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Classier solution for file uploads for Rails, Sinatra and other Ruby web frameworks

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README.md

CarrierWave

This gem provides a simple and extremely flexible way to upload files from Ruby applications. It works well with Rack based web applications, such as Ruby on Rails.

Information

Getting Help

  • Please ask the Google Group for help if you have any questions.
  • Please report bugs on the issue tracker but read the "getting help" section in the wiki first.

Installation

Install the latest stable release:

[sudo] gem install carrierwave

In Rails, add it to your Gemfile:

gem 'carrierwave'

Note that CarrierWave is not compatible with Rails 2 as of version 0.5. If you want to use Rails 2, please use the 0.4-stable branch on GitHub.

Getting Started

Start off by generating an uploader:

rails generate uploader Avatar

this should give you a file in:

app/uploaders/avatar_uploader.rb

Check out this file for some hints on how you can customize your uploader. It should look something like this:

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  storage :file
end

You can use your uploader class to store and retrieve files like this:

uploader = AvatarUploader.new

uploader.store!(my_file)

uploader.retrieve_from_store!('my_file.png')

CarrierWave gives you a store for permanent storage, and a cache for temporary storage. You can use different stores, at the moment a filesystem store, an Amazon S3 store, a Rackspace Cloud Files store, and a store for MongoDB's GridFS are bundled.

Most of the time you are going to want to use CarrierWave together with an ORM. It is quite simple to mount uploaders on columns in your model, so you can simply assign files and get going:

ActiveRecord, Mongoid

Make sure you are loading CarrierWave after loading your ORM, otherwise you'll need to require the relevant extension manually, e.g.:

require 'carrierwave/orm/activerecord'

Add a string column to the model you want to mount the uploader on:

add_column :users, :avatar, :string

Open your model file and mount the uploader:

class User
  mount_uploader :avatar, AvatarUploader
end

This works the same with all supported ORMs.

Now you can cache files by assigning them to the attribute, they will automatically be stored when the record is saved.

u = User.new
u.avatar = params[:file]
u.avatar = File.open('somewhere')
u.save!
u.avatar.url # => '/url/to/file.png'
u.avatar.current_path # => 'path/to/file.png'

If using Mongoid, note that embedded documents files aren't saved when parent documents are saved. You must explicitly call save on embedded documents in order to save their attached files. You can read more about this here

DataMapper, Sequel

Other ORM support has been extracted into separate gems. Learn more:

There are more extensions listed in the wiki

Changing the storage directory

In order to change where uploaded files are put, just override the store_dir method:

class MyUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  def store_dir
    'public/my/upload/directory'
  end
end

This works for the file storage as well as Amazon S3 and Rackspace Cloud Files. Define store_dir as nil if you'd like to store files at the root level.

Securing uploads

Certain file might be dangerous if uploaded to the wrong location, such as php files or other script files. CarrierWave allows you to specify a white-list of allowed extensions.

If you're mounting the uploader, uploading a file with the wrong extension will make the record invalid instead. Otherwise, an error is raised.

class MyUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  def extension_white_list
    %w(jpg jpeg gif png)
  end
end

Filenames and unicode chars

Another security issue you should care for is the file names (see Ruby On Rails Security Guide). By default, CarrierWave provides only English letters, arabic numerals and '-+_.' symbols as white-listed characters in the file name. If you want to support local scripts (Cyrillic letters, letters with diacritics and so on), you have to override sanitize_regexp method. It should return regular expression which would match all non-allowed symbols.

With Ruby 1.9 and higher you can simply write (as it has Oniguruma built-in):

  CarrierWave::SanitizedFile.sanitize_regexp = /[^[:word:]\.\-\+]/

With Ruby 1.8 you have to manually specify all character ranges. For example, for files which may contain Russian letters:

  CarrierWave::SanitizedFile.sanitize_regexp = /[^a-zA-Zа-яА-ЯёЁ0-9\.\-\+_]/u

Also make sure that allowing non-latin characters won't cause a compatibility issue with a third-party plugins or client-side software.

