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Brand 7.2.3.

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1 parent 9227bc5 commit 4526d2183fb02c4ea8ede55e59c493b0aaea0085 @bmomjian bmomjian committed Oct 1, 2002
View
2 configure
@@ -615,7 +615,7 @@ ac_config_sub=$ac_aux_dir/config.sub
ac_configure=$ac_aux_dir/configure # This should be Cygnus configure.
-VERSION='7.2.2'
+VERSION='7.2.3'
cat >> confdefs.h <<EOF
#define PG_VERSION "$VERSION"
View
2 configure.in
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ AC_CONFIG_HEADER(src/include/pg_config.h)
AC_PREREQ(2.13)
AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR(config)
-VERSION='7.2.2'
+VERSION='7.2.3'
AC_SUBST(VERSION)
AC_DEFINE_UNQUOTED(PG_VERSION, "$VERSION")
View
144 doc/FAQ
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for PostgreSQL
- Last updated: Mon Mar 18 14:34:57 EST 2002
+ Last updated: Mon Sep 30 23:28:35 EDT 2002
Current maintainer: Bruce Momjian (pgman@candle.pha.pa.us)
@@ -53,6 +53,8 @@
3.7) What debugging features are available?
3.8) Why do I get "Sorry, too many clients" when trying to connect?
3.9) What are the pg_sorttempNNN.NN files in my database directory?
+ 3.10) Why do I need to do a dump and restore to upgrade PostgreSQL
+ releases?
Operational Questions
@@ -63,8 +65,8 @@
4.5) What is the maximum size for a row, a table, and a database?
4.6) How much database disk space is required to store data from a
typical text file?
- 4.7) How do I find out what tables or indexes are defined in the
- database?
+ 4.7) How do I find out what tables, indexes, databases, and users are
+ defined?
4.8) My queries are slow or don't make use of the indexes. Why?
4.9) How do I see how the query optimizer is evaluating my query?
4.10) What is an R-tree index?
@@ -91,6 +93,9 @@
4.22) Why are my subqueries using IN so slow?
4.23) How do I perform an outer join?
4.24) How do I perform queries using multiple databases?
+ 4.25) How do I return multiple rows or columns from a function?
+ 4.26) Why can't I reliably create/drop temporary tables in PL/PgSQL
+ functions?
Extending PostgreSQL
@@ -237,7 +242,7 @@
1.7) What is the latest release?
- The latest release of PostgreSQL is version 7.2.1.
+ The latest release of PostgreSQL is version 7.2.3.
We plan to have major releases every four months.
@@ -320,29 +325,15 @@
reduce lock contention.
Performance
- PostgreSQL runs in two modes. Normal fsync mode flushes every
- completed transaction to disk, guaranteeing that if the OS
- crashes or loses power in the next few seconds, all your data
- is safely stored on disk. In this mode, we are slower than most
- commercial databases, partly because few of them do such
- conservative flushing to disk in their default modes. In
- no-fsync mode, we are usually faster than commercial databases,
- though in this mode, an OS crash could cause data corruption.
- We are working to provide an intermediate mode that suffers
- less performance overhead than full fsync mode, and will allow
- data integrity within 30 seconds of an OS crash.
- In comparison to MySQL or leaner database systems, we are
- slower on inserts/updates because we have transaction overhead.
+ PostgreSQL has performance similar to other commercial and open
+ source databases. it is faster for some things, slower for
+ others. In comparison to MySQL or leaner database systems, we
+ are slower on inserts/updates because of transaction overhead.
Of course, MySQL does not have any of the features mentioned in
- the Features section above. We are built for flexibility and
- features, though we continue to improve performance through
- profiling and source code analysis. There is an interesting Web
- page comparing PostgreSQL to MySQL at
- http://openacs.org/why-not-mysql.html
- We handle each user connection by creating a Unix process.
- Backend processes share data buffers and locking information.
- With multiple CPUs, multiple backends can easily run on
- different CPUs.
