makeNode(BoolExpr);
expr->boolop = AND_EXPR;
expr->args = andclauses;
expr->location = -1;
return (Expr *) expr;
}
/*
* make_and_qual
*
* Variant of make_andclause for ANDing two qual conditions together.
* Qual conditions have the property that a NULL nodetree is interpreted
* as 'true'.
*
* NB: this makes no attempt to preserve AND/OR flatness; so it should not
* be used on a qual that has already been run through prepqual.c.
*/
Node *
make_and_qual(Node *qual1, Node *qual2)
{
if (qual1 == NULL)
return qual2;
if (qual2 == NULL)
return qual1;
return (Node *) make_andclause(list_make2(qual1, qual2));
}
/*
* The planner frequently prefers to represent qualification expressions
* as lists of boolean expressions with implicit AND semantics.
*
* These functions convert between an AND-semantics expression list and the
* ordinary representation of a boolean expression.
*
* Note that an empty list is considered equivalent to TRUE.
*/
Expr *
make_ands_explicit(List *andclauses)
{
if (andclauses == NIL)
return (Expr *) makeBoolConst(true, false);
else if (list_length(andclauses) == 1)
return (Expr *) linitial(andclauses);
else
return make_andclause(andclauses);
}
List *
make_ands_implicit(Expr *clause)
{
/*
* NB: because the parser sets the qual field to NULL in a query that has
* no WHERE clause, we must consider a NULL input clause as TRUE, even
* though one might more reasonably think it FALSE. Grumble. If this
* causes trouble, consider changing the parser's behavior.
*/
if (clause == NULL)
return NIL; /* NULL -> NIL list == TRUE */
else if (and_clause((Node *) clause))
return ((BoolExpr *) clause)->args;
else if (IsA(clause, Const) &&
!((Const *) clause)->constisnull &&
DatumGetBool(((Const *) clause)->constvalue))
return NIL; /* constant TRUE input -> NIL list */
else
return list_make1(clause);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Aggregate-function clause manipulation
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_agg_clause
* Recursively search for Aggref/GroupingFunc nodes within a clause.
*
* Returns true if any aggregate found.
*
* This does not descend into subqueries, and so should be used only after
* reduction of sublinks to subplans, or in contexts where it's known there
* are no subqueries. There mustn't be outer-aggregate references either.
*
* (If you want something like this but able to deal with subqueries,
* see rewriteManip.c's contain_aggs_of_level().)
*/
bool
contain_agg_clause(Node *clause)
{
return contain_agg_clause_walker(clause, NULL);
}
static bool
contain_agg_clause_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
if (IsA(node, Aggref))
{
Assert(((Aggref *) node)->agglevelsup == 0);
return true; /* abort the tree traversal and return true */
}
if (IsA(node, GroupingFunc))
{
Assert(((GroupingFunc *) node)->agglevelsup == 0);
return true; /* abort the tree traversal and return true */
}
Assert(!IsA(node, SubLink));
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_agg_clause_walker, context);
}
/*
* get_agg_clause_costs
* Recursively find the Aggref nodes in an expression tree, and
* accumulate cost information about them.
*
* 'aggsplit' tells us the expected partial-aggregation mode, which affects
* the cost estimates.
*
* NOTE that the counts/costs are ADDED to those already in *costs ... so
* the caller is responsible for zeroing the struct initially.
*
* We count the nodes, estimate their execution costs, and estimate the total
* space needed for their transition state values if all are evaluated in
* parallel (as would be done in a HashAgg plan). Also, we check whether
* partial aggregation is feasible. See AggClauseCosts for the exact set
* of statistics collected.
*
* In addition, we mark Aggref nodes with the correct aggtranstype, so
* that that doesn't need to be done repeatedly. (That makes this function's
* name a bit of a misnomer.)
*
* This does not descend into subqueries, and so should be used only after
* reduction of sublinks to subplans, or in contexts where it's known there
* are no subqueries. There mustn't be outer-aggregate references either.
*/
void
get_agg_clause_costs(PlannerInfo *root, Node *clause, AggSplit aggsplit,
AggClauseCosts *costs)
{
get_agg_clause_costs_context context;
context.root = root;
context.aggsplit = aggsplit;
context.costs = costs;
(void) get_agg_clause_costs_walker(clause, &context);
}
static bool
get_agg_clause_costs_walker(Node *node, get_agg_clause_costs_context *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
if (IsA(node, Aggref))
{
Aggref *aggref = (Aggref *) node;
AggClauseCosts *costs = context->costs;
HeapTuple aggTuple;
Form_pg_aggregate aggform;
Oid aggtransfn;
Oid aggfinalfn;
Oid aggcombinefn;
Oid aggserialfn;
Oid aggdeserialfn;
Oid aggtranstype;
int32 aggtransspace;
QualCost argcosts;
Assert(aggref->agglevelsup == 0);
/*
* Fetch info about aggregate from pg_aggregate. Note it's correct to
* ignore the moving-aggregate variant, since what we're concerned
* with here is aggregates not window functions.
*/
aggTuple = SearchSysCache1(AGGFNOID,
ObjectIdGetDatum(aggref->aggfnoid));
if (!HeapTupleIsValid(aggTuple))
elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for aggregate %u",
aggref->aggfnoid);
aggform = (Form_pg_aggregate) GETSTRUCT(aggTuple);
aggtransfn = aggform->aggtransfn;
aggfinalfn = aggform->aggfinalfn;
aggcombinefn = aggform->aggcombinefn;
aggserialfn = aggform->aggserialfn;
aggdeserialfn = aggform->aggdeserialfn;
aggtranstype = aggform->aggtranstype;
aggtransspace = aggform->aggtransspace;
ReleaseSysCache(aggTuple);
/*
* Resolve the possibly-polymorphic aggregate transition type, unless
* already done in a previous pass over the expression.
*/
if (OidIsValid(aggref->aggtranstype))
aggtranstype = aggref->aggtranstype;
else
{
Oid inputTypes[FUNC_MAX_ARGS];
int numArguments;
/* extract argument types (ignoring any ORDER BY expressions) */
numArguments = get_aggregate_argtypes(aggref, inputTypes);
/* resolve actual type of transition state, if polymorphic */
aggtranstype = resolve_aggregate_transtype(aggref->aggfnoid,
aggtranstype,
inputTypes,
numArguments);
aggref->aggtranstype = aggtranstype;
}
/*
* Count it, and check for cases requiring ordered input. Note that
* ordered-set aggs always have nonempty aggorder. Any ordered-input
* case also defeats partial aggregation.
*/
costs->numAggs++;
if (aggref->aggorder != NIL || aggref->aggdistinct != NIL)
{
costs->numOrderedAggs++;
costs->hasNonPartial = true;
}
/*
* Check whether partial aggregation is feasible, unless we already
* found out that we can't do it.
*/
if (!costs->hasNonPartial)
{
/*
* If there is no combine function, then partial aggregation is
* not possible.
*/
if (!OidIsValid(aggcombinefn))
costs->hasNonPartial = true;
/*
* If we have any aggs with transtype INTERNAL then we must check
* whether they have serialization/deserialization functions; if
* not, we can't serialize partial-aggregation results.
*/
else if (aggtranstype == INTERNALOID &&
(!OidIsValid(aggserialfn) || !OidIsValid(aggdeserialfn)))
costs->hasNonSerial = true;
}
/*
* Add the appropriate component function execution costs to
* appropriate totals.
*/
if (DO_AGGSPLIT_COMBINE(context->aggsplit))
{
/* charge for combining previously aggregated states */
costs->transCost.per_tuple += get_func_cost(aggcombinefn) * cpu_operator_cost;
}
else
costs->transCost.per_tuple += get_func_cost(aggtransfn) * cpu_operator_cost;
if (DO_AGGSPLIT_DESERIALIZE(context->aggsplit) &&
OidIsValid(aggdeserialfn))
costs->transCost.per_tuple += get_func_cost(aggdeserialfn) * cpu_operator_cost;
if (DO_AGGSPLIT_SERIALIZE(context->aggsplit) &&
OidIsValid(aggserialfn))
costs->finalCost += get_func_cost(aggserialfn) * cpu_operator_cost;
if (!DO_AGGSPLIT_SKIPFINAL(context->aggsplit) &&
OidIsValid(aggfinalfn))
costs->finalCost += get_func_cost(aggfinalfn) * cpu_operator_cost;
/*
* These costs are incurred only by the initial aggregate node, so we
* mustn't include them again at upper levels.
*/
if (!DO_AGGSPLIT_COMBINE(context->aggsplit))
{
/* add the input expressions' cost to per-input-row costs */
cost_qual_eval_node(&argcosts, (Node *) aggref->args, context->root);
costs->transCost.startup += argcosts.startup;
costs->transCost.per_tuple += argcosts.per_tuple;
/*
* Add any filter's cost to per-input-row costs.
*
* XXX Ideally we should reduce input expression costs according
* to filter selectivity, but it's not clear it's worth the
* trouble.
*/
if (aggref->aggfilter)
{
cost_qual_eval_node(&argcosts, (Node *) aggref->aggfilter,
context->root);
costs->transCost.startup += argcosts.startup;
costs->transCost.per_tuple += argcosts.per_tuple;
}
}
/*
* If there are direct arguments, treat their evaluation cost like the
* cost of the finalfn.
*/
if (aggref->aggdirectargs)
{
cost_qual_eval_node(&argcosts, (Node *) aggref->aggdirectargs,
context->root);
costs->transCost.startup += argcosts.startup;
costs->finalCost += argcosts.per_tuple;
}
/*
* If the transition type is pass-by-value then it doesn't add
* anything to the required size of the hashtable. If it is
* pass-by-reference then we have to add the estimated size of the
* value itself, plus palloc overhead.
*/
if (!get_typbyval(aggtranstype))
{
int32 avgwidth;
/* Use average width if aggregate definition gave one */
if (aggtransspace > 0)
avgwidth = aggtransspace;
else if (aggtransfn == F_ARRAY_APPEND)
{
/*
* If the transition function is array_append(), it'll use an
* expanded array as transvalue, which will occupy at least
* ALLOCSET_SMALL_INITSIZE and possibly more. Use that as the
* estimate for lack of a better idea.
*/
avgwidth = ALLOCSET_SMALL_INITSIZE;
}
else
{
/*
* If transition state is of same type as first aggregated
* input, assume it's the same typmod (same width) as well.
* This works for cases like MAX/MIN and is probably somewhat
* reasonable otherwise.
*/
int32 aggtranstypmod = -1;
if (aggref->args)
{
TargetEntry *tle = (TargetEntry *) linitial(aggref->args);
if (aggtranstype == exprType((Node *) tle->expr))
aggtranstypmod = exprTypmod((Node *) tle->expr);
}
avgwidth = get_typavgwidth(aggtranstype, aggtranstypmod);
}
avgwidth = MAXALIGN(avgwidth);
costs->transitionSpace += avgwidth + 2 * sizeof(void *);
}
else if (aggtranstype == INTERNALOID)
{
/*
* INTERNAL transition type is a special case: although INTERNAL
* is pass-by-value, it's almost certainly being used as a pointer
* to some large data structure. The aggregate definition can
* provide an estimate of the size. If it doesn't, then we assume
* ALLOCSET_DEFAULT_INITSIZE, which is a good guess if the data is
* being kept in a private memory context, as is done by
* array_agg() for instance.
*/
if (aggtransspace > 0)
costs->transitionSpace += aggtransspace;
else
costs->transitionSpace += ALLOCSET_DEFAULT_INITSIZE;
}
/*
* We assume that the parser checked that there are no aggregates (of
* this level anyway) in the aggregated arguments, direct arguments,
* or filter clause. Hence, we need not recurse into any of them.
*/
return false;
}
Assert(!IsA(node, SubLink));
return expression_tree_walker(node, get_agg_clause_costs_walker,
(void *) context);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Window-function clause manipulation
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_window_function
* Recursively search for WindowFunc nodes within a clause.
*
* Since window functions don't have level fields, but are hard-wired to
* be associated with the current query level, this is just the same as
* rewriteManip.c's function.
*/
bool
contain_window_function(Node *clause)
{
return contain_windowfuncs(clause);
}
/*
* find_window_functions
* Locate all the WindowFunc nodes in an expression tree, and organize
* them by winref ID number.
*
* Caller must provide an upper bound on the winref IDs expected in the tree.