Adding versions

Often you'll want to add different versions of the same file. The classic example is image thumbnails. There is built in support for this:

class MyUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  include CarrierWave::RMagick

  process :resize_to_fit => [800, 800]

  version :thumb do
    process :resize_to_fill => [200,200]
  end

end

When this uploader is used, an uploaded image would be scaled to be no larger than 800 by 800 pixels. A version called thumb is then created, which is scaled and cropped to exactly 200 by 200 pixels. The uploader could be used like this:

uploader = AvatarUploader.new
uploader.store!(my_file)                              # size: 1024x768

uploader.url # => '/url/to/my_file.png'               # size: 800x600
uploader.thumb.url # => '/url/to/thumb_my_file.png'   # size: 200x200

One important thing to remember is that process is called before versions are created. This can cut down on processing cost.

It is possible to nest versions within versions:

class MyUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base

  version :animal do
    version :human
    version :monkey
    version :llama
  end
end

Making uploads work across form redisplays

Often you'll notice that uploaded files disappear when a validation fails. CarrierWave has a feature that makes it easy to remember the uploaded file even in that case. Suppose your user model has an uploader mounted on avatar file, just add a hidden field called avatar_cache. In Rails, this would look like this:

<%= form_for @user, :html => {:multipart => true} do |f| %>
  <p>
    <label>My Avatar</label>
    <%= f.file_field :avatar %>
    <%= f.hidden_field :avatar_cache %>
  </p>
<% end %>

It might be a good idea to show the user that a file has been uploaded, in the case of images, a small thumbnail would be a good indicator:

<%= form_for @user, :html => {:multipart => true} do |f| %>
  <p>
    <label>My Avatar</label>
    <%= image_tag(@user.avatar_url) if @user.avatar? %>
    <%= f.file_field :avatar %>
    <%= f.hidden_field :avatar_cache %>
  </p>
<% end %>

Removing uploaded files

If you want to remove a previously uploaded file on a mounted uploader, you can easily add a checkbox to the form which will remove the file when checked.

<%= form_for @user, :html => {:multipart => true} do |f| %>
  <p>
    <label>My Avatar</label>
    <%= image_tag(@user.avatar_url) if @user.avatar? %>
    <%= f.file_field :avatar %>
  </p>

  <p>
    <label>
      <%= f.check_box :remove_avatar %>
      Remove avatar
    </label>
  </p>
<% end %>

If you want to remove the file manually, you can call remove_avatar!.

Uploading files from a remote location

Your users may find it convenient to upload a file from a location on the Internet via a URL. CarrierWave makes this simple, just add the appropriate attribute to your form and you're good to go:

<%= form_for @user, :html => {:multipart => true} do |f| %>
  <p>
    <label>My Avatar URL:</label>
    <%= image_tag(@user.avatar_url) if @user.avatar? %>
    <%= f.text_field :remote_avatar_url %>
  </p>
<% end %>

Providing a default URL

In many cases, especially when working with images, it might be a good idea to provide a default url, a fallback in case no file has been uploaded. You can do this easily by overriding the default_url method in your uploader:

class MyUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  def default_url
    "/images/fallback/" + [version_name, "default.png"].compact.join('_')
  end
end

Recreating versions

You might come to a situation where you want to retroactively change a version or add a new one. You can use the recreate_versions! method to recreate the versions from the base file. This uses a naive approach which will re-upload and process all versions.

instance = MyUploader.new
instance.recreate_versions!

Or on a mounted uploader:

User.all.each do |user|
  user.avatar.recreate_versions!
end

Configuring CarrierWave

CarrierWave has a broad range of configuration options, which you can configure, both globally and on a per-uploader basis:

CarrierWave.configure do |config|
  config.permissions = 0666
  config.storage = :s3
end

Or alternatively:

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  permissions 0777
end

If you're using Rails, create an initializer for this:

config/initializers/carrierwave.rb

Testing with CarrierWave

It's a good idea to test you uploaders in isolation. In order to speed up your tests, it's recommended to switch off processing in your tests, and to use the file storage. In Rails you could do that by adding an initializer with:

if Rails.env.test? or Rails.env.cucumber?
  CarrierWave.configure do |config|
    config.storage = :file
    config.enable_processing = false
  end
end

If you need to test your processing, you should test it in isolation, and enable processing only for those tests that need it.