+ the Features section above. We are built for reliability and
+ features, though we continue to improve performance in every
+ release. There is an interesting Web page comparing PostgreSQL
+ to MySQL at http://openacs.org/why-not-mysql.html
Reliability
We realize that a DBMS must be reliable, or it is worthless. We
@@ -380,7 +371,8 @@
Of course, this infrastructure is not cheap. There are a variety of
monthly and one-time expenses that are required to keep it going. If
you or your company has money it can donate to help fund this effort,
- please go to http://www.pgsql.com/pg_goodies and make a donation.
+ please go to https://store.pgsql.com/shopping/index.php?id=1 and make
+ a donation.
Although the web page mentions PostgreSQL, Inc, the "contributions"
item is solely to support the PostgreSQL project and does not fund any
@@ -443,6 +435,9 @@
* TCL (libpgtcl)
* C Easy API (libpgeasy)
* Embedded HTML (PHP from http://www.php.net)
+
+ Additional interfaces are available at
+ http://www.postgresql.org/interfaces.html.
_________________________________________________________________
Administrative Questions
@@ -570,7 +565,8 @@
You can also compile with profiling to see what functions are taking
execution time. The backend profile files will be deposited in the
pgsql/data/base/dbname directory. The client profile file will be put
- in the client's current directory.
+ in the client's current directory. Linux requires a compile with
+ -DLINUX_PROFILE for proper profiling.
3.8) Why do I get "Sorry, too many clients" when trying to connect?
@@ -606,6 +602,21 @@
The temporary files should be deleted automatically, but might not if
a backend crashes during a sort. If you have no backends running at
the time, it is safe to delete the pg_tempNNN.NN files.
+
+ 3.10) Why do I need to do a dump and restore to upgrade between major
+ PostgreSQL releases?
+
+ The PostgreSQL team makes only small changes between minor releases,
+ so upgrading from 7.2 to 7.2.1 does not require a dump and restore.
+ However, major releases often change the internal format of system
+ tables and data files. These changes are often complex, so we don't
+ maintain backward compatability for data files. A dump outputs data in
+ a generic format that can then be loaded in using the new internal
+ format.
+
+ In releases where the on-disk format does not change, the pg_upgrade
+ script can be used to upgrade without a dump/restore. The release
+ notes mention whether pg_upgrade is available for the release.
_________________________________________________________________
Operational Questions
@@ -635,19 +646,22 @@
4.4) How do you remove a column from a table?
We do not support ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN, but do this:
+ BEGIN;
+ LOCK TABLE old_table;
SELECT ... -- select all columns but the one you want to remove
INTO TABLE new_table
FROM old_table;
DROP TABLE old_table;
ALTER TABLE new_table RENAME TO old_table;
+ COMMIT;
4.5) What is the maximum size for a row, a table, and a database?
These are the limits:
- Maximum size for a database? unlimited (500 GB databases exist)
+ Maximum size for a database? unlimited (1 TB databases exist)
Maximum size for a table? 16 TB
- Maximum size for a row? unlimited in 7.1 and later
- Maximum size for a field? 1 GB in 7.1 and later
+ Maximum size for a row? 1.6TB
+ Maximum size for a field? 1 GB
Maximum number of rows in a table? unlimited
Maximum number of columns in a table? 250-1600 depending on column types
Maximum number of indexes on a table? unlimited
@@ -695,10 +709,14 @@
Indexes do not require as much overhead, but do contain the data that
is being indexed, so they can be large also.
- 4.7) How do I find out what tables or indexes are defined in the database?
+ NULLs are stored in bitmaps, so they use very little space.
+
+ 4.7) How do I find out what tables, indexes, databases, and users are
+ defined?
psql has a variety of backslash commands to show such information. Use
- \? to see them.
+ \? to see them. There are also system tables beginning with pg_ that
+ describe these too. Also, psql -l will list all databases.