*/
WindowFuncLists *
find_window_functions(Node *clause, Index maxWinRef)
{
WindowFuncLists *lists = palloc(sizeof(WindowFuncLists));
lists->numWindowFuncs = 0;
lists->maxWinRef = maxWinRef;
lists->windowFuncs = (List **) palloc0((maxWinRef + 1) * sizeof(List *));
(void) find_window_functions_walker(clause, lists);
return lists;
}
static bool
find_window_functions_walker(Node *node, WindowFuncLists *lists)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
if (IsA(node, WindowFunc))
{
WindowFunc *wfunc = (WindowFunc *) node;
/* winref is unsigned, so one-sided test is OK */
if (wfunc->winref > lists->maxWinRef)
elog(ERROR, "WindowFunc contains out-of-range winref %u",
wfunc->winref);
/* eliminate duplicates, so that we avoid repeated computation */
if (!list_member(lists->windowFuncs[wfunc->winref], wfunc))
{
lists->windowFuncs[wfunc->winref] =
lappend(lists->windowFuncs[wfunc->winref], wfunc);
lists->numWindowFuncs++;
}
/*
* We assume that the parser checked that there are no window
* functions in the arguments or filter clause. Hence, we need not
* recurse into them. (If either the parser or the planner screws up
* on this point, the executor will still catch it; see ExecInitExpr.)
*/
return false;
}
Assert(!IsA(node, SubLink));
return expression_tree_walker(node, find_window_functions_walker,
(void *) lists);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Support for expressions returning sets
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* expression_returns_set_rows
* Estimate the number of rows returned by a set-returning expression.
* The result is 1 if it's not a set-returning expression.
*
* We should only examine the top-level function or operator; it used to be
* appropriate to recurse, but not anymore. (Even if there are more SRFs in
* the function's inputs, their multipliers are accounted for separately.)
*
* Note: keep this in sync with expression_returns_set() in nodes/nodeFuncs.c.
*/
double
expression_returns_set_rows(Node *clause)
{
if (clause == NULL)
return 1.0;
if (IsA(clause, FuncExpr))
{
FuncExpr *expr = (FuncExpr *) clause;
if (expr->funcretset)
return clamp_row_est(get_func_rows(expr->funcid));
}
if (IsA(clause, OpExpr))
{
OpExpr *expr = (OpExpr *) clause;
if (expr->opretset)
{
set_opfuncid(expr);
return clamp_row_est(get_func_rows(expr->opfuncid));
}
}
return 1.0;
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Subplan clause manipulation
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_subplans
* Recursively search for subplan nodes within a clause.
*
* If we see a SubLink node, we will return true. This is only possible if
* the expression tree hasn't yet been transformed by subselect.c. We do not
* know whether the node will produce a true subplan or just an initplan,
* but we make the conservative assumption that it will be a subplan.
*
* Returns true if any subplan found.
*/
bool
contain_subplans(Node *clause)
{
return contain_subplans_walker(clause, NULL);
}
static bool
contain_subplans_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
if (IsA(node, SubPlan) ||
IsA(node, AlternativeSubPlan) ||
IsA(node, SubLink))
return true; /* abort the tree traversal and return true */
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_subplans_walker, context);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Check clauses for mutable functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_mutable_functions
* Recursively search for mutable functions within a clause.
*
* Returns true if any mutable function (or operator implemented by a
* mutable function) is found. This test is needed so that we don't
* mistakenly think that something like "WHERE random() < 0.5" can be treated
* as a constant qualification.
*
* We will recursively look into Query nodes (i.e., SubLink sub-selects)
* but not into SubPlans. See comments for contain_volatile_functions().
*/
bool
contain_mutable_functions(Node *clause)
{
return contain_mutable_functions_walker(clause, NULL);
}
static bool
contain_mutable_functions_checker(Oid func_id, void *context)
{
return (func_volatile(func_id) != PROVOLATILE_IMMUTABLE);
}
static bool
contain_mutable_functions_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
/* Check for mutable functions in node itself */
if (check_functions_in_node(node, contain_mutable_functions_checker,
context))
return true;
if (IsA(node, SQLValueFunction))
{
/* all variants of SQLValueFunction are stable */
return true;
}
if (IsA(node, NextValueExpr))
{
/* NextValueExpr is volatile */
return true;
}
/*
* It should be safe to treat MinMaxExpr as immutable, because it will
* depend on a non-cross-type btree comparison function, and those should
* always be immutable. Treating XmlExpr as immutable is more dubious,
* and treating CoerceToDomain as immutable is outright dangerous. But we
* have done so historically, and changing this would probably cause more
* problems than it would fix. In practice, if you have a non-immutable
* domain constraint you are in for pain anyhow.
*/
/* Recurse to check arguments */
if (IsA(node, Query))
{
/* Recurse into subselects */
return query_tree_walker((Query *) node,
contain_mutable_functions_walker,
context, 0);
}
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_mutable_functions_walker,
context);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Check clauses for volatile functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_volatile_functions
* Recursively search for volatile functions within a clause.
*
* Returns true if any volatile function (or operator implemented by a
* volatile function) is found. This test prevents, for example,
* invalid conversions of volatile expressions into indexscan quals.
*
* We will recursively look into Query nodes (i.e., SubLink sub-selects)
* but not into SubPlans. This is a bit odd, but intentional. If we are
* looking at a SubLink, we are probably deciding whether a query tree
* transformation is safe, and a contained sub-select should affect that;
* for example, duplicating a sub-select containing a volatile function
* would be bad. However, once we've got to the stage of having SubPlans,
* subsequent planning need not consider volatility within those, since
* the executor won't change its evaluation rules for a SubPlan based on
* volatility.
*/
bool
contain_volatile_functions(Node *clause)
{
return contain_volatile_functions_walker(clause, NULL);
}
static bool
contain_volatile_functions_checker(Oid func_id, void *context)
{
return (func_volatile(func_id) == PROVOLATILE_VOLATILE);
}
static bool
contain_volatile_functions_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
/* Check for volatile functions in node itself */
if (check_functions_in_node(node, contain_volatile_functions_checker,
context))
return true;
if (IsA(node, NextValueExpr))
{
/* NextValueExpr is volatile */
return true;
}
/*
* See notes in contain_mutable_functions_walker about why we treat
* MinMaxExpr, XmlExpr, and CoerceToDomain as immutable, while
* SQLValueFunction is stable. Hence, none of them are of interest here.
*/
/* Recurse to check arguments */
if (IsA(node, Query))
{
/* Recurse into subselects */
return query_tree_walker((Query *) node,
contain_volatile_functions_walker,
context, 0);
}
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_volatile_functions_walker,
context);
}
/*
* Special purpose version of contain_volatile_functions() for use in COPY:
* ignore nextval(), but treat all other functions normally.
*/
bool
contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval(Node *clause)
{
return contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval_walker(clause, NULL);
}
static bool
contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval_checker(Oid func_id, void *context)
{
return (func_id != F_NEXTVAL_OID &&
func_volatile(func_id) == PROVOLATILE_VOLATILE);
}
static bool
contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
/* Check for volatile functions in node itself */
if (check_functions_in_node(node,
contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval_checker,
context))
return true;
/*
* See notes in contain_mutable_functions_walker about why we treat
* MinMaxExpr, XmlExpr, and CoerceToDomain as immutable, while
* SQLValueFunction is stable. Hence, none of them are of interest here.
* Also, since we're intentionally ignoring nextval(), presumably we
* should ignore NextValueExpr.
*/
/* Recurse to check arguments */
if (IsA(node, Query))
{
/* Recurse into subselects */
return query_tree_walker((Query *) node,
contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval_walker,
context, 0);
}
return expression_tree_walker(node,
contain_volatile_functions_not_nextval_walker,
context);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Check queries for parallel unsafe and/or restricted constructs
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* max_parallel_hazard
* Find the worst parallel-hazard level in the given query
*
* Returns the worst function hazard property (the earliest in this list:
* PROPARALLEL_UNSAFE, PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED, PROPARALLEL_SAFE) that can
* be found in the given parsetree. We use this to find out whether the query
* can be parallelized at all. The caller will also save the result in
* PlannerGlobal so as to short-circuit checks of portions of the querytree
* later, in the common case where everything is SAFE.
*/
char
max_parallel_hazard(Query *parse)
{
max_parallel_hazard_context context;
context.max_hazard = PROPARALLEL_SAFE;
context.max_interesting = PROPARALLEL_UNSAFE;
context.safe_param_ids = NIL;
(void) max_parallel_hazard_walker((Node *) parse, &context);
return context.max_hazard;
}
/*
* is_parallel_safe
* Detect whether the given expr contains only parallel-safe functions
*
* root->glob->maxParallelHazard must previously have been set to the
* result of max_parallel_hazard() on the whole query.
*/
bool
is_parallel_safe(PlannerInfo *root, Node *node)
{
max_parallel_hazard_context context;
PlannerInfo *proot;
ListCell *l;
/*
* Even if the original querytree contained nothing unsafe, we need to
* search the expression if we have generated any PARAM_EXEC Params while
* planning, because those are parallel-restricted and there might be one
* in this expression. But otherwise we don't need to look.
*/
if (root->glob->maxParallelHazard == PROPARALLEL_SAFE &&
root->glob->paramExecTypes == NIL)
return true;
/* Else use max_parallel_hazard's search logic, but stop on RESTRICTED */
context.max_hazard = PROPARALLEL_SAFE;
context.max_interesting = PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED;
context.safe_param_ids = NIL;
/*
* The params that refer to the same or parent query level are considered
* parallel-safe. The idea is that we compute such params at Gather or
* Gather Merge node and pass their value to workers.
*/
for (proot = root; proot != NULL; proot = proot->parent_root)
{
foreach(l, proot->init_plans)
{
SubPlan *initsubplan = (SubPlan *) lfirst(l);
ListCell *l2;
foreach(l2, initsubplan->setParam)
context.safe_param_ids = lcons_int(lfirst_int(l2),
context.safe_param_ids);
}
}
return !max_parallel_hazard_walker(node, &context);
}
/* core logic for all parallel-hazard checks */
static bool
max_parallel_hazard_test(char proparallel, max_parallel_hazard_context *context)
{
switch (proparallel)
{
case PROPARALLEL_SAFE:
/* nothing to see here, move along */
break;
case PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED:
/* increase max_hazard to RESTRICTED */
Assert(context->max_hazard != PROPARALLEL_UNSAFE);
context->max_hazard = proparallel;
/* done if we are not expecting any unsafe functions */
if (context->max_interesting == proparallel)
return true;
break;
case PROPARALLEL_UNSAFE:
context->max_hazard = proparallel;
/* we're always done at the first unsafe construct */
return true;
default:
elog(ERROR, "unrecognized proparallel value \"%c\"", proparallel);
break;
}
return false;
}
/* check_functions_in_node callback */
static bool
max_parallel_hazard_checker(Oid func_id, void *context)
{
return max_parallel_hazard_test(func_parallel(func_id),
(max_parallel_hazard_context *) context);
}
static bool
max_parallel_hazard_walker(Node *node, max_parallel_hazard_context *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
/* Check for hazardous functions in node itself */
if (check_functions_in_node(node, max_parallel_hazard_checker,
context))
return true;
/*
* It should be OK to treat MinMaxExpr as parallel-safe, since btree
* opclass support functions are generally parallel-safe. XmlExpr is a
* bit more dubious but we can probably get away with it. We err on the
* side of caution by treating CoerceToDomain as parallel-restricted.
* (Note: in principle that's wrong because a domain constraint could
* contain a parallel-unsafe function; but useful constraints probably
* never would have such, and assuming they do would cripple use of
* parallel query in the presence of domain types.) SQLValueFunction
* should be safe in all cases. NextValueExpr is parallel-unsafe.
*/
if (IsA(node, CoerceToDomain))
{
if (max_parallel_hazard_test(PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED, context))
return true;
}
else if (IsA(node, NextValueExpr))
{
if (max_parallel_hazard_test(PROPARALLEL_UNSAFE, context))
return true;
}
/*
* Treat window functions as parallel-restricted because we aren't sure
* whether the input row ordering is fully deterministic, and the output
* of window functions might vary across workers if not. (In some cases,
* like where the window frame orders by a primary key, we could relax
* this restriction. But it doesn't currently seem worth expending extra
* effort to do so.)
*/
else if (IsA(node, WindowFunc))
{
if (max_parallel_hazard_test(PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED, context))
return true;
}
/*
* As a notational convenience for callers, look through RestrictInfo.
*/
else if (IsA(node, RestrictInfo))
{
RestrictInfo *rinfo = (RestrictInfo *) node;
return max_parallel_hazard_walker((Node *) rinfo->clause, context);
}
/*
* Really we should not see SubLink during a max_interesting == restricted
* scan, but if we do, return true.
*/
else if (IsA(node, SubLink))
{
if (max_parallel_hazard_test(PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED, context))
return true;
}
/*
* Only parallel-safe SubPlans can be sent to workers. Within the
* testexpr of the SubPlan, Params representing the output columns of the
* subplan can be treated as parallel-safe, so temporarily add their IDs
* to the safe_param_ids list while examining the testexpr.
