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Pragmatic Versioning


This specification describes a set of rules and requirements that dictate how each version identifier must be bumped and and assigned to releases, in a way that communicates the kind of modifications that were done to a versioned artifact.

A minimal version identifier takes the form GRADE.MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH and is bumped by incrementing:

  • The Grade Number, when any disruptive modifications are released.
  • The Major Number, when any backwards-incompatible modifications are released.
  • The Minor Number, when any backwards-compatible alterations are released.
  • The Patch Number, when only backwards-compatible corrections are released.

Optional Metadata containing additional information associated to the release or the build take the respective forms -RELEASE.METADATA and +BUILD.METADATA and can be appended to a minimal version identifier.


The Pragmatic Versioning specification is authored by Guillermo Calvo.


This specification is released under Creative Commons β€” Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

You are free to:

  • Share β€” copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
  • Adapt β€” remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.

The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

Under the following terms:

  • Attribution β€” You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
  • No additional restrictions β€” You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.


  • You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
  • No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.


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