Also try the file pgsql/src/tutorial/syscat.source. It illustrates
many of the SELECTs needed to get information from the database system
@@ -709,7 +727,7 @@
Indexes are not automatically used by every query. Indexes are only
used if the table is larger than a minimum size, and the query selects
only a small percentage of the rows in the table. This is because the
- random disk access caused by an index scan is sometimes slower than a
+ random disk access caused by an index scan can be slower than a
straight read through the table, or sequential scan.
To determine if an index should be used, PostgreSQL must have
@@ -724,12 +742,29 @@
sequential scan followed by an explicit sort is usually faster than an
index scan of a large table.
However, LIMIT combined with ORDER BY often will use an index because
- only a small portion of the table is returned.
-
+ only a small portion of the table is returned. In fact, though MAX()
+ and MIN() don't use indexes, it is possible to retrieve such values
+ using an index with ORDER BY and LIMIT:
+ SELECT col
+ FROM tab
+ ORDER BY col [ DESC ]
+ LIMIT 1
+
When using wild-card operators such as LIKE or ~, indexes can only be
- used if the beginning of the search is anchored to the start of the
- string. Therefore, to use indexes, LIKE patterns must not start with
- %, and ~(regular expression) patterns must start with ^.
+ used in certain circumstances:
+ * The beginning of the search string must be anchored to the start
+ of the string, i.e.:
+
+ * LIKE patterns must not start with %.
+ * ~ (regular expression) patterns must start with ^.
+
+ The search string can not start with a character class, e.g. [a-e].
+
+ Case-insensitive searches like ILIKE and ~* can not be used.
+ Instead, use functional indexes, which are described later in this
+ FAQ.
+
+ The default C local must be used during initdb.
4.9) How do I see how the query optimizer is evaluating my query?
@@ -770,7 +805,7 @@
The ~ operator does regular expression matching, and ~* does
case-insensitive regular expression matching. The case-insensitive
- variant of LIKE is called ILIKE in PostgreSQL 7.1 and later.
+ variant of LIKE is called ILIKE.
Case-insensitive equality comparisons are normally expressed as:
SELECT *
@@ -923,10 +958,9 @@ BYTEA bytea variable-length byte array (null-byte safe)
4.18) Why do I get the error "ERROR: Memory exhausted in AllocSetAlloc()"?
- If you are running a version older than 7.1, an upgrade may fix the
- problem. Also it is possible you have run out of virtual memory on
- your system, or your kernel has a low limit for certain resources. Try
- this before starting postmaster:
+ You probably have run out of virtual memory on your system, or your
+ kernel has a low limit for certain resources. Try this before starting
+ postmaster:
ulimit -d 262144
limit datasize 256m
@@ -979,8 +1013,8 @@ SELECT *
4.23) How do I perform an outer join?
- PostgreSQL 7.1 and later supports outer joins using the SQL standard
- syntax. Here are two examples:
+ PostgreSQL supports outer joins using the SQL standard syntax. Here
+ are two examples:
SELECT *
FROM t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN t2 ON (t1.col = t2.col);
@@ -1015,6 +1049,24 @@ SELECT *
Of course, a client can make simultaneous connections to different
databases and merge the information that way.
+
+ 4.25) How do I return multiple rows or columns from a function?
+
+ You can return result sets from PL/pgSQL functions using refcursors.
+ See
+ http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/plpgsql-cursors.html,
+ section 23.7.3.3.
+
+ 4.26) Why can't I reliably create/drop temporary tables in PL/PgSQL
+ functions?
+
+ PL/PgSQL caches function contents, and an unfortunate side effect is
+ that if a PL/PgSQL function accesses a temporary table, and that table
+ is later dropped and recreated, and the function called again, the
+ function will fail because the cached function contents still point to
+ the old temporary table. The solution is to use EXECUTE for temporary
+ table access in PL/PgSQL. This will cause the query to be reparsed
+ every time.