CarrierWave comes with some RSpec matchers which you may find useful:

require 'carrierwave/test/matchers'

describe MyUploader do
  include CarrierWave::Test::Matchers

  before do
    MyUploader.enable_processing = true
    @uploader = MyUploader.new(@user, :avatar)
    @uploader.store!(File.open(path_to_file))
  end

  after do
    MyUploader.enable_processing = false
  end

  context 'the thumb version' do
    it "should scale down a landscape image to be exactly 64 by 64 pixels" do
      @uploader.thumb.should have_dimensions(64, 64)
    end
  end

  context 'the small version' do
    it "should scale down a landscape image to fit within 200 by 200 pixels" do
      @uploader.small.should be_no_larger_than(200, 200)
    end
  end

  it "should make the image readable only to the owner and not executable" do
    @uploader.should have_permissions(0600)
  end
end

Setting the enable_processing flag on an uploader will prevent any of the versions from processing as well. Processing can be enabled for a single version by setting the processing flag on the version like so:

@uploader.thumb.enable_processing = true

Using Amazon S3

Fog is used to support Amazon S3. Ensure you have it installed:

gem install fog

You'll need to provide your fog_credentials and a fog_directory (also known as a bucket) in an initializer. For the sake of performance it is assumed that the directory already exists, so please create it if need be. You can also pass in additional options, as documented fully in lib/carrierwave/storage/fog.rb. Here's a full example:

CarrierWave.configure do |config|
  config.fog_credentials = {
    :provider               => 'AWS',       # required
    :aws_access_key_id      => 'xxx',       # required
    :aws_secret_access_key  => 'yyy',       # required
    :region                 => 'eu-west-1'  # optional, defaults to 'us-east-1'
  }
  config.fog_directory  = 'name_of_directory'                     # required
  config.fog_host       = 'https://assets.example.com'            # optional, defaults to nil
  config.fog_public     = false                                   # optional, defaults to true
  config.fog_attributes = {'Cache-Control'=>'max-age=315576000'}  # optional, defaults to {}
end

In your uploader, set the storage to :fog

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  storage :fog
end

That's it! You can still use the CarrierWave::Uploader#url method to return the url to the file on Amazon S3.

Using Rackspace Cloud Files

Fog is used to support Rackspace Cloud Files. Ensure you have it installed:

gem install fog

You'll need to configure a directory (also known as a container), username and API key in the initializer. For the sake of performance it is assumed that the directory already exists, so please create it if need be.

CarrierWave.configure do |config|
  config.fog_credentials = {
    :provider           => 'Rackspace',
    :rackspace_username => 'xxxxxx',
    :rackspace_api_key  => 'yyyyyy'
  }
  config.fog_directory = 'name_of_directory'
end

You can optionally include your CDN host name in the configuration. This is highly recommended, as without it every request requires a lookup of this information.

config.fog_host = "c000000.cdn.rackspacecloud.com"

In your uploader, set the storage to :fog

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  storage :fog
end

That's it! You can still use the CarrierWave::Uploader#url method to return the url to the file on Rackspace Cloud Files.

Using Google Storage for Developers

Fog is used to support Google Storage for Developers. Ensure you have it installed:

gem install fog

You'll need to configure a directory (also known as a bucket), access key id and secret access key in the initializer. For the sake of performance it is assumed that the directory already exists, so please create it if need be.

CarrierWave.configure do |config|
  config.fog_credentials = {
    :provider                         => 'Google',
    :google_storage_access_key_id     => 'xxxxxx',
    :google_storage_secret_access_key => 'yyyyyy'
  }
  config.fog_directory = 'name_of_directory'
end

In your uploader, set the storage to :fog

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  storage :fog
end

That's it! You can still use the CarrierWave::Uploader#url method to return the url to the file on Google.