*/
else if (IsA(node, SubPlan))
{
SubPlan *subplan = (SubPlan *) node;
List *save_safe_param_ids;
if (!subplan->parallel_safe &&
max_parallel_hazard_test(PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED, context))
return true;
save_safe_param_ids = context->safe_param_ids;
context->safe_param_ids = list_concat(list_copy(subplan->paramIds),
context->safe_param_ids);
if (max_parallel_hazard_walker(subplan->testexpr, context))
return true; /* no need to restore safe_param_ids */
context->safe_param_ids = save_safe_param_ids;
/* we must also check args, but no special Param treatment there */
if (max_parallel_hazard_walker((Node *) subplan->args, context))
return true;
/* don't want to recurse normally, so we're done */
return false;
}
/*
* We can't pass Params to workers at the moment either, so they are also
* parallel-restricted, unless they are PARAM_EXTERN Params or are
* PARAM_EXEC Params listed in safe_param_ids, meaning they could be
* either generated within the worker or can be computed in master and
* then their value can be passed to the worker.
*/
else if (IsA(node, Param))
{
Param *param = (Param *) node;
if (param->paramkind == PARAM_EXTERN)
return false;
if (param->paramkind != PARAM_EXEC ||
!list_member_int(context->safe_param_ids, param->paramid))
{
if (max_parallel_hazard_test(PROPARALLEL_RESTRICTED, context))
return true;
}
return false; /* nothing to recurse to */
}
/*
* When we're first invoked on a completely unplanned tree, we must
* recurse into subqueries so to as to locate parallel-unsafe constructs
* anywhere in the tree.
*/
else if (IsA(node, Query))
{
Query *query = (Query *) node;
/* SELECT FOR UPDATE/SHARE must be treated as unsafe */
if (query->rowMarks != NULL)
{
context->max_hazard = PROPARALLEL_UNSAFE;
return true;
}
/* Recurse into subselects */
return query_tree_walker(query,
max_parallel_hazard_walker,
context, 0);
}
/* Recurse to check arguments */
return expression_tree_walker(node,
max_parallel_hazard_walker,
context);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Check clauses for nonstrict functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_nonstrict_functions
* Recursively search for nonstrict functions within a clause.
*
* Returns true if any nonstrict construct is found --- ie, anything that
* could produce non-NULL output with a NULL input.
*
* The idea here is that the caller has verified that the expression contains
* one or more Var or Param nodes (as appropriate for the caller's need), and
* now wishes to prove that the expression result will be NULL if any of these
* inputs is NULL. If we return false, then the proof succeeded.
*/
bool
contain_nonstrict_functions(Node *clause)
{
return contain_nonstrict_functions_walker(clause, NULL);
}
static bool
contain_nonstrict_functions_checker(Oid func_id, void *context)
{
return !func_strict(func_id);
}
static bool
contain_nonstrict_functions_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
if (IsA(node, Aggref))
{
/* an aggregate could return non-null with null input */
return true;
}
if (IsA(node, GroupingFunc))
{
/*
* A GroupingFunc doesn't evaluate its arguments, and therefore must
* be treated as nonstrict.
*/
return true;
}
if (IsA(node, WindowFunc))
{
/* a window function could return non-null with null input */
return true;
}
if (IsA(node, ArrayRef))
{
/* array assignment is nonstrict, but subscripting is strict */
if (((ArrayRef *) node)->refassgnexpr != NULL)
return true;
/* else fall through to check args */
}
if (IsA(node, DistinctExpr))
{
/* IS DISTINCT FROM is inherently non-strict */
return true;
}
if (IsA(node, NullIfExpr))
{
/* NULLIF is inherently non-strict */
return true;
}
if (IsA(node, BoolExpr))
{
BoolExpr *expr = (BoolExpr *) node;
switch (expr->boolop)
{
case AND_EXPR:
case OR_EXPR:
/* AND, OR are inherently non-strict */
return true;
default:
break;
}
}
if (IsA(node, SubLink))
{
/* In some cases a sublink might be strict, but in general not */
return true;
}
if (IsA(node, SubPlan))
return true;
if (IsA(node, AlternativeSubPlan))
return true;
if (IsA(node, FieldStore))
return true;
if (IsA(node, ArrayCoerceExpr))
{
/*
* ArrayCoerceExpr is strict at the array level, regardless of what
* the per-element expression is; so we should ignore elemexpr and
* recurse only into the arg.
*/
return expression_tree_walker((Node *) ((ArrayCoerceExpr *) node)->arg,
contain_nonstrict_functions_walker,
context);
}
if (IsA(node, CaseExpr))
return true;
if (IsA(node, ArrayExpr))
return true;
if (IsA(node, RowExpr))
return true;
if (IsA(node, RowCompareExpr))
return true;
if (IsA(node, CoalesceExpr))
return true;
if (IsA(node, MinMaxExpr))
return true;
if (IsA(node, XmlExpr))
return true;
if (IsA(node, NullTest))
return true;
if (IsA(node, BooleanTest))
return true;
/* Check other function-containing nodes */
if (check_functions_in_node(node, contain_nonstrict_functions_checker,
context))
return true;
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_nonstrict_functions_walker,
context);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Check clauses for context-dependent nodes
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_context_dependent_node
* Recursively search for context-dependent nodes within a clause.
*
* CaseTestExpr nodes must appear directly within the corresponding CaseExpr,
* not nested within another one, or they'll see the wrong test value. If one
* appears "bare" in the arguments of a SQL function, then we can't inline the
* SQL function for fear of creating such a situation. The same applies for
* CaseTestExpr used within the elemexpr of an ArrayCoerceExpr.
*
* CoerceToDomainValue would have the same issue if domain CHECK expressions
* could get inlined into larger expressions, but presently that's impossible.
* Still, it might be allowed in future, or other node types with similar
* issues might get invented. So give this function a generic name, and set
* up the recursion state to allow multiple flag bits.
*/
static bool
contain_context_dependent_node(Node *clause)
{
int flags = 0;
return contain_context_dependent_node_walker(clause, &flags);
}
#define CCDN_CASETESTEXPR_OK 0x0001 /* CaseTestExpr okay here? */
static bool
contain_context_dependent_node_walker(Node *node, int *flags)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
if (IsA(node, CaseTestExpr))
return !(*flags & CCDN_CASETESTEXPR_OK);
else if (IsA(node, CaseExpr))
{
CaseExpr *caseexpr = (CaseExpr *) node;
/*
* If this CASE doesn't have a test expression, then it doesn't create
* a context in which CaseTestExprs should appear, so just fall
* through and treat it as a generic expression node.
*/
if (caseexpr->arg)
{
int save_flags = *flags;
bool res;
/*
* Note: in principle, we could distinguish the various sub-parts
* of a CASE construct and set the flag bit only for some of them,
* since we are only expecting CaseTestExprs to appear in the
* "expr" subtree of the CaseWhen nodes. But it doesn't really
* seem worth any extra code. If there are any bare CaseTestExprs
* elsewhere in the CASE, something's wrong already.
*/
*flags |= CCDN_CASETESTEXPR_OK;
res = expression_tree_walker(node,
contain_context_dependent_node_walker,
(void *) flags);
*flags = save_flags;
return res;
}
}
else if (IsA(node, ArrayCoerceExpr))
{
ArrayCoerceExpr *ac = (ArrayCoerceExpr *) node;
int save_flags;
bool res;
/* Check the array expression */
if (contain_context_dependent_node_walker((Node *) ac->arg, flags))
return true;
/* Check the elemexpr, which is allowed to contain CaseTestExpr */
save_flags = *flags;
*flags |= CCDN_CASETESTEXPR_OK;
res = contain_context_dependent_node_walker((Node *) ac->elemexpr,
flags);
*flags = save_flags;
return res;
}
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_context_dependent_node_walker,
(void *) flags);
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Check clauses for Vars passed to non-leakproof functions
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* contain_leaked_vars
* Recursively scan a clause to discover whether it contains any Var
* nodes (of the current query level) that are passed as arguments to
* leaky functions.
*
* Returns true if the clause contains any non-leakproof functions that are
* passed Var nodes of the current query level, and which might therefore leak
* data. Such clauses must be applied after any lower-level security barrier
* clauses.
*/
bool
contain_leaked_vars(Node *clause)
{
return contain_leaked_vars_walker(clause, NULL);
}
static bool
contain_leaked_vars_checker(Oid func_id, void *context)
{
return !get_func_leakproof(func_id);
}
static bool
contain_leaked_vars_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
switch (nodeTag(node))
{
case T_Var:
case T_Const:
case T_Param:
case T_ArrayRef:
case T_ArrayExpr:
case T_FieldSelect:
case T_FieldStore:
case T_NamedArgExpr:
case T_BoolExpr:
case T_RelabelType:
case T_CollateExpr:
case T_CaseExpr:
case T_CaseTestExpr:
case T_RowExpr:
case T_SQLValueFunction:
case T_NullTest:
case T_BooleanTest:
case T_NextValueExpr:
case T_List:
/*
* We know these node types don't contain function calls; but
* something further down in the node tree might.
*/
break;
case T_FuncExpr:
case T_OpExpr:
case T_DistinctExpr:
case T_NullIfExpr:
case T_ScalarArrayOpExpr:
case T_CoerceViaIO:
case T_ArrayCoerceExpr:
/*
* If node contains a leaky function call, and there's any Var
* underneath it, reject.
*/
if (check_functions_in_node(node, contain_leaked_vars_checker,
context) &&
contain_var_clause(node))
return true;
break;
case T_RowCompareExpr:
{
/*
* It's worth special-casing this because a leaky comparison
* function only compromises one pair of row elements, which
* might not contain Vars while others do.
*/
RowCompareExpr *rcexpr = (RowCompareExpr *) node;
ListCell *opid;
ListCell *larg;
ListCell *rarg;
forthree(opid, rcexpr->opnos,
larg, rcexpr->largs,
rarg, rcexpr->rargs)
{
Oid funcid = get_opcode(lfirst_oid(opid));
if (!get_func_leakproof(funcid) &&
(contain_var_clause((Node *) lfirst(larg)) ||
contain_var_clause((Node *) lfirst(rarg))))
return true;
}
}
break;
case T_MinMaxExpr:
{
/*
* MinMaxExpr is leakproof if the comparison function it calls
* is leakproof.
*/
MinMaxExpr *minmaxexpr = (MinMaxExpr *) node;
TypeCacheEntry *typentry;
bool leakproof;
/* Look up the btree comparison function for the datatype */
typentry = lookup_type_cache(minmaxexpr->minmaxtype,
TYPECACHE_CMP_PROC);
if (OidIsValid(typentry->cmp_proc))
leakproof = get_func_leakproof(typentry->cmp_proc);
else
{
/*
* The executor will throw an error, but here we just
* treat the missing function as leaky.
*/
leakproof = false;
}
if (!leakproof &&
contain_var_clause((Node *) minmaxexpr->args))
return true;
}
break;
case T_CurrentOfExpr:
/*
* WHERE CURRENT OF doesn't contain leaky function calls.
* Moreover, it is essential that this is considered non-leaky,
* since the planner must always generate a TID scan when CURRENT
* OF is present -- cf. cost_tidscan.
*/
return false;
default:
/*
* If we don't recognize the node tag, assume it might be leaky.
* This prevents an unexpected security hole if someone adds a new
* node type that can call a function.
*/
return true;
}
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_leaked_vars_walker,
context);
}
/*
* find_nonnullable_rels
* Determine which base rels are forced nonnullable by given clause.
*
* Returns the set of all Relids that are referenced in the clause in such
* a way that the clause cannot possibly return TRUE if any of these Relids
* is an all-NULL row. (It is OK to err on the side of conservatism; hence
* the analysis here is simplistic.)
*
* The semantics here are subtly different from contain_nonstrict_functions:
* that function is concerned with NULL results from arbitrary expressions,
* but here we assume that the input is a Boolean expression, and wish to
* see if NULL inputs will provably cause a FALSE-or-NULL result. We expect
* the expression to have been AND/OR flattened and converted to implicit-AND
* format.
*
* Note: this function is largely duplicative of find_nonnullable_vars().
* The reason not to simplify this function into a thin wrapper around
* find_nonnullable_vars() is that the tested conditions really are different:
* a clause like "t1.v1 IS NOT NULL OR t1.v2 IS NOT NULL" does not prove
* that either v1 or v2 can't be NULL, but it does prove that the t1 row
* as a whole can't be all-NULL.
*
* top_level is true while scanning top-level AND/OR structure; here, showing
* the result is either FALSE or NULL is good enough. top_level is false when
* we have descended below a NOT or a strict function: now we must be able to
* prove that the subexpression goes to NULL.