_________________________________________________________________
Extending PostgreSQL
View
2 doc/bug.template
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ System Configuration
Operating System (example: Linux 2.0.26 ELF) :
- PostgreSQL version (example: PostgreSQL-7.2.2): PostgreSQL-7.2.2
+ PostgreSQL version (example: PostgreSQL-7.2.3): PostgreSQL-7.2.3
Compiler used (example: gcc 2.95.2) :
View
174 doc/src/FAQ/FAQ.html
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
alink="#0000ff">
<H1>Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for PostgreSQL</H1>
- <P>Last updated: Mon Mar 18 14:34:57 EST 2002</P>
+ <P>Last updated: Mon Sep 30 23:28:35 EDT 2002</P>
<P>Current maintainer: Bruce Momjian (<A href=
"mailto:pgman@candle.pha.pa.us">pgman@candle.pha.pa.us</A>)<BR>
@@ -81,6 +81,8 @@ <H2 align="center">Administrative Questions</H2>
clients"</I> when trying to connect?<BR>
<A href="#3.9">3.9</A>) What are the <I>pg_sorttempNNN.NN</I>
files in my database directory?<BR>
+ <A href="#3.10">3.10</A>) Why do I need to do a dump and restore
+ to upgrade PostgreSQL releases?<BR>
<H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
@@ -96,8 +98,8 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
table, and a database?<BR>
<A href="#4.6">4.6</A>) How much database disk space is required
to store data from a typical text file?<BR>
- <A href="#4.7">4.7</A>) How do I find out what tables or indexes
- are defined in the database?<BR>
+ <A href="#4.7">4.7</A>) How do I find out what tables, indexes,
+ databases, and users are defined?<BR>
<A href="#4.8">4.8</A>) My queries are slow or don't make use of
the indexes. Why?<BR>
<A href="#4.9">4.9</A>) How do I see how the query optimizer is
@@ -137,6 +139,10 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
<A href="#4.23">4.23</A>) How do I perform an outer join?<BR>
<A href="#4.24">4.24</A>) How do I perform queries using multiple
databases?<BR>
+ <A href="#4.25">4.25</A>) How do I return multiple rows or columns
+ from a function?<BR>
+ <A href="#4.26">4.26</A>) Why can't I reliably create/drop
+ temporary tables in PL/PgSQL functions?<BR>
<H2 align="center">Extending PostgreSQL</H2>
@@ -276,6 +282,7 @@ <H2 align="center">General Questions</H2>
subscribe
end
</PRE>
+
Digests are sent out to members of this list whenever the main list
has received around 30k of messages.
@@ -287,6 +294,7 @@ <H2 align="center">General Questions</H2>
subscribe
end
</PRE>
+
There is also a developers discussion mailing list available. To
subscribe to this list, send email to <A href=
"mailto:pgsql-hackers-request@PostgreSQL.org">pgsql-hackers-request@PostgreSQL.org</A>
@@ -312,7 +320,7 @@ <H2 align="center">General Questions</H2>
<H4><A name="1.7">1.7</A>) What is the latest release?</H4>
- <P>The latest release of PostgreSQL is version 7.2.1.</P>
+ <P>The latest release of PostgreSQL is version 7.2.3.</P>
<P>We plan to have major releases every four months.</P>
@@ -421,32 +429,18 @@ <H2 align="center">General Questions</H2>
<DT><B>Performance</B></DT>
- <DD>PostgreSQL runs in two modes. Normal <I>fsync</I> mode
- flushes every completed transaction to disk, guaranteeing that if
- the OS crashes or loses power in the next few seconds, all your
- data is safely stored on disk. In this mode, we are slower than
- most commercial databases, partly because few of them do such
- conservative flushing to disk in their default modes. In
- <I>no-fsync</I> mode, we are usually faster than commercial
- databases, though in this mode, an OS crash could cause data
- corruption. We are working to provide an intermediate mode that
- suffers less performance overhead than full fsync mode, and will
- allow data integrity within 30 seconds of an OS crash.<BR>
- <BR>
- In comparison to MySQL or leaner database systems, we are slower
- on inserts/updates because we have transaction overhead. Of
+ <DD>PostgreSQL has performance similar to other commercial and
+ open source databases. it is faster for some things, slower for
+ others. In comparison to MySQL or leaner database systems, we are
+ slower on inserts/updates because of transaction overhead. Of
course, MySQL does not have any of the features mentioned in the
- <I>Features</I> section above. We are built for flexibility and
- features, though we continue to improve performance through
- profiling and source code analysis. There is an interesting Web
- page comparing PostgreSQL to MySQL at <A href=
- "http://openacs.org/why-not-mysql.html">http://openacs.org/why-not-mysql.html</A><BR>
+ <I>Features</I> section above. We are built for reliability and
+ features, though we continue to improve performance in every
+ release. There is an interesting Web page comparing PostgreSQL to
+ MySQL at <A href= "http://openacs.org/why-not-mysql.html">
+
+ http://openacs.org/why-not-mysql.html</A><BR>
- <BR>
- We handle each user connection by creating a Unix process.
