A small RTOS for ARM Cortex-M4F microcontrollers.
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README.md

F4OS

F4OS is a small real-time operating system intended for use in embedded applications. F4OS is designed to be chip-agnostic, fairly simple to port to new chips, or even new architectures. To that end, the hardware abstration model is designed to be as generic as possible, so that only minimal configuration changes are required to move between chips.

F4OS was originally developed on the STMicro STM32F4DISCOVERY Board, which is where the name F4OS originates.

Supported Hardware

F4OS currently supports the following architectures:

  • ARMv7-A
    • Currently entirely MMU-less rudimentary support
    • See ARMv7-A docs for more details on support for this architecture
  • ARMv7-M
    • See ARMv7-M docs for more details on support for this architecture

Currently, the supported chips include the following. See the chip documentation pages for more details on chip support.

Architecture Chip Officially Supported Boards
ARMv7-M STMicro STM32F4 series STM32F4DISCOVERY, 32F401CDISCOVERY, PX4FMU 1.x
ARMv7-M TI Tiva C series, aka TI Stellaris LM4F TI Stellaris Launchpad
ARMv7-A TI Sitara AM335x series BeagleBone Black

Building F4OS

Requirements

A cross-compiling toolchain is required to build F4OS for the target architecture. See the architecture file in docs/ for recommended toolchains.

Runtime configuration is performed using flattened device trees. The device tree compiler (dtc) is required to process device tree files. This compiler is available in most package managers as dtc or device-tree-compiler. It can also be downloaded from the source repository.

F4OS uses the Kconfig language for its build configuration, and needs at least the conf tool for processing KConfig files. This tool is distibuted with the Linux kernel, but it and other tools are packaged for external use by the kconfig-frontends project.

On its first run, the F4OS build system will search for the Kconfig tools, and if not found, will offer to automatically download and build the kconfig-frontends project, so manually building and installing this project is unnecessary.

kconfig-frontends does itself have several dependencies which must be installed on the host system in order to build the project. These include: autoconf, automake, bison, curl, flex, gperf, libtoolize, libncurses5-dev, m4, and pkg-config.

Configuration and building

F4OS uses the Kconfig language for build configuration, so a configuration must be specified before building.

Menuconfig can be used to manually select configuration options.

$ make menuconfig

However, defconfigs are provided for all supported chips, which provide a standard configuration for that chip. The help displays a list of available defconfigs.

$ make help

To configure for the STM32F4DISCOVERY board, simply use its defconfig.

$ make discovery_defconfig

Once configured, it is simply to build the entire OS.

$ make

Flashing/Booting

Building F4OS will generate out/f4os.elf, an ELF object, and an appropriate binary for running the OS on the configured chip. In order to actually run F4OS, it needs to be flashed/booted on the chip it was built for.

See the documentation page for the configured chip for details on flashing or booting. For chips with internal flash, make burn is generally used to automate the process of flashing the OS.

Using F4OS

User Application

After OS initialization, F4OS will run the user application built into binary. This is one of the directories in the usr/ folder. By default, the simple shell in usr/shell/ is built, providing several basic programs.

The folder with the user application to build is specified by the USR environmental variable. For example, to build the test suite, specify USR=tests.

$ USR=tests make

Adding a custom application is easy, and has only a few requirements.

  1. The application must be placed in a subdirectory of usr/. This is to ensure it can be properly selected with the USR environmental variable.
  2. The directory must have a Makefile in the format described below, in "Extending F4OS". A large directory hierarchy can be specified, it just needs to follow the build system format in order to build properly.
  3. The application must define a main() function. This function is declared in include/kernel/sched.h, and should create the application tasks that should be scheduled at boot.

Other than those simple requirements, an application is free to do whatever it would like. Other than a few kernel tasks, the application tasks will be the only tasks running on the chip.

A little more information about the main() function: This function is called just before the scheduler begins running tasks. The purpose of this function is for the user application to create the initial tasks it would like scheduled at system boot. If no tasks are created in main(), then the only tasks available for scheduling will be the kernel tasks, and the user application will never run. Task creation is described below in "Extending F4OS".

The shell application is a good example application. It has a fairly full-featured Makefile at usr/shell/Makefile, and a basic main() in usr/shell/main.c. This application simply creates a single task, which runs continuously, listening for user input.

Standard Output and Standard Error

F4OS can utilize different devices for the standard output and standard error interfaces. Various configurations use different interfaces, but they can be manually selected in the "Drivers" menu of the configuration. The options are "Standard output device" and "Standard error device".

$ make menuconfig

See specific chip documentation pages for for more information about board default stdout and stderr devices.

Extending F4OS

F4OS is designed to be easy to extend, particularly with user applications and device drivers. Here are some notes that will aide in extending F4OS.

Tasks

Tasks are the fundamental units run by F4OS, enabling the system to multitask. Each task consists of a function pointer to the start of the task, a private stack, a priority, and, if periodic, a period.

The F4OS scheduler will task switch between the registered tasks, based on their priority and period. The context switches are entirely transparent. From a task's perspective, it is always running.