Using MongoDB's GridFS store

You'll need to configure the database and host to use:

CarrierWave.configure do |config|
  config.grid_fs_database = 'my_mongo_database'
  config.grid_fs_host = 'mongo.example.com'
end

The defaults are 'carrierwave' and 'localhost'.

And then in your uploader, set the storage to :grid_fs:

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  storage :grid_fs
end

Since GridFS doesn't make the files available via HTTP, you'll need to stream them yourself. In Rails for example, you could use the send_data method. You can tell CarrierWave the URL you will serve your images from, allowing it to generate the correct URL, by setting eg:

CarrierWave.configure do |config|
  config.grid_fs_access_url = "/image/show"
end

Using RMagick

If you're uploading images, you'll probably want to manipulate them in some way, you might want to create thumbnail images for example. CarrierWave comes with a small library to make manipulating images with RMagick easier, you'll need to include it in your Uploader:

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  include CarrierWave::RMagick
end

The RMagick module gives you a few methods, like CarrierWave::RMagick#resize_to_fill which manipulate the image file in some way. You can set a process callback, which will call that method any time a file is uploaded. There is a demonstration of convert here. Convert will only work if the file has the same file extension, thus the use of the filename method.

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  include CarrierWave::RMagick

  process :resize_to_fill => [200, 200]
  process :convert => 'png'

  def filename
    super.chomp(File.extname(super)) + '.png'
  end
end

Check out the manipulate! method, which makes it easy for you to write your own manipulation methods.

Using ImageScience

ImageScience works the same way as RMagick.

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  include CarrierWave::ImageScience

  process :resize_to_fill => [200, 200]
end

Using MiniMagick

MiniMagick is similar to RMagick but performs all the operations using the 'mogrify' command which is part of the standard ImageMagick kit. This allows you to have the power of ImageMagick without having to worry about installing all the RMagick libraries.

See the MiniMagick site for more details:

http://github.com/probablycorey/mini_magick

And the ImageMagick command line options for more for whats on offer:

http://www.imagemagick.org/script/command-line-options.php

Currently, the MiniMagick carrierwave processor provides exactly the same methods as for the RMagick processor.

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  include CarrierWave::MiniMagick

  process :resize_to_fill => [200, 200]
end

Migrating from Paperclip

If you are using Paperclip, you can use the provided compatibility module:

class AvatarUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  include CarrierWave::Compatibility::Paperclip
end

See the documentation for CarrierWave::Compatibility::Paperclip for more details.

Be sure to use mount_on to specify the correct column:

mount_uploader :avatar, AvatarUploader, :mount_on => :avatar_file_name

Unfortunately attachment_fu differs too much in philosophy for there to be a sensible compatibility mode. Patches for migrating from other solutions will be happily accepted.

i18n

The Active Record validations use the Rails i18n framework. Add these keys to your translations file:

errors:
  messages:
    carrierwave_processing_error: 'Cannot resize image.'
    carrierwave_integrity_error: 'Not an image.'

Contributing to CarrierWave

CarrierWave thrives on a large number of contributors, and pull requests are very welcome. Before submitting a pull request, please make sure that your changes are well tested.

You'll need to install bundler and the gem dependencies:

gem install bundler
bundle install

You should now be able to run the local tests:

bundle exec rake

You can also run the remote specs by creating a ~/.fog file:

:carrierwave:
  :aws_access_key_id: xxx
  :aws_secret_access_key: yyy
  :rackspace_username: xxx
  :rackspace_api_key: yyy
  :google_storage_access_key_id: xxx
  :google_storage_secret_access_key: yyy

You should now be able to run the remote tests:

REMOTE=true bundle exec rake

Please test with the latest Ruby 1.8.x and 1.9.x versions using RVM if possible.

License

Copyright (c) 2008 Jonas Nicklas

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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