- Backend processes share data buffers and locking information.
- With multiple CPUs, multiple backends can easily run on different
- CPUs.<BR>
<BR>
</DD>
@@ -499,7 +493,8 @@ <H2 align="center">General Questions</H2>
of monthly and one-time expenses that are required to keep it
going. If you or your company has money it can donate to help fund
this effort, please go to <A href=
- "http://www.pgsql.com/pg_goodies">http://www.pgsql.com/pg_goodies</A>
+ "https://store.pgsql.com/shopping/index.php?id=1">
+ https://store.pgsql.com/shopping/index.php?id=1</A>
and make a donation.</P>
<P>Although the web page mentions PostgreSQL, Inc, the
@@ -588,6 +583,10 @@ <H2 align="center">User Client Questions</H2>
<LI>Embedded <SMALL>HTML</SMALL> (<A href=
"http://www.php.net">PHP from http://www.php.net</A>)</LI>
</UL>
+ <P>Additional interfaces are available at <a
+ href="http://www.postgresql.org/interfaces.html">
+ http://www.postgresql.org/interfaces.html.</A>
+ </P>
<HR>
<H2 align="center">Administrative Questions</H2>
@@ -740,7 +739,8 @@ <H2 align="center">Administrative Questions</H2>
<P>You can also compile with profiling to see what functions are
taking execution time. The backend profile files will be deposited
in the <I>pgsql/data/base/dbname</I> directory. The client profile
- file will be put in the client's current directory.</P>
+ file will be put in the client's current directory. Linux requires
+ a compile with <I>-DLINUX_PROFILE</I> for proper profiling.</P>
<H4><A name="3.8">3.8</A>) Why do I get <I>"Sorry, too many
clients"</I> when trying to connect?</H4>
@@ -785,6 +785,23 @@ <H2 align="center">Administrative Questions</H2>
not if a backend crashes during a sort. If you have no backends
running at the time, it is safe to delete the pg_tempNNN.NN
files.</P>
+
+ <H4><A name="3.10">3.10</A>) Why do I need to do a dump and restore
+ to upgrade between major PostgreSQL releases?</H4>
+
+ <P>The PostgreSQL team makes only small changes between minor releases,
+ so upgrading from 7.2 to 7.2.1 does not require a dump and restore.
+ However, major releases often change the internal format of system
+ tables and data files. These changes are often complex, so we don't
+ maintain backward compatability for data files. A dump outputs data
+ in a generic format that can then be loaded in using the new internal
+ format.
+
+ <P>In releases where the on-disk format does not change, the
+ <i>pg_upgrade</i> script can be used to upgrade without a dump/restore.
+ The release notes mention whether <i>pg_upgrade</i> is available for the
+ release.