*
* We don't use expression_tree_walker here because we don't want to descend
* through very many kinds of nodes; only the ones we can be sure are strict.
*/
Relids
find_nonnullable_rels(Node *clause)
{
return find_nonnullable_rels_walker(clause, true);
}
static Relids
find_nonnullable_rels_walker(Node *node, bool top_level)
{
Relids result = NULL;
ListCell *l;
if (node == NULL)
return NULL;
if (IsA(node, Var))
{
Var *var = (Var *) node;
if (var->varlevelsup == 0)
result = bms_make_singleton(var->varno);
}
else if (IsA(node, List))
{
/*
* At top level, we are examining an implicit-AND list: if any of the
* arms produces FALSE-or-NULL then the result is FALSE-or-NULL. If
* not at top level, we are examining the arguments of a strict
* function: if any of them produce NULL then the result of the
* function must be NULL. So in both cases, the set of nonnullable
* rels is the union of those found in the arms, and we pass down the
* top_level flag unmodified.
*/
foreach(l, (List *) node)
{
result = bms_join(result,
find_nonnullable_rels_walker(lfirst(l),
top_level));
}
}
else if (IsA(node, FuncExpr))
{
FuncExpr *expr = (FuncExpr *) node;
if (func_strict(expr->funcid))
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->args, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, OpExpr))
{
OpExpr *expr = (OpExpr *) node;
set_opfuncid(expr);
if (func_strict(expr->opfuncid))
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->args, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, ScalarArrayOpExpr))
{
ScalarArrayOpExpr *expr = (ScalarArrayOpExpr *) node;
if (is_strict_saop(expr, true))
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->args, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, BoolExpr))
{
BoolExpr *expr = (BoolExpr *) node;
switch (expr->boolop)
{
case AND_EXPR:
/* At top level we can just recurse (to the List case) */
if (top_level)
{
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->args,
top_level);
break;
}
/*
* Below top level, even if one arm produces NULL, the result
* could be FALSE (hence not NULL). However, if *all* the
* arms produce NULL then the result is NULL, so we can take
* the intersection of the sets of nonnullable rels, just as
* for OR. Fall through to share code.
*/
/* FALL THRU */
case OR_EXPR:
/*
* OR is strict if all of its arms are, so we can take the
* intersection of the sets of nonnullable rels for each arm.
* This works for both values of top_level.
*/
foreach(l, expr->args)
{
Relids subresult;
subresult = find_nonnullable_rels_walker(lfirst(l),
top_level);
if (result == NULL) /* first subresult? */
result = subresult;
else
result = bms_int_members(result, subresult);
/*
* If the intersection is empty, we can stop looking. This
* also justifies the test for first-subresult above.
*/
if (bms_is_empty(result))
break;
}
break;
case NOT_EXPR:
/* NOT will return null if its arg is null */
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->args,
false);
break;
default:
elog(ERROR, "unrecognized boolop: %d", (int) expr->boolop);
break;
}
}
else if (IsA(node, RelabelType))
{
RelabelType *expr = (RelabelType *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, CoerceViaIO))
{
/* not clear this is useful, but it can't hurt */
CoerceViaIO *expr = (CoerceViaIO *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, ArrayCoerceExpr))
{
/* ArrayCoerceExpr is strict at the array level; ignore elemexpr */
ArrayCoerceExpr *expr = (ArrayCoerceExpr *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, ConvertRowtypeExpr))
{
/* not clear this is useful, but it can't hurt */
ConvertRowtypeExpr *expr = (ConvertRowtypeExpr *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, CollateExpr))
{
CollateExpr *expr = (CollateExpr *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, NullTest))
{
/* IS NOT NULL can be considered strict, but only at top level */
NullTest *expr = (NullTest *) node;
if (top_level && expr->nulltesttype == IS_NOT_NULL && !expr->argisrow)
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->arg, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, BooleanTest))
{
/* Boolean tests that reject NULL are strict at top level */
BooleanTest *expr = (BooleanTest *) node;
if (top_level &&
(expr->booltesttype == IS_TRUE ||
expr->booltesttype == IS_FALSE ||
expr->booltesttype == IS_NOT_UNKNOWN))
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) expr->arg, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, PlaceHolderVar))
{
PlaceHolderVar *phv = (PlaceHolderVar *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_rels_walker((Node *) phv->phexpr, top_level);
}
return result;
}
/*
* find_nonnullable_vars
* Determine which Vars are forced nonnullable by given clause.
*
* Returns a list of all level-zero Vars that are referenced in the clause in
* such a way that the clause cannot possibly return TRUE if any of these Vars
* is NULL. (It is OK to err on the side of conservatism; hence the analysis
* here is simplistic.)
*
* The semantics here are subtly different from contain_nonstrict_functions:
* that function is concerned with NULL results from arbitrary expressions,
* but here we assume that the input is a Boolean expression, and wish to
* see if NULL inputs will provably cause a FALSE-or-NULL result. We expect
* the expression to have been AND/OR flattened and converted to implicit-AND
* format.
*
* The result is a palloc'd List, but we have not copied the member Var nodes.
* Also, we don't bother trying to eliminate duplicate entries.
*
* top_level is true while scanning top-level AND/OR structure; here, showing
* the result is either FALSE or NULL is good enough. top_level is false when
* we have descended below a NOT or a strict function: now we must be able to
* prove that the subexpression goes to NULL.
*
* We don't use expression_tree_walker here because we don't want to descend
* through very many kinds of nodes; only the ones we can be sure are strict.
*/
List *
find_nonnullable_vars(Node *clause)
{
return find_nonnullable_vars_walker(clause, true);
}
static List *
find_nonnullable_vars_walker(Node *node, bool top_level)
{
List *result = NIL;
ListCell *l;
if (node == NULL)
return NIL;
if (IsA(node, Var))
{
Var *var = (Var *) node;
if (var->varlevelsup == 0)
result = list_make1(var);
}
else if (IsA(node, List))
{
/*
* At top level, we are examining an implicit-AND list: if any of the
* arms produces FALSE-or-NULL then the result is FALSE-or-NULL. If
* not at top level, we are examining the arguments of a strict
* function: if any of them produce NULL then the result of the
* function must be NULL. So in both cases, the set of nonnullable
* vars is the union of those found in the arms, and we pass down the
* top_level flag unmodified.
*/
foreach(l, (List *) node)
{
result = list_concat(result,
find_nonnullable_vars_walker(lfirst(l),
top_level));
}
}
else if (IsA(node, FuncExpr))
{
FuncExpr *expr = (FuncExpr *) node;
if (func_strict(expr->funcid))
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->args, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, OpExpr))
{
OpExpr *expr = (OpExpr *) node;
set_opfuncid(expr);
if (func_strict(expr->opfuncid))
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->args, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, ScalarArrayOpExpr))
{
ScalarArrayOpExpr *expr = (ScalarArrayOpExpr *) node;
if (is_strict_saop(expr, true))
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->args, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, BoolExpr))
{
BoolExpr *expr = (BoolExpr *) node;
switch (expr->boolop)
{
case AND_EXPR:
/* At top level we can just recurse (to the List case) */
if (top_level)
{
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->args,
top_level);
break;
}
/*
* Below top level, even if one arm produces NULL, the result
* could be FALSE (hence not NULL). However, if *all* the
* arms produce NULL then the result is NULL, so we can take
* the intersection of the sets of nonnullable vars, just as
* for OR. Fall through to share code.
*/
/* FALL THRU */
case OR_EXPR:
/*
* OR is strict if all of its arms are, so we can take the
* intersection of the sets of nonnullable vars for each arm.
* This works for both values of top_level.
*/
foreach(l, expr->args)
{
List *subresult;
subresult = find_nonnullable_vars_walker(lfirst(l),
top_level);
if (result == NIL) /* first subresult? */
result = subresult;
else
result = list_intersection(result, subresult);
/*
* If the intersection is empty, we can stop looking. This
* also justifies the test for first-subresult above.
*/
if (result == NIL)
break;
}
break;
case NOT_EXPR:
/* NOT will return null if its arg is null */
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->args,
false);
break;
default:
elog(ERROR, "unrecognized boolop: %d", (int) expr->boolop);
break;
}
}
else if (IsA(node, RelabelType))
{
RelabelType *expr = (RelabelType *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, CoerceViaIO))
{
/* not clear this is useful, but it can't hurt */
CoerceViaIO *expr = (CoerceViaIO *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->arg, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, ArrayCoerceExpr))
{
/* ArrayCoerceExpr is strict at the array level; ignore elemexpr */
ArrayCoerceExpr *expr = (ArrayCoerceExpr *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, ConvertRowtypeExpr))
{
/* not clear this is useful, but it can't hurt */
ConvertRowtypeExpr *expr = (ConvertRowtypeExpr *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, CollateExpr))
{
CollateExpr *expr = (CollateExpr *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->arg, top_level);
}
else if (IsA(node, NullTest))
{
/* IS NOT NULL can be considered strict, but only at top level */
NullTest *expr = (NullTest *) node;
if (top_level && expr->nulltesttype == IS_NOT_NULL && !expr->argisrow)
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->arg, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, BooleanTest))
{
/* Boolean tests that reject NULL are strict at top level */
BooleanTest *expr = (BooleanTest *) node;
if (top_level &&
(expr->booltesttype == IS_TRUE ||
expr->booltesttype == IS_FALSE ||
expr->booltesttype == IS_NOT_UNKNOWN))
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) expr->arg, false);
}
else if (IsA(node, PlaceHolderVar))
{
PlaceHolderVar *phv = (PlaceHolderVar *) node;
result = find_nonnullable_vars_walker((Node *) phv->phexpr, top_level);
}
return result;
}
/*
* find_forced_null_vars
* Determine which Vars must be NULL for the given clause to return TRUE.
*
* This is the complement of find_nonnullable_vars: find the level-zero Vars
* that must be NULL for the clause to return TRUE. (It is OK to err on the
* side of conservatism; hence the analysis here is simplistic. In fact,
* we only detect simple "var IS NULL" tests at the top level.)
*
* The result is a palloc'd List, but we have not copied the member Var nodes.
* Also, we don't bother trying to eliminate duplicate entries.
*/
List *
find_forced_null_vars(Node *node)
{
List *result = NIL;
Var *var;
ListCell *l;
if (node == NULL)
return NIL;
/* Check single-clause cases using subroutine */
var = find_forced_null_var(node);
if (var)
{
result = list_make1(var);
}
/* Otherwise, handle AND-conditions */
else if (IsA(node, List))
{
/*
* At top level, we are examining an implicit-AND list: if any of the
* arms produces FALSE-or-NULL then the result is FALSE-or-NULL.
*/
foreach(l, (List *) node)
{
result = list_concat(result,
find_forced_null_vars(lfirst(l)));
}
}
else if (IsA(node, BoolExpr))
{
BoolExpr *expr = (BoolExpr *) node;
/*
* We don't bother considering the OR case, because it's fairly
* unlikely anyone would write "v1 IS NULL OR v1 IS NULL". Likewise,
* the NOT case isn't worth expending code on.
*/
if (expr->boolop == AND_EXPR)
{
/* At top level we can just recurse (to the List case) */
result = find_forced_null_vars((Node *) expr->args);
}
}
return result;
}
/*
* find_forced_null_var
* Return the Var forced null by the given clause, or NULL if it's
* not an IS NULL-type clause. For success, the clause must enforce
* *only* nullness of the particular Var, not any other conditions.
*
* This is just the single-clause case of find_forced_null_vars(), without
* any allowance for AND conditions. It's used by initsplan.c on individual
* qual clauses. The reason for not just applying find_forced_null_vars()
* is that if an AND of an IS NULL clause with something else were to somehow
* survive AND/OR flattening, initsplan.c might get fooled into discarding
* the whole clause when only the IS NULL part of it had been proved redundant.
*/
Var *
find_forced_null_var(Node *node)
{
if (node == NULL)
return NULL;
if (IsA(node, NullTest))
{
/* check for var IS NULL */
NullTest *expr = (NullTest *) node;
if (expr->nulltesttype == IS_NULL && !expr->argisrow)
{
Var *var = (Var *) expr->arg;
if (var && IsA(var, Var) &&
var->varlevelsup == 0)
return var;
}
}
else if (IsA(node, BooleanTest))
{
/* var IS UNKNOWN is equivalent to var IS NULL */
BooleanTest *expr = (BooleanTest *) node;
if (expr->booltesttype == IS_UNKNOWN)
{
Var *var = (Var *) expr->arg;
if (var && IsA(var, Var) &&
var->varlevelsup == 0)
return var;
}
}
return NULL;
}
/*
* Can we treat a ScalarArrayOpExpr as strict?
*
* If "falseOK" is true, then a "false" result can be considered strict,
* else we need to guarantee an actual NULL result for NULL input.