F4OS uses a rate-monotonic scheduler, so higher priority tasks always run in favor of lower priority tasks, while equal priority tasks are scheduled in a round-robin fashion.

In order to prevent starvation, task priorities should be assigned inversely proportional to their runtime. That is, tasks that run for a short time may have high priorities, while those that run for a long time should have a lower priority. Tasks that run indefinitely should have the lowest priority.

Non-periodic tasks are destroyed upon return, while periodic tasks are restarted at each period. Periodic tasks may destroy themselves with a call to abort().

F4OS is a soft real-time operating system. Periodic tasks will be queued to run precisely at their period tick, however the actual task scheduled is dependent upon the task priority, so if a higher priority task is available, task deadlines may be missed.

Tasks are created using the new_task() function defined in include/kernel/sched.h:

task_t *new_task(void (*fptr)(void), uint8_t priority, uint32_t period);

This function takes the function used to start the task, the task priority, and the task period in system ticks. The system tick frequency can be configured with CONFIG_SYSTICK_FREQ. It returns a pointer to the task, which can be used in various other scheduler API functions.

Makefiles

F4OS uses a recursive Make-based build system, which uses a simple Makefile in each directory to describe the build. Here is a sample Makefile:

SRCS += file1.c
SRCS_$(CONFIG_BUILD_FILE2) += file2.c

DIRS_$(CONFIG_BUILD_SUBDIR) += subdir/

CFLAGS += -DEXTRA_OPTION

include $(BASE)/tools/submake.mk

Let's break down what is going on here.

The build system will build all sources in SRCS or SRCS_y, so file1.c will be built unconditionally. CONFIG_BUILD_FILE2 is a Make variable provided based on the Kconfig option BUILD_FILE2. If the option is enabled, the variable will expand to 'y'. If it is not enabled, it will expand either to 'n' or to nothing. Concatenated with SRCS_, this adds the file either to SRCS_, SRCS_n, or SRCS_y. Only files in SRCS_y are built.

Like sources, the build system will build directories in either DIRS or DIRS_y. Thus, subdirectories can be built conditionally, just like sources. Note that subdir/ should have a Makefile in this format as well.

The standard flag variables (CFLAGS, LFLAGS, MAKEFLAGS) can be extended in the Makefile. Changes will affect all files built in this directory and all subdirectories.

The include line is required, and includes all of the magic necessary to actually build the sources and recurse into the subdirectories.

Kconfig

F4OS uses the Kconfig configuration language to configure builds of the OS. Full documentation for the language can be found as part of kconfig-frontends.

Kconfig files describe the options, and their defaults and dependencies. Options with a prompt will be available for selection in the interactive menuconfig.

$ make menuconfig

A set of default configuration options is called a defconfig, and several are provided for supported chips in configs/.

Additional menus and options may be added to allow additional configuration of F4OS.

The selected options are automatically included in all Makefiles and source files, with the CONFIG_ prefix.

Headers

Most global C headers are kept in include/, the standard system include path. However, architecture- and chip-specific headers are kept in arch/$ARCH/include/, and arch/$ARCH/chip/$CHIP/include/, respectively. These headers can be included simply using the arch/ or arch/chip/ prefix. For example:

#include <arch/arch_header.h>
#include <arch/chip/chip_header.h>

Note that use of arch- and chip-specific headers should be avoided outside of the arch and chip directories, as the same headers may not be available for other architectures or chips.

If an arch-specific feature is needed globally, a global interface should use declared and used, simply implemented for the architecture.

Drivers

Device drivers are written in F4OS using a generic object framework, defined in several headers, including include/kernel/obj.h and include/kernel/class.h.

This model allows generic objects to be passed around, but used powerfully when their type is known. All objects of the same type, or class, provide a standard interface that is best fit for that type. For example, all I2C drivers provide the same interface, as do all accelerometers. If an accelerometer depends on a I2C bus, it can request the I2C object and use its interface, regardless of which driver backs the I2C object.

Even more usefully, this allows an application to request an "accelerometer", not even having to know what hardware is being used.

While there are a few legacy drivers using an old character-based interface, all new drivers should be written using the object model. The LIS302DL accelerometer driver, found in dev/accel/lis302dl.c, provides a good example of a driver written using the object model.

Since the is all accelerometer, it must implement the accelerometer operations, defined in include/dev/accel.h.

The driver is registered with the device driver system using an OS initializer (a function which will run at boot), providing information on how to initialize the driver.

In the driver initialization, the driver is added as an accelerometer object, gets the object for its parent bus, and gets objects for the GPIOs it will use, and configures those.

Board/chip physical configurations and interconnects are described by the configured device tree source file. The DTS file to use for a given build is configured with CONFIG_DEVICE_TREE.

Chip and Architecture Ports

F4OS aims to make porting to new architectures, and especially new chips, as easy as possible.

For information on porting to a new chip on a supported architecture, see the architecture file in docs/.

For information on porting to a new architecture, see the architecture porting document.

Contributing

F4OS would love your contributions to the project! The vast majority of contributions are handled through Gerrit Code Review, however we will accept contributions via GitHub Pull Requests as well.