+
<HR>
<H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
@@ -824,26 +841,30 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
<P>We do not support <SMALL>ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN,</SMALL> but do
this:</P>
<PRE>
+ BEGIN;
+ LOCK TABLE old_table;
SELECT ... -- select all columns but the one you want to remove
INTO TABLE new_table
FROM old_table;
DROP TABLE old_table;
ALTER TABLE new_table RENAME TO old_table;
+ COMMIT;
</PRE>
<H4><A name="4.5">4.5</A>) What is the maximum size for a row, a
table, and a database?</H4>
<P>These are the limits:</P>
<PRE>
- Maximum size for a database? unlimited (500 GB databases exist)
+ Maximum size for a database? unlimited (1 TB databases exist)
Maximum size for a table? 16 TB
- Maximum size for a row? unlimited in 7.1 and later
- Maximum size for a field? 1 GB in 7.1 and later
+ Maximum size for a row? 1.6TB
+ Maximum size for a field? 1 GB
Maximum number of rows in a table? unlimited
Maximum number of columns in a table? 250-1600 depending on column types
Maximum number of indexes on a table? unlimited
</PRE>
+
Of course, these are not actually unlimited, but limited to
available disk space and memory/swap space. Performance may suffer
when these values get unusually large.
@@ -890,11 +911,16 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
<P>Indexes do not require as much overhead, but do contain the data
that is being indexed, so they can be large also.</P>
- <H4><A name="4.7">4.7</A>) How do I find out what tables or indexes
- are defined in the database?</H4>
+ <P><SMALL>NULL</SMALL>s are stored in bitmaps, so they
+ use very little space.</P>
+
+ <H4><A name="4.7">4.7</A>) How do I find out what tables, indexes,
+ databases, and users are defined?</H4>
<P><I>psql</I> has a variety of backslash commands to show such
- information. Use \? to see them.</P>
+ information. Use \? to see them. There are also system tables
+ beginning with <I>pg_</I> that describe these too. Also, <I>psql
+ -l</I> will list all databases.</P>
<P>Also try the file <I>pgsql/src/tutorial/syscat.source</I>. It
illustrates many of the <SMALL>SELECT</SMALL>s needed to get
@@ -905,7 +931,7 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
Indexes are not automatically used by every query. Indexes are only
used if the table is larger than a minimum size, and the query
selects only a small percentage of the rows in the table. This is
- because the random disk access caused by an index scan is sometimes
+ because the random disk access caused by an index scan can be
slower than a straight read through the table, or sequential scan.
<P>To determine if an index should be used, PostgreSQL must have
@@ -922,13 +948,35 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
usually faster than an index scan of a large table.</P>
However, <SMALL>LIMIT</SMALL> combined with <SMALL>ORDER BY</SMALL>
often will use an index because only a small portion of the table
- is returned.
+ is returned. In fact, though MAX() and MIN() don't use indexes,
+ it is possible to retrieve such values using an index with ORDER BY
+ and LIMIT:
+<PRE>
+ SELECT col
+ FROM tab
+ ORDER BY col [ DESC ]
+ LIMIT 1
+</PRE>
<P>When using wild-card operators such as <SMALL>LIKE</SMALL> or
- <I>~</I>, indexes can only be used if the beginning of the search
- is anchored to the start of the string. Therefore, to use indexes,
- <SMALL>LIKE</SMALL> patterns must not start with <I>%</I>, and
- <I>~</I>(regular expression) patterns must start with <I>^</I>.</P>
+ <I>~</I>, indexes can only be used in certain circumstances:
+ <UL>
+ <LI>The beginning of the search string must be anchored to the start
+ of the string, i.e.:</LI>
+ <UL>
+ <LI><SMALL>LIKE</SMALL> patterns must not start with <I>%.</I></LI>