*
* "foo op ALL array" is strict if the op is strict *and* we can prove
* that the array input isn't an empty array. We can check that
* for the cases of an array constant and an ARRAY[] construct.
*
* "foo op ANY array" is strict in the falseOK sense if the op is strict.
* If not falseOK, the test is the same as for "foo op ALL array".
*/
static bool
is_strict_saop(ScalarArrayOpExpr *expr, bool falseOK)
{
Node *rightop;
/* The contained operator must be strict. */
set_sa_opfuncid(expr);
if (!func_strict(expr->opfuncid))
return false;
/* If ANY and falseOK, that's all we need to check. */
if (expr->useOr && falseOK)
return true;
/* Else, we have to see if the array is provably non-empty. */
Assert(list_length(expr->args) == 2);
rightop = (Node *) lsecond(expr->args);
if (rightop && IsA(rightop, Const))
{
Datum arraydatum = ((Const *) rightop)->constvalue;
bool arrayisnull = ((Const *) rightop)->constisnull;
ArrayType *arrayval;
int nitems;
if (arrayisnull)
return false;
arrayval = DatumGetArrayTypeP(arraydatum);
nitems = ArrayGetNItems(ARR_NDIM(arrayval), ARR_DIMS(arrayval));
if (nitems > 0)
return true;
}
else if (rightop && IsA(rightop, ArrayExpr))
{
ArrayExpr *arrayexpr = (ArrayExpr *) rightop;
if (arrayexpr->elements != NIL && !arrayexpr->multidims)
return true;
}
return false;
}
/*****************************************************************************
* Check for "pseudo-constant" clauses
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* is_pseudo_constant_clause
* Detect whether an expression is "pseudo constant", ie, it contains no
* variables of the current query level and no uses of volatile functions.
* Such an expr is not necessarily a true constant: it can still contain
* Params and outer-level Vars, not to mention functions whose results
* may vary from one statement to the next. However, the expr's value
* will be constant over any one scan of the current query, so it can be
* used as, eg, an indexscan key.
*
* CAUTION: this function omits to test for one very important class of
* not-constant expressions, namely aggregates (Aggrefs). In current usage
* this is only applied to WHERE clauses and so a check for Aggrefs would be
* a waste of cycles; but be sure to also check contain_agg_clause() if you
* want to know about pseudo-constness in other contexts. The same goes
* for window functions (WindowFuncs).
*/
bool
is_pseudo_constant_clause(Node *clause)
{
/*
* We could implement this check in one recursive scan. But since the
* check for volatile functions is both moderately expensive and unlikely
* to fail, it seems better to look for Vars first and only check for
* volatile functions if we find no Vars.
*/
if (!contain_var_clause(clause) &&
!contain_volatile_functions(clause))
return true;
return false;
}
/*
* is_pseudo_constant_clause_relids
* Same as above, except caller already has available the var membership
* of the expression; this lets us avoid the contain_var_clause() scan.
*/
bool
is_pseudo_constant_clause_relids(Node *clause, Relids relids)
{
if (bms_is_empty(relids) &&
!contain_volatile_functions(clause))
return true;
return false;
}
/*****************************************************************************
* *
* General clause-manipulating routines *
* *
*****************************************************************************/
/*
* NumRelids
* (formerly clause_relids)
*
* Returns the number of different relations referenced in 'clause'.
*/
int
NumRelids(Node *clause)
{
Relids varnos = pull_varnos(clause);
int result = bms_num_members(varnos);
bms_free(varnos);
return result;
}
/*
* CommuteOpExpr: commute a binary operator clause
*
* XXX the clause is destructively modified!
*/
void
CommuteOpExpr(OpExpr *clause)
{
Oid opoid;
Node *temp;
/* Sanity checks: caller is at fault if these fail */
if (!is_opclause(clause) ||
list_length(clause->args) != 2)
elog(ERROR, "cannot commute non-binary-operator clause");
opoid = get_commutator(clause->opno);
if (!OidIsValid(opoid))
elog(ERROR, "could not find commutator for operator %u",
clause->opno);
/*
* modify the clause in-place!
*/
clause->opno = opoid;
clause->opfuncid = InvalidOid;
/* opresulttype, opretset, opcollid, inputcollid need not change */
temp = linitial(clause->args);
linitial(clause->args) = lsecond(clause->args);
lsecond(clause->args) = temp;
}
/*
* CommuteRowCompareExpr: commute a RowCompareExpr clause
*
* XXX the clause is destructively modified!
*/
void
CommuteRowCompareExpr(RowCompareExpr *clause)
{
List *newops;
List *temp;
ListCell *l;
/* Sanity checks: caller is at fault if these fail */
if (!IsA(clause, RowCompareExpr))
elog(ERROR, "expected a RowCompareExpr");
/* Build list of commuted operators */
newops = NIL;
foreach(l, clause->opnos)
{
Oid opoid = lfirst_oid(l);
opoid = get_commutator(opoid);
if (!OidIsValid(opoid))
elog(ERROR, "could not find commutator for operator %u",
lfirst_oid(l));
newops = lappend_oid(newops, opoid);
}
/*
* modify the clause in-place!
*/
switch (clause->rctype)
{
case ROWCOMPARE_LT:
clause->rctype = ROWCOMPARE_GT;
break;
case ROWCOMPARE_LE:
clause->rctype = ROWCOMPARE_GE;
break;
case ROWCOMPARE_GE:
clause->rctype = ROWCOMPARE_LE;
break;
case ROWCOMPARE_GT:
clause->rctype = ROWCOMPARE_LT;
break;
default:
elog(ERROR, "unexpected RowCompare type: %d",
(int) clause->rctype);
break;
}
clause->opnos = newops;
/*
* Note: we need not change the opfamilies list; we assume any btree
* opfamily containing an operator will also contain its commutator.
* Collations don't change either.
*/
temp = clause->largs;
clause->largs = clause->rargs;
clause->rargs = temp;
}
/*
* Helper for eval_const_expressions: check that datatype of an attribute
* is still what it was when the expression was parsed. This is needed to
* guard against improper simplification after ALTER COLUMN TYPE. (XXX we
* may well need to make similar checks elsewhere?)
*
* rowtypeid may come from a whole-row Var, and therefore it can be a domain
* over composite, but for this purpose we only care about checking the type
* of a contained field.
*/
static bool
rowtype_field_matches(Oid rowtypeid, int fieldnum,
Oid expectedtype, int32 expectedtypmod,
Oid expectedcollation)
{
TupleDesc tupdesc;
Form_pg_attribute attr;
/* No issue for RECORD, since there is no way to ALTER such a type */
if (rowtypeid == RECORDOID)
return true;
tupdesc = lookup_rowtype_tupdesc_domain(rowtypeid, -1, false);
if (fieldnum <= 0 || fieldnum > tupdesc->natts)
{
ReleaseTupleDesc(tupdesc);
return false;
}
attr = TupleDescAttr(tupdesc, fieldnum - 1);
if (attr->attisdropped ||
attr->atttypid != expectedtype ||
attr->atttypmod != expectedtypmod ||
attr->attcollation != expectedcollation)
{
ReleaseTupleDesc(tupdesc);
return false;
}
ReleaseTupleDesc(tupdesc);
return true;
}
/*--------------------
* eval_const_expressions
*
* Reduce any recognizably constant subexpressions of the given
* expression tree, for example "2 + 2" => "4". More interestingly,
* we can reduce certain boolean expressions even when they contain
* non-constant subexpressions: "x OR true" => "true" no matter what
* the subexpression x is. (XXX We assume that no such subexpression
* will have important side-effects, which is not necessarily a good
* assumption in the presence of user-defined functions; do we need a
* pg_proc flag that prevents discarding the execution of a function?)
*
* We do understand that certain functions may deliver non-constant
* results even with constant inputs, "nextval()" being the classic
* example. Functions that are not marked "immutable" in pg_proc
* will not be pre-evaluated here, although we will reduce their
* arguments as far as possible.
*
* Whenever a function is eliminated from the expression by means of
* constant-expression evaluation or inlining, we add the function to
* root->glob->invalItems. This ensures the plan is known to depend on
* such functions, even though they aren't referenced anymore.
*
* We assume that the tree has already been type-checked and contains
* only operators and functions that are reasonable to try to execute.
*
* NOTE: "root" can be passed as NULL if the caller never wants to do any
* Param substitutions nor receive info about inlined functions.
*
* NOTE: the planner assumes that this will always flatten nested AND and
* OR clauses into N-argument form. See comments in prepqual.c.
*
* NOTE: another critical effect is that any function calls that require
* default arguments will be expanded, and named-argument calls will be
* converted to positional notation. The executor won't handle either.
*--------------------
*/
Node *
eval_const_expressions(PlannerInfo *root, Node *node)
{
eval_const_expressions_context context;
if (root)
context.boundParams = root->glob->boundParams; /* bound Params */
else
context.boundParams = NULL;
context.root = root; /* for inlined-function dependencies */
context.active_fns = NIL; /* nothing being recursively simplified */
context.case_val = NULL; /* no CASE being examined */
context.estimate = false; /* safe transformations only */
return eval_const_expressions_mutator(node, &context);
}
/*--------------------
* estimate_expression_value
*
* This function attempts to estimate the value of an expression for
* planning purposes. It is in essence a more aggressive version of
* eval_const_expressions(): we will perform constant reductions that are
* not necessarily 100% safe, but are reasonable for estimation purposes.
*
* Currently the extra steps that are taken in this mode are:
* 1. Substitute values for Params, where a bound Param value has been made
* available by the caller of planner(), even if the Param isn't marked
* constant. This effectively means that we plan using the first supplied
* value of the Param.
* 2. Fold stable, as well as immutable, functions to constants.
* 3. Reduce PlaceHolderVar nodes to their contained expressions.
*--------------------
*/
Node *
estimate_expression_value(PlannerInfo *root, Node *node)
{
eval_const_expressions_context context;
context.boundParams = root->glob->boundParams; /* bound Params */
/* we do not need to mark the plan as depending on inlined functions */
context.root = NULL;
context.active_fns = NIL; /* nothing being recursively simplified */
context.case_val = NULL; /* no CASE being examined */
context.estimate = true; /* unsafe transformations OK */
return eval_const_expressions_mutator(node, &context);
}
/*
* The generic case in eval_const_expressions_mutator is to recurse using
* expression_tree_mutator, which will copy the given node unchanged but
* const-simplify its arguments (if any) as far as possible. If the node
* itself does immutable processing, and each of its arguments were reduced
* to a Const, we can then reduce it to a Const using evaluate_expr. (Some
* node types need more complicated logic; for example, a CASE expression
* might be reducible to a constant even if not all its subtrees are.)
*/
#define ece_generic_processing(node) \
expression_tree_mutator((Node *) (node), eval_const_expressions_mutator, \
(void *) context)
/*
* Check whether all arguments of the given node were reduced to Consts.
* By going directly to expression_tree_walker, contain_non_const_walker
* is not applied to the node itself, only to its children.
*/
#define ece_all_arguments_const(node) \
(!expression_tree_walker((Node *) (node), contain_non_const_walker, NULL))
/* Generic macro for applying evaluate_expr */
#define ece_evaluate_expr(node) \
((Node *) evaluate_expr((Expr *) (node), \
exprType((Node *) (node)), \
exprTypmod((Node *) (node)), \
exprCollation((Node *) (node))))
/*
* Recursive guts of eval_const_expressions/estimate_expression_value
*/
static Node *
eval_const_expressions_mutator(Node *node,
eval_const_expressions_context *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return NULL;
switch (nodeTag(node))
{
case T_Param:
{
Param *param = (Param *) node;
ParamListInfo paramLI = context->boundParams;
/* Look to see if we've been given a value for this Param */
if (param->paramkind == PARAM_EXTERN &&
paramLI != NULL &&
param->paramid > 0 &&
param->paramid <= paramLI->numParams)
{
ParamExternData *prm;
ParamExternData prmdata;
/*
* Give hook a chance in case parameter is dynamic. Tell
* it that this fetch is speculative, so it should avoid
* erroring out if parameter is unavailable.
*/
if (paramLI->paramFetch != NULL)
prm = paramLI->paramFetch(paramLI, param->paramid,
true, &prmdata);
else
prm = &paramLI->params[param->paramid - 1];
/*
* We don't just check OidIsValid, but insist that the
* fetched type match the Param, just in case the hook did
* something unexpected. No need to throw an error here
* though; leave that for runtime.
*/
if (OidIsValid(prm->ptype) &&
prm->ptype == param->paramtype)
{
/* OK to substitute parameter value? */
if (context->estimate ||
(prm->pflags & PARAM_FLAG_CONST))
{
/*
* Return a Const representing the param value.