+ <LI><I>~</I> (regular expression) patterns must start with
+ <I>^.</I></LI>
+ </UL>
+ <LI>The search string can not start with a character class,
+ e.g. [a-e].</LI>
+ <LI>Case-insensitive searches like <SMALL>ILIKE</SMALL> and
+ <I>~*</I> can not be used. Instead, use functional
+ indexes, which are described later in this FAQ.</LI>
+ <LI>The default <I>C</I> local must be used during
+ <i>initdb.</i></LI>
+ </UL>
+ <P>
<H4><A name="4.9">4.9</A>) How do I see how the query optimizer is
evaluating my query?</H4>
@@ -975,21 +1023,20 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
<P>The <I>~</I> operator does regular expression matching, and
<I>~*</I> does case-insensitive regular expression matching. The
case-insensitive variant of <SMALL>LIKE</SMALL> is called
- <SMALL>ILIKE</SMALL> in PostgreSQL 7.1 and later.</P>
+ <SMALL>ILIKE</SMALL>.</P>
<P>Case-insensitive equality comparisons are normally expressed
as:</P>
<PRE>
SELECT *
FROM tab
WHERE lower(col) = 'abc'
-
</PRE>
+
This will not use an standard index. However, if you create a
functional index, it will be used:
<PRE>
CREATE INDEX tabindex on tab (lower(col));
-
</PRE>
<H4><A name="4.13">4.13</A>) In a query, how do I detect if a field
@@ -1039,6 +1086,7 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
name TEXT
);
</PRE>
+
is automatically translated into this:
<PRE>
CREATE SEQUENCE person_id_seq;
@@ -1048,6 +1096,7 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
);
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX person_id_key ON person ( id );
</PRE>
+
See the <I>create_sequence</I> manual page for more information
about sequences. You can also use each row's <I>OID</I> field as a
unique value. However, if you need to dump and reload the database,
@@ -1066,6 +1115,7 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
new_id = output of "SELECT nextval('person_id_seq')"
INSERT INTO person (id, name) VALUES (new_id, 'Blaise Pascal');
</PRE>
+
You would then also have the new value stored in
<CODE>new_id</CODE> for use in other queries (e.g., as a foreign
key to the <CODE>person</CODE> table). Note that the name of the
@@ -1081,6 +1131,7 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
INSERT INTO person (name) VALUES ('Blaise Pascal');
new_id = output of "SELECT currval('person_id_seq')";
</PRE>
+
Finally, you could use the <A href="#4.16"><SMALL>OID</SMALL></A>
returned from the <SMALL>INSERT</SMALL> statement to look up the
default value, though this is probably the least portable approach.
@@ -1180,14 +1231,14 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
<H4><A name="4.18">4.18</A>) Why do I get the error <I>"ERROR:
Memory exhausted in AllocSetAlloc()"</I>?</H4>
- <P>If you are running a version older than 7.1, an upgrade may fix
- the problem. Also it is possible you have run out of virtual memory
- on your system, or your kernel has a low limit for certain
- resources. Try this before starting <I>postmaster</I>:</P>
+ <P>You probably have run out of virtual memory on your system,
+ or your kernel has a low limit for certain resources. Try this
+ before starting <I>postmaster</I>:</P>
<PRE>
ulimit -d 262144
limit datasize 256m
</PRE>
+
Depending on your shell, only one of these may succeed, but it will
set your process data segment limit much higher and perhaps allow
the query to complete. This command applies to the current process,
@@ -1246,12 +1297,13 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT col2 FROM TAB2 WHERE col1 = col2)
</CODE>
</PRE>
+
We hope to fix this limitation in a future release.
<H4><A name="4.23">4.23</A>) How do I perform an outer join?</H4>
- <P>PostgreSQL 7.1 and later supports outer joins using the SQL
- standard syntax. Here are two examples:</P>
+ <P>PostgreSQL supports outer joins using the SQL standard syntax.