* Must copy pass-by-ref datatypes, since the
* Param might be in a memory context
* shorter-lived than our output plan should be.
*/
int16 typLen;
bool typByVal;
Datum pval;
get_typlenbyval(param->paramtype,
&typLen, &typByVal);
if (prm->isnull || typByVal)
pval = prm->value;
else
pval = datumCopy(prm->value, typByVal, typLen);
return (Node *) makeConst(param->paramtype,
param->paramtypmod,
param->paramcollid,
(int) typLen,
pval,
prm->isnull,
typByVal);
}
}
}
/*
* Not replaceable, so just copy the Param (no need to
* recurse)
*/
return (Node *) copyObject(param);
}
case T_WindowFunc:
{
WindowFunc *expr = (WindowFunc *) node;
Oid funcid = expr->winfnoid;
List *args;
Expr *aggfilter;
HeapTuple func_tuple;
WindowFunc *newexpr;
/*
* We can't really simplify a WindowFunc node, but we mustn't
* just fall through to the default processing, because we
* have to apply expand_function_arguments to its argument
* list. That takes care of inserting default arguments and
* expanding named-argument notation.
*/
func_tuple = SearchSysCache1(PROCOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(funcid));
if (!HeapTupleIsValid(func_tuple))
elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for function %u", funcid);
args = expand_function_arguments(expr->args, expr->wintype,
func_tuple);
ReleaseSysCache(func_tuple);
/* Now, recursively simplify the args (which are a List) */
args = (List *)
expression_tree_mutator((Node *) args,
eval_const_expressions_mutator,
(void *) context);
/* ... and the filter expression, which isn't */
aggfilter = (Expr *)
eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) expr->aggfilter,
context);
/* And build the replacement WindowFunc node */
newexpr = makeNode(WindowFunc);
newexpr->winfnoid = expr->winfnoid;
newexpr->wintype = expr->wintype;
newexpr->wincollid = expr->wincollid;
newexpr->inputcollid = expr->inputcollid;
newexpr->args = args;
newexpr->aggfilter = aggfilter;
newexpr->winref = expr->winref;
newexpr->winstar = expr->winstar;
newexpr->winagg = expr->winagg;
newexpr->location = expr->location;
return (Node *) newexpr;
}
case T_FuncExpr:
{
FuncExpr *expr = (FuncExpr *) node;
List *args = expr->args;
Expr *simple;
FuncExpr *newexpr;
/*
* Code for op/func reduction is pretty bulky, so split it out
* as a separate function. Note: exprTypmod normally returns
* -1 for a FuncExpr, but not when the node is recognizably a
* length coercion; we want to preserve the typmod in the
* eventual Const if so.
*/
simple = simplify_function(expr->funcid,
expr->funcresulttype,
exprTypmod(node),
expr->funccollid,
expr->inputcollid,
&args,
expr->funcvariadic,
true,
true,
context);
if (simple) /* successfully simplified it */
return (Node *) simple;
/*
* The expression cannot be simplified any further, so build
* and return a replacement FuncExpr node using the
* possibly-simplified arguments. Note that we have also
* converted the argument list to positional notation.
*/
newexpr = makeNode(FuncExpr);
newexpr->funcid = expr->funcid;
newexpr->funcresulttype = expr->funcresulttype;
newexpr->funcretset = expr->funcretset;
newexpr->funcvariadic = expr->funcvariadic;
newexpr->funcformat = expr->funcformat;
newexpr->funccollid = expr->funccollid;
newexpr->inputcollid = expr->inputcollid;
newexpr->args = args;
newexpr->location = expr->location;
return (Node *) newexpr;
}
case T_OpExpr:
{
OpExpr *expr = (OpExpr *) node;
List *args = expr->args;
Expr *simple;
OpExpr *newexpr;
/*
* Need to get OID of underlying function. Okay to scribble
* on input to this extent.
*/
set_opfuncid(expr);
/*
* Code for op/func reduction is pretty bulky, so split it out
* as a separate function.
*/
simple = simplify_function(expr->opfuncid,
expr->opresulttype, -1,
expr->opcollid,
expr->inputcollid,
&args,
false,
true,
true,
context);
if (simple) /* successfully simplified it */
return (Node *) simple;
/*
* If the operator is boolean equality or inequality, we know
* how to simplify cases involving one constant and one
* non-constant argument.
*/
if (expr->opno == BooleanEqualOperator ||
expr->opno == BooleanNotEqualOperator)
{
simple = (Expr *) simplify_boolean_equality(expr->opno,
args);
if (simple) /* successfully simplified it */
return (Node *) simple;
}
/*
* The expression cannot be simplified any further, so build
* and return a replacement OpExpr node using the
* possibly-simplified arguments.
*/
newexpr = makeNode(OpExpr);
newexpr->opno = expr->opno;
newexpr->opfuncid = expr->opfuncid;
newexpr->opresulttype = expr->opresulttype;
newexpr->opretset = expr->opretset;
newexpr->opcollid = expr->opcollid;
newexpr->inputcollid = expr->inputcollid;
newexpr->args = args;
newexpr->location = expr->location;
return (Node *) newexpr;
}
case T_DistinctExpr:
{
DistinctExpr *expr = (DistinctExpr *) node;
List *args;
ListCell *arg;
bool has_null_input = false;
bool all_null_input = true;
bool has_nonconst_input = false;
Expr *simple;
DistinctExpr *newexpr;
/*
* Reduce constants in the DistinctExpr's arguments. We know
* args is either NIL or a List node, so we can call
* expression_tree_mutator directly rather than recursing to
* self.
*/
args = (List *) expression_tree_mutator((Node *) expr->args,
eval_const_expressions_mutator,
(void *) context);
/*
* We must do our own check for NULLs because DistinctExpr has
* different results for NULL input than the underlying
* operator does.
*/
foreach(arg, args)
{
if (IsA(lfirst(arg), Const))
{
has_null_input |= ((Const *) lfirst(arg))->constisnull;
all_null_input &= ((Const *) lfirst(arg))->constisnull;
}
else
has_nonconst_input = true;
}
/* all constants? then can optimize this out */
if (!has_nonconst_input)
{
/* all nulls? then not distinct */
if (all_null_input)
return makeBoolConst(false, false);
/* one null? then distinct */
if (has_null_input)
return makeBoolConst(true, false);
/* otherwise try to evaluate the '=' operator */
/* (NOT okay to try to inline it, though!) */
/*
* Need to get OID of underlying function. Okay to
* scribble on input to this extent.
*/
set_opfuncid((OpExpr *) expr); /* rely on struct
* equivalence */
/*
* Code for op/func reduction is pretty bulky, so split it
* out as a separate function.
*/
simple = simplify_function(expr->opfuncid,
expr->opresulttype, -1,
expr->opcollid,
expr->inputcollid,
&args,
false,
false,
false,
context);
if (simple) /* successfully simplified it */
{
/*
* Since the underlying operator is "=", must negate
* its result
*/
Const *csimple = castNode(Const, simple);
csimple->constvalue =
BoolGetDatum(!DatumGetBool(csimple->constvalue));
return (Node *) csimple;
}
}
/*
* The expression cannot be simplified any further, so build
* and return a replacement DistinctExpr node using the
* possibly-simplified arguments.
*/
newexpr = makeNode(DistinctExpr);
newexpr->opno = expr->opno;
newexpr->opfuncid = expr->opfuncid;
newexpr->opresulttype = expr->opresulttype;
newexpr->opretset = expr->opretset;
newexpr->opcollid = expr->opcollid;
newexpr->inputcollid = expr->inputcollid;
newexpr->args = args;
newexpr->location = expr->location;
return (Node *) newexpr;
}
case T_ScalarArrayOpExpr:
{
ScalarArrayOpExpr *saop;
/* Copy the node and const-simplify its arguments */
saop = (ScalarArrayOpExpr *) ece_generic_processing(node);
/* Make sure we know underlying function */
set_sa_opfuncid(saop);
/*
* If all arguments are Consts, and it's a safe function, we
* can fold to a constant
*/
if (ece_all_arguments_const(saop) &&
ece_function_is_safe(saop->opfuncid, context))
return ece_evaluate_expr(saop);
return (Node *) saop;
}
case T_BoolExpr:
{
BoolExpr *expr = (BoolExpr *) node;
switch (expr->boolop)
{
case OR_EXPR:
{
List *newargs;
bool haveNull = false;
bool forceTrue = false;
newargs = simplify_or_arguments(expr->args,
context,
&haveNull,
&forceTrue);
if (forceTrue)
return makeBoolConst(true, false);
if (haveNull)
newargs = lappend(newargs,
makeBoolConst(false, true));
/* If all the inputs are FALSE, result is FALSE */
if (newargs == NIL)
return makeBoolConst(false, false);
/*
* If only one nonconst-or-NULL input, it's the
* result
*/
if (list_length(newargs) == 1)
return (Node *) linitial(newargs);
/* Else we still need an OR node */
return (Node *) make_orclause(newargs);
}
case AND_EXPR:
{
List *newargs;
bool haveNull = false;
bool forceFalse = false;
newargs = simplify_and_arguments(expr->args,
context,
&haveNull,
&forceFalse);
if (forceFalse)
return makeBoolConst(false, false);
if (haveNull)
newargs = lappend(newargs,
makeBoolConst(false, true));
/* If all the inputs are TRUE, result is TRUE */
if (newargs == NIL)
return makeBoolConst(true, false);
/*
* If only one nonconst-or-NULL input, it's the
* result
*/
if (list_length(newargs) == 1)
return (Node *) linitial(newargs);
/* Else we still need an AND node */
return (Node *) make_andclause(newargs);
}
case NOT_EXPR:
{
Node *arg;
Assert(list_length(expr->args) == 1);
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator(linitial(expr->args),
context);
/*
* Use negate_clause() to see if we can simplify
* away the NOT.
*/
return negate_clause(arg);
}
default:
elog(ERROR, "unrecognized boolop: %d",
(int) expr->boolop);
break;
}
break;
}
case T_SubPlan:
case T_AlternativeSubPlan:
/*
* Return a SubPlan unchanged --- too late to do anything with it.
*
* XXX should we ereport() here instead? Probably this routine
* should never be invoked after SubPlan creation.
*/
return node;
case T_RelabelType:
{
/*
* If we can simplify the input to a constant, then we don't
* need the RelabelType node anymore: just change the type
* field of the Const node. Otherwise, must copy the
* RelabelType node.
*/
RelabelType *relabel = (RelabelType *) node;
Node *arg;
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) relabel->arg,
context);
/*
* If we find stacked RelabelTypes (eg, from foo :: int ::
* oid) we can discard all but the top one.
*/
while (arg && IsA(arg, RelabelType))
arg = (Node *) ((RelabelType *) arg)->arg;
if (arg && IsA(arg, Const))
{
Const *con = (Const *) arg;
con->consttype = relabel->resulttype;
con->consttypmod = relabel->resulttypmod;
con->constcollid = relabel->resultcollid;
return (Node *) con;
}
else
{
RelabelType *newrelabel = makeNode(RelabelType);
newrelabel->arg = (Expr *) arg;
newrelabel->resulttype = relabel->resulttype;
newrelabel->resulttypmod = relabel->resulttypmod;
newrelabel->resultcollid = relabel->resultcollid;
newrelabel->relabelformat = relabel->relabelformat;
newrelabel->location = relabel->location;
return (Node *) newrelabel;
}
}
case T_CoerceViaIO:
{
CoerceViaIO *expr = (CoerceViaIO *) node;
List *args;
Oid outfunc;
bool outtypisvarlena;
Oid infunc;
Oid intypioparam;
Expr *simple;
CoerceViaIO *newexpr;
/* Make a List so we can use simplify_function */
args = list_make1(expr->arg);
/*
* CoerceViaIO represents calling the source type's output
* function then the result type's input function. So, try to
* simplify it as though it were a stack of two such function
* calls. First we need to know what the functions are.
*
* Note that the coercion functions are assumed not to care
* about input collation, so we just pass InvalidOid for that.
*/
getTypeOutputInfo(exprType((Node *) expr->arg),
&outfunc, &outtypisvarlena);
getTypeInputInfo(expr->resulttype,
&infunc, &intypioparam);
simple = simplify_function(outfunc,
CSTRINGOID, -1,
InvalidOid,
InvalidOid,
&args,
false,
true,
true,
context);
if (simple) /* successfully simplified output fn */
{
/*
* Input functions may want 1 to 3 arguments. We always
* supply all three, trusting that nothing downstream will
* complain.