+ Here are two examples:</P>
<PRE>
SELECT *
FROM t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN t2 ON (t1.col = t2.col);
@@ -1297,6 +1349,26 @@ <H2 align="center">Operational Questions</H2>
<P>Of course, a client can make simultaneous connections to
different databases and merge the information that way.</P>
+
+ <H4><A name="4.25">4.25</A>) How do I return multiple rows or
+ columns from a function?</H4>
+
+ <P>You can return result sets from PL/pgSQL functions using
+ <I>refcursors</I>. See <A href=
+ "http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/plpgsql-cursors.html">
+ http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/plpgsql-cursors.html,</A>
+ section 23.7.3.3.</P>
+
+ <H4><A name="4.26">4.26</A>) Why can't I reliably create/drop
+ temporary tables in PL/PgSQL functions?</H4>
+ PL/PgSQL caches function contents, and an unfortunate side effect
+ is that if a PL/PgSQL function accesses a temporary table, and that
+ table is later dropped and recreated, and the function called
+ again, the function will fail because the cached function contents
+ still point to the old temporary table. The solution is to use
+ <SMALL>EXECUTE</SMALL> for temporary table access in PL/PgSQL. This
+ will cause the query to be reparsed every time.
+
<HR>
<H2 align="center">Extending PostgreSQL</H2>
View
2 doc/src/sgml/version.sgml
@@ -3,5 +3,5 @@ Update this file to propagate correct current version numbers to the
documentation. In text, use for example &version; to refer to them.
-->
-<!entity version "7.2.2">
+<!entity version "7.2.3">
<!entity majorversion "7.2">
View
4 src/include/pg_config.h.win32
@@ -3,8 +3,8 @@
/*
* Parts of pg_config.h that you get with autoconf on other systems
*/
-#define PG_VERSION "7.2.2"
-#define PG_VERSION_STR "7.2.2 (win32)"
+#define PG_VERSION "7.2.3"
+#define PG_VERSION_STR "7.2.3 (win32)"
#define SYSCONFDIR ""
View
8 src/interfaces/libpq++/libpq++dll.rc
@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
#include <winver.h>
VS_VERSION_INFO VERSIONINFO
- FILEVERSION 7,2,2,0
- PRODUCTVERSION 7,2,2,0
+ FILEVERSION 7,2,3,0
+ PRODUCTVERSION 7,2,3,0
FILEFLAGSMASK 0x3fL
FILEFLAGS 0x0L
FILEOS 0x40004L
@@ -16,14 +16,14 @@ BEGIN
VALUE "Comments", "\0"
VALUE "CompanyName", " \0"
VALUE "FileDescription", "PostgreSQL C++ Access Library\0"
- VALUE "FileVersion", "7, 2, 2, 0\0"
+ VALUE "FileVersion", "7, 2, 3, 0\0"
VALUE "InternalName", "libpq++\0"
VALUE "LegalCopyright", "Copyright � 2000\0"
VALUE "LegalTrademarks", "\0"
VALUE "OriginalFilename", "libpq++.dll\0"
VALUE "PrivateBuild", "\0"
VALUE "ProductName", "PostgreSQL\0"
- VALUE "ProductVersion", "7, 2, 2, 0\0"
+ VALUE "ProductVersion", "7, 2, 3, 0\0"
VALUE "SpecialBuild", "\0"
END
END
View
8 src/interfaces/libpq/libpq.rc
@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
#include <winver.h>
VS_VERSION_INFO VERSIONINFO
- FILEVERSION 7,2,2,0
- PRODUCTVERSION 7,2,2,0
+ FILEVERSION 7,2,3,0
+ PRODUCTVERSION 7,2,3,0
FILEFLAGSMASK 0x3fL
FILEFLAGS 0
FILEOS VOS__WINDOWS32
@@ -15,13 +15,13 @@ BEGIN
BEGIN
VALUE "CompanyName", "\0"
VALUE "FileDescription", "PostgreSQL Access Library\0"
- VALUE "FileVersion", "7, 2, 2, 0\0"
+ VALUE "FileVersion", "7, 2, 3, 0\0"
VALUE "InternalName", "libpq\0"
VALUE "LegalCopyright", "Copyright (C) 2000\0"
VALUE "LegalTrademarks", "\0"
VALUE "OriginalFilename", "libpq.dll\0"
VALUE "ProductName", "PostgreSQL\0"
- VALUE "ProductVersion", "7, 2, 2, 0\0"
+ VALUE "ProductVersion", "7, 2, 3, 0\0"
END
END
BLOCK "VarFileInfo"

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