*/
args = list_make3(simple,
makeConst(OIDOID,
-1,
InvalidOid,
sizeof(Oid),
ObjectIdGetDatum(intypioparam),
false,
true),
makeConst(INT4OID,
-1,
InvalidOid,
sizeof(int32),
Int32GetDatum(-1),
false,
true));
simple = simplify_function(infunc,
expr->resulttype, -1,
expr->resultcollid,
InvalidOid,
&args,
false,
false,
true,
context);
if (simple) /* successfully simplified input fn */
return (Node *) simple;
}
/*
* The expression cannot be simplified any further, so build
* and return a replacement CoerceViaIO node using the
* possibly-simplified argument.
*/
newexpr = makeNode(CoerceViaIO);
newexpr->arg = (Expr *) linitial(args);
newexpr->resulttype = expr->resulttype;
newexpr->resultcollid = expr->resultcollid;
newexpr->coerceformat = expr->coerceformat;
newexpr->location = expr->location;
return (Node *) newexpr;
}
case T_ArrayCoerceExpr:
{
ArrayCoerceExpr *ac = makeNode(ArrayCoerceExpr);
Node *save_case_val;
/*
* Copy the node and const-simplify its arguments. We can't
* use ece_generic_processing() here because we need to mess
* with case_val only while processing the elemexpr.
*/
memcpy(ac, node, sizeof(ArrayCoerceExpr));
ac->arg = (Expr *)
eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) ac->arg,
context);
/*
* Set up for the CaseTestExpr node contained in the elemexpr.
* We must prevent it from absorbing any outer CASE value.
*/
save_case_val = context->case_val;
context->case_val = NULL;
ac->elemexpr = (Expr *)
eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) ac->elemexpr,
context);
context->case_val = save_case_val;
/*
* If constant argument and the per-element expression is
* immutable, we can simplify the whole thing to a constant.
* Exception: although contain_mutable_functions considers
* CoerceToDomain immutable for historical reasons, let's not
* do so here; this ensures coercion to an array-over-domain
* does not apply the domain's constraints until runtime.
*/
if (ac->arg && IsA(ac->arg, Const) &&
ac->elemexpr && !IsA(ac->elemexpr, CoerceToDomain) &&
!contain_mutable_functions((Node *) ac->elemexpr))
return ece_evaluate_expr(ac);
return (Node *) ac;
}
case T_CollateExpr:
{
/*
* If we can simplify the input to a constant, then we don't
* need the CollateExpr node at all: just change the
* constcollid field of the Const node. Otherwise, replace
* the CollateExpr with a RelabelType. (We do that so as to
* improve uniformity of expression representation and thus
* simplify comparison of expressions.)
*/
CollateExpr *collate = (CollateExpr *) node;
Node *arg;
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) collate->arg,
context);
if (arg && IsA(arg, Const))
{
Const *con = (Const *) arg;
con->constcollid = collate->collOid;
return (Node *) con;
}
else if (collate->collOid == exprCollation(arg))
{
/* Don't need a RelabelType either... */
return arg;
}
else
{
RelabelType *relabel = makeNode(RelabelType);
relabel->resulttype = exprType(arg);
relabel->resulttypmod = exprTypmod(arg);
relabel->resultcollid = collate->collOid;
relabel->relabelformat = COERCE_IMPLICIT_CAST;
relabel->location = collate->location;
/* Don't create stacked RelabelTypes */
while (arg && IsA(arg, RelabelType))
arg = (Node *) ((RelabelType *) arg)->arg;
relabel->arg = (Expr *) arg;
return (Node *) relabel;
}
}
case T_CaseExpr:
{
/*----------
* CASE expressions can be simplified if there are constant
* condition clauses:
* FALSE (or NULL): drop the alternative
* TRUE: drop all remaining alternatives
* If the first non-FALSE alternative is a constant TRUE,
* we can simplify the entire CASE to that alternative's
* expression. If there are no non-FALSE alternatives,
* we simplify the entire CASE to the default result (ELSE).
*
* If we have a simple-form CASE with constant test
* expression, we substitute the constant value for contained
* CaseTestExpr placeholder nodes, so that we have the
* opportunity to reduce constant test conditions. For
* example this allows
* CASE 0 WHEN 0 THEN 1 ELSE 1/0 END
* to reduce to 1 rather than drawing a divide-by-0 error.
* Note that when the test expression is constant, we don't
* have to include it in the resulting CASE; for example
* CASE 0 WHEN x THEN y ELSE z END
* is transformed by the parser to
* CASE 0 WHEN CaseTestExpr = x THEN y ELSE z END
* which we can simplify to
* CASE WHEN 0 = x THEN y ELSE z END
* It is not necessary for the executor to evaluate the "arg"
* expression when executing the CASE, since any contained
* CaseTestExprs that might have referred to it will have been
* replaced by the constant.
*----------
*/
CaseExpr *caseexpr = (CaseExpr *) node;
CaseExpr *newcase;
Node *save_case_val;
Node *newarg;
List *newargs;
bool const_true_cond;
Node *defresult = NULL;
ListCell *arg;
/* Simplify the test expression, if any */
newarg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) caseexpr->arg,
context);
/* Set up for contained CaseTestExpr nodes */
save_case_val = context->case_val;
if (newarg && IsA(newarg, Const))
{
context->case_val = newarg;
newarg = NULL; /* not needed anymore, see above */
}
else
context->case_val = NULL;
/* Simplify the WHEN clauses */
newargs = NIL;
const_true_cond = false;
foreach(arg, caseexpr->args)
{
CaseWhen *oldcasewhen = lfirst_node(CaseWhen, arg);
Node *casecond;
Node *caseresult;
/* Simplify this alternative's test condition */
casecond = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) oldcasewhen->expr,
context);
/*
* If the test condition is constant FALSE (or NULL), then
* drop this WHEN clause completely, without processing
* the result.
*/
if (casecond && IsA(casecond, Const))
{
Const *const_input = (Const *) casecond;
if (const_input->constisnull ||
!DatumGetBool(const_input->constvalue))
continue; /* drop alternative with FALSE cond */
/* Else it's constant TRUE */
const_true_cond = true;
}
/* Simplify this alternative's result value */
caseresult = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) oldcasewhen->result,
context);
/* If non-constant test condition, emit a new WHEN node */
if (!const_true_cond)
{
CaseWhen *newcasewhen = makeNode(CaseWhen);
newcasewhen->expr = (Expr *) casecond;
newcasewhen->result = (Expr *) caseresult;
newcasewhen->location = oldcasewhen->location;
newargs = lappend(newargs, newcasewhen);
continue;
}
/*
* Found a TRUE condition, so none of the remaining
* alternatives can be reached. We treat the result as
* the default result.
*/
defresult = caseresult;
break;
}
/* Simplify the default result, unless we replaced it above */
if (!const_true_cond)
defresult = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) caseexpr->defresult,
context);
context->case_val = save_case_val;
/*
* If no non-FALSE alternatives, CASE reduces to the default
* result
*/
if (newargs == NIL)
return defresult;
/* Otherwise we need a new CASE node */
newcase = makeNode(CaseExpr);
newcase->casetype = caseexpr->casetype;
newcase->casecollid = caseexpr->casecollid;
newcase->arg = (Expr *) newarg;
newcase->args = newargs;
newcase->defresult = (Expr *) defresult;
newcase->location = caseexpr->location;
return (Node *) newcase;
}
case T_CaseTestExpr:
{
/*
* If we know a constant test value for the current CASE
* construct, substitute it for the placeholder. Else just
* return the placeholder as-is.
*/
if (context->case_val)
return copyObject(context->case_val);
else
return copyObject(node);
}
case T_ArrayRef:
case T_ArrayExpr:
case T_RowExpr:
case T_MinMaxExpr:
{
/*
* Generic handling for node types whose own processing is
* known to be immutable, and for which we need no smarts
* beyond "simplify if all inputs are constants".
*
* Treating MinMaxExpr this way amounts to assuming that the
* btree comparison function it calls is immutable; see the
* reasoning in contain_mutable_functions_walker.
*/
/* Copy the node and const-simplify its arguments */
node = ece_generic_processing(node);
/* If all arguments are Consts, we can fold to a constant */
if (ece_all_arguments_const(node))
return ece_evaluate_expr(node);
return node;
}
case T_CoalesceExpr:
{
CoalesceExpr *coalesceexpr = (CoalesceExpr *) node;
CoalesceExpr *newcoalesce;
List *newargs;
ListCell *arg;
newargs = NIL;
foreach(arg, coalesceexpr->args)
{
Node *e;
e = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) lfirst(arg),
context);
/*
* We can remove null constants from the list. For a
* non-null constant, if it has not been preceded by any
* other non-null-constant expressions then it is the
* result. Otherwise, it's the next argument, but we can
* drop following arguments since they will never be
* reached.
*/
if (IsA(e, Const))
{
if (((Const *) e)->constisnull)
continue; /* drop null constant */
if (newargs == NIL)
return e; /* first expr */
newargs = lappend(newargs, e);
break;
}
newargs = lappend(newargs, e);
}
/*
* If all the arguments were constant null, the result is just
* null
*/
if (newargs == NIL)
return (Node *) makeNullConst(coalesceexpr->coalescetype,
-1,
coalesceexpr->coalescecollid);
newcoalesce = makeNode(CoalesceExpr);
newcoalesce->coalescetype = coalesceexpr->coalescetype;
newcoalesce->coalescecollid = coalesceexpr->coalescecollid;
newcoalesce->args = newargs;
newcoalesce->location = coalesceexpr->location;
return (Node *) newcoalesce;
}
case T_SQLValueFunction:
{
/*
* All variants of SQLValueFunction are stable, so if we are
* estimating the expression's value, we should evaluate the
* current function value. Otherwise just copy.
*/
SQLValueFunction *svf = (SQLValueFunction *) node;
if (context->estimate)
return (Node *) evaluate_expr((Expr *) svf,
svf->type,
svf->typmod,
InvalidOid);
else
return copyObject((Node *) svf);
}
case T_FieldSelect:
{
/*
* We can optimize field selection from a whole-row Var into a
* simple Var. (This case won't be generated directly by the
* parser, because ParseComplexProjection short-circuits it.
* But it can arise while simplifying functions.) Also, we
* can optimize field selection from a RowExpr construct, or
* of course from a constant.
*
* However, replacing a whole-row Var in this way has a
* pitfall: if we've already built the rel targetlist for the
* source relation, then the whole-row Var is scheduled to be
* produced by the relation scan, but the simple Var probably
* isn't, which will lead to a failure in setrefs.c. This is
* not a problem when handling simple single-level queries, in
* which expression simplification always happens first. It
* is a risk for lateral references from subqueries, though.
* To avoid such failures, don't optimize uplevel references.
*
* We must also check that the declared type of the field is
* still the same as when the FieldSelect was created --- this
* can change if someone did ALTER COLUMN TYPE on the rowtype.
* If it isn't, we skip the optimization; the case will
* probably fail at runtime, but that's not our problem here.
*/
FieldSelect *fselect = (FieldSelect *) node;
FieldSelect *newfselect;
Node *arg;
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) fselect->arg,
context);
if (arg && IsA(arg, Var) &&
((Var *) arg)->varattno == InvalidAttrNumber &&
((Var *) arg)->varlevelsup == 0)
{
if (rowtype_field_matches(((Var *) arg)->vartype,
fselect->fieldnum,
fselect->resulttype,
fselect->resulttypmod,
fselect->resultcollid))
return (Node *) makeVar(((Var *) arg)->varno,
fselect->fieldnum,
fselect->resulttype,
fselect->resulttypmod,
fselect->resultcollid,
((Var *) arg)->varlevelsup);
}
if (arg && IsA(arg, RowExpr))
{
RowExpr *rowexpr = (RowExpr *) arg;
if (fselect->fieldnum > 0 &&
fselect->fieldnum <= list_length(rowexpr->args))
{
Node *fld = (Node *) list_nth(rowexpr->args,
fselect->fieldnum - 1);
if (rowtype_field_matches(rowexpr->row_typeid,
fselect->fieldnum,
fselect->resulttype,
fselect->resulttypmod,
fselect->resultcollid) &&
fselect->resulttype == exprType(fld) &&
fselect->resulttypmod == exprTypmod(fld) &&
fselect->resultcollid == exprCollation(fld))
return fld;
}
}
newfselect = makeNode(FieldSelect);
newfselect->arg = (Expr *) arg;
newfselect->fieldnum = fselect->fieldnum;
newfselect->resulttype = fselect->resulttype;
newfselect->resulttypmod = fselect->resulttypmod;
newfselect->resultcollid = fselect->resultcollid;
if (arg && IsA(arg, Const))
{
Const *con = (Const *) arg;
if (rowtype_field_matches(con->consttype,
newfselect->fieldnum,
newfselect->resulttype,
newfselect->resulttypmod,
newfselect->resultcollid))
return ece_evaluate_expr(newfselect);
}
return (Node *) newfselect;
}
case T_NullTest:
{
NullTest *ntest = (NullTest *) node;
NullTest *newntest;
Node *arg;
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) ntest->arg,
context);
if (ntest->argisrow && arg && IsA(arg, RowExpr))
{
/*
* We break ROW(...) IS [NOT] NULL into separate tests on
* its component fields. This form is usually more
* efficient to evaluate, as well as being more amenable
* to optimization.
*/
RowExpr *rarg = (RowExpr *) arg;
List *newargs = NIL;
ListCell *l;
foreach(l, rarg->args)
{
Node *relem = (Node *) lfirst(l);
/*
* A constant field refutes the whole NullTest if it's
* of the wrong nullness; else we can discard it.
*/
if (relem && IsA(relem, Const))
{
Const *carg = (Const *) relem;
if (carg->constisnull ?
(ntest->nulltesttype == IS_NOT_NULL) :
(ntest->nulltesttype == IS_NULL))
return makeBoolConst(false, false);
continue;
}
/*
* Else, make a scalar (argisrow == false) NullTest
* for this field. Scalar semantics are required
* because IS [NOT] NULL doesn't recurse; see comments
* in ExecEvalRowNullInt().
*/
newntest = makeNode(NullTest);
newntest->arg = (Expr *) relem;
newntest->nulltesttype = ntest->nulltesttype;
newntest->argisrow = false;
newntest->location = ntest->location;
newargs = lappend(newargs, newntest);
}
/* If all the inputs were constants, result is TRUE */
if (newargs == NIL)
return makeBoolConst(true, false);
/* If only one nonconst input, it's the result */
if (list_length(newargs) == 1)
return (Node *) linitial(newargs);
/* Else we need an AND node */
return (Node *) make_andclause(newargs);
}
if (!ntest->argisrow && arg && IsA(arg, Const))
{
Const *carg = (Const *) arg;
bool result;
switch (ntest->nulltesttype)
{
case IS_NULL:
result = carg->constisnull;
break;
case IS_NOT_NULL:
result = !carg->constisnull;
break;
default:
elog(ERROR, "unrecognized nulltesttype: %d",
(int) ntest->nulltesttype);
result = false; /* keep compiler quiet */
break;
}
return makeBoolConst(result, false);
}
newntest = makeNode(NullTest);
newntest->arg = (Expr *) arg;
newntest->nulltesttype = ntest->nulltesttype;
newntest->argisrow = ntest->argisrow;
newntest->location = ntest->location;
return (Node *) newntest;
}
case T_BooleanTest:
{
/*
* This case could be folded into the generic handling used
* for ArrayRef etc. But because the simplification logic is
* so trivial, applying evaluate_expr() to perform it would be
* a heavy overhead. BooleanTest is probably common enough to
* justify keeping this bespoke implementation.
*/
BooleanTest *btest = (BooleanTest *) node;
BooleanTest *newbtest;
Node *arg;
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) btest->arg,
context);
if (arg && IsA(arg, Const))
{
Const *carg = (Const *) arg;
bool result;
switch (btest->booltesttype)
{
case IS_TRUE:
result = (!carg->constisnull &&
DatumGetBool(carg->constvalue));
break;
case IS_NOT_TRUE:
result = (carg->constisnull ||
!DatumGetBool(carg->constvalue));
break;
case IS_FALSE:
result = (!carg->constisnull &&
!DatumGetBool(carg->constvalue));
break;
case IS_NOT_FALSE:
result = (carg->constisnull ||
DatumGetBool(carg->constvalue));
break;
case IS_UNKNOWN:
result = carg->constisnull;
break;
case IS_NOT_UNKNOWN:
result = !carg->constisnull;
break;
default:
elog(ERROR, "unrecognized booltesttype: %d",
(int) btest->booltesttype);
result = false; /* keep compiler quiet */
break;
}
return makeBoolConst(result, false);
}
newbtest = makeNode(BooleanTest);
newbtest->arg = (Expr *) arg;
newbtest->booltesttype = btest->booltesttype;
newbtest->location = btest->location;
return (Node *) newbtest;
}
case T_CoerceToDomain:
{
/*
* If the domain currently has no constraints, we replace the
* CoerceToDomain node with a simple RelabelType, which is
* both far faster to execute and more amenable to later
* optimization. We must then mark the plan as needing to be
* rebuilt if the domain's constraints change.
*
* Also, in estimation mode, always replace CoerceToDomain
* nodes, effectively assuming that the coercion will succeed.
*/
CoerceToDomain *cdomain = (CoerceToDomain *) node;
CoerceToDomain *newcdomain;
Node *arg;
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) cdomain->arg,
context);
if (context->estimate ||
!DomainHasConstraints(cdomain->resulttype))
{
/* Record dependency, if this isn't estimation mode */
if (context->root && !context->estimate)
record_plan_type_dependency(context->root,
cdomain->resulttype);
/* Generate RelabelType to substitute for CoerceToDomain */
/* This should match the RelabelType logic above */
while (arg && IsA(arg, RelabelType))
arg = (Node *) ((RelabelType *) arg)->arg;
if (arg && IsA(arg, Const))
{
Const *con = (Const *) arg;
con->consttype = cdomain->resulttype;
con->consttypmod = cdomain->resulttypmod;
con->constcollid = cdomain->resultcollid;
return (Node *) con;
}
else
{
RelabelType *newrelabel = makeNode(RelabelType);
newrelabel->arg = (Expr *) arg;
newrelabel->resulttype = cdomain->resulttype;
newrelabel->resulttypmod = cdomain->resulttypmod;
newrelabel->resultcollid = cdomain->resultcollid;
newrelabel->relabelformat = cdomain->coercionformat;
newrelabel->location = cdomain->location;
return (Node *) newrelabel;
}
}
newcdomain = makeNode(CoerceToDomain);
newcdomain->arg = (Expr *) arg;
newcdomain->resulttype = cdomain->resulttype;
newcdomain->resulttypmod = cdomain->resulttypmod;
newcdomain->resultcollid = cdomain->resultcollid;
newcdomain->coercionformat = cdomain->coercionformat;
newcdomain->location = cdomain->location;
return (Node *) newcdomain;
}
case T_PlaceHolderVar:
/*
* In estimation mode, just strip the PlaceHolderVar node
* altogether; this amounts to estimating that the contained value
* won't be forced to null by an outer join. In regular mode we
* just use the default behavior (ie, simplify the expression but
* leave the PlaceHolderVar node intact).
*/
if (context->estimate)
{
PlaceHolderVar *phv = (PlaceHolderVar *) node;
return eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) phv->phexpr,
context);
}
break;
case T_ConvertRowtypeExpr:
{
ConvertRowtypeExpr *cre = castNode(ConvertRowtypeExpr, node);
Node *arg;
ConvertRowtypeExpr *newcre;
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator((Node *) cre->arg,
context);
newcre = makeNode(ConvertRowtypeExpr);
newcre->resulttype = cre->resulttype;
newcre->convertformat = cre->convertformat;
newcre->location = cre->location;
/*
* In case of a nested ConvertRowtypeExpr, we can convert the
* leaf row directly to the topmost row format without any
* intermediate conversions. (This works because
* ConvertRowtypeExpr is used only for child->parent
* conversion in inheritance trees, which works by exact match
* of column name, and a column absent in an intermediate
* result can't be present in the final result.)
*
* No need to check more than one level deep, because the
* above recursion will have flattened anything else.
*/
if (arg != NULL && IsA(arg, ConvertRowtypeExpr))
{
ConvertRowtypeExpr *argcre = (ConvertRowtypeExpr *) arg;
arg = (Node *) argcre->arg;
/*
* Make sure an outer implicit conversion can't hide an
* inner explicit one.
*/
if (newcre->convertformat == COERCE_IMPLICIT_CAST)
newcre->convertformat = argcre->convertformat;
}
newcre->arg = (Expr *) arg;
if (arg != NULL && IsA(arg, Const))
return ece_evaluate_expr((Node *) newcre);
return (Node *) newcre;
}
default:
break;
}
/*
* For any node type not handled above, copy the node unchanged but
* const-simplify its subexpressions. This is the correct thing for node
* types whose behavior might change between planning and execution, such
* as CurrentOfExpr. It's also a safe default for new node types not
* known to this routine.
*/
return ece_generic_processing(node);
}
/*
* Subroutine for eval_const_expressions: check for non-Const nodes.
*
* We can abort recursion immediately on finding a non-Const node. This is
* critical for performance, else eval_const_expressions_mutator would take
* O(N^2) time on non-simplifiable trees. However, we do need to descend
* into List nodes since expression_tree_walker sometimes invokes the walker
* function directly on List subtrees.
*/
static bool
contain_non_const_walker(Node *node, void *context)
{
if (node == NULL)
return false;
if (IsA(node, Const))
return false;
if (IsA(node, List))
return expression_tree_walker(node, contain_non_const_walker, context);
/* Otherwise, abort the tree traversal and return true */
return true;
}
/*
* Subroutine for eval_const_expressions: check if a function is OK to evaluate
*/
static bool
ece_function_is_safe(Oid funcid, eval_const_expressions_context *context)
{
char provolatile = func_volatile(funcid);
/*
* Ordinarily we are only allowed to simplify immutable functions. But for
* purposes of estimation, we consider it okay to simplify functions that
* are merely stable; the risk that the result might change from planning
* time to execution time is worth taking in preference to not being able
* to estimate the value at all.
*/
if (provolatile == PROVOLATILE_IMMUTABLE)
return true;
if (context->estimate && provolatile == PROVOLATILE_STABLE)
return true;
return false;
}
/*
* Subroutine for eval_const_expressions: process arguments of an OR clause
*
* This includes flattening of nested ORs as well as recursion to
* eval_const_expressions to simplify the OR arguments.
*
* After simplification, OR arguments are handled as follows:
* non constant: keep
* FALSE: drop (does not affect result)
* TRUE: force result to TRUE
* NULL: keep only one
* We must keep one NULL input because OR expressions evaluate to NULL when no
* input is TRUE and at least one is NULL. We don't actually include the NULL
* here, that's supposed to be done by the caller.
*
* The output arguments *haveNull and *forceTrue must be initialized false
* by the caller. They will be set true if a NULL constant or TRUE constant,
* respectively, is detected anywhere in the argument list.
*/
static List *
simplify_or_arguments(List *args,
eval_const_expressions_context *context,
bool *haveNull, bool *forceTrue)
{
List *newargs = NIL;
List *unprocessed_args;
/*
* We want to ensure that any OR immediately beneath another OR gets
* flattened into a single OR-list, so as to simplify later reasoning.
*
* To avoid stack overflow from recursion of eval_const_expressions, we
* resort to some tenseness here: we keep a list of not-yet-processed
* inputs, and handle flattening of nested ORs by prepending to the to-do
* list instead of recursing. Now that the parser generates N-argument
* ORs from simple lists, this complexity is probably less necessary than
* it once was, but we might as well keep the logic.
*/
unprocessed_args = list_copy(args);
while (unprocessed_args)
{
Node *arg = (Node *) linitial(unprocessed_args);
unprocessed_args = list_delete_first(unprocessed_args);
/* flatten nested ORs as per above comment */
if (or_clause(arg))
{
List *subargs = list_copy(((BoolExpr *) arg)->args);
/* overly tense code to avoid leaking unused list header */
if (!unprocessed_args)
unprocessed_args = subargs;
else
{
List *oldhdr = unprocessed_args;
unprocessed_args = list_concat(subargs, unprocessed_args);
pfree(oldhdr);
}
continue;
}
/* If it's not an OR, simplify it */
arg = eval_const_expressions_mutator(arg, context);
/*
* It is unlikely but not impossible for simplification of a non-OR
* clause to produce an OR. Recheck, but don't be too tense about it
* since it's not a mainstream case. In particular we don't worry
* about const-simplifying the input twice.
*/
if (or_clause(arg))
{
List *subargs = list_copy(((BoolExpr *) arg)->args);
unprocessed_args = list_concat(subargs, unprocessed_args);
continue;
}
/*
* OK, we have a const-simplified non-OR argument. Process it per
* comments above.
*/
if (IsA(arg, Const))
{
Const *const_input = (Const *) arg;
if (const_input->constisnull)
*haveNull = true;
else if (DatumGetBool(const_input->constvalue))
{
*forceTrue = true;
/*
* Once we detect a TRUE result we can just exit the loop
* immediately. However, if we ever add a notion of
* non-removable functions, we'd need to keep scanning.
*/
return NIL;
}
/* otherwise, we can drop the constant-false input */
continue;
}
/* else emit the simplified arg into the result list */
newargs = lappend(newargs, arg);
}
return newargs;
}
/*
* Subroutine for eval_const_expressions: process arguments of an AND clause
*
* This includes flattening of nested ANDs as well as recursion to
* eval_const_expressions to simplify th