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#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <libelf.h>
#include <gelf.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <linux/bpf.h>
#include <linux/filter.h>
#include <linux/perf_event.h>
#include <linux/netlink.h>
#include <linux/rtnetlink.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/syscall.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <poll.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include "libbpf.h"
#include "bpf_load.h"
#include "perf-sys.h"
#define DEBUGFS "/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/"
static char license[128];
static int kern_version;
static bool processed_sec[128];
char bpf_log_buf[BPF_LOG_BUF_SIZE];
int map_fd[MAX_MAPS];
int prog_fd[MAX_PROGS];
int event_fd[MAX_PROGS];
int prog_cnt;
int prog_array_fd = -1;
struct bpf_map_data map_data[MAX_MAPS];
int map_data_count = 0;
static int populate_prog_array(const char *event, int prog_fd)
{
int ind = atoi(event), err;
err = bpf_map_update_elem(prog_array_fd, &ind, &prog_fd, BPF_ANY);
if (err < 0) {
printf("failed to store prog_fd in prog_array\n");
return -1;
}
return 0;
}
static int load_and_attach(const char *event, struct bpf_insn *prog, int size)
{
bool is_socket = strncmp(event, "socket", 6) == 0;
bool is_kprobe = strncmp(event, "kprobe/", 7) == 0;
bool is_kretprobe = strncmp(event, "kretprobe/", 10) == 0;
bool is_tracepoint = strncmp(event, "tracepoint/", 11) == 0;
bool is_xdp = strncmp(event, "xdp", 3) == 0;
bool is_perf_event = strncmp(event, "perf_event", 10) == 0;
bool is_cgroup_skb = strncmp(event, "cgroup/skb", 10) == 0;
bool is_cgroup_sk = strncmp(event, "cgroup/sock", 11) == 0;
size_t insns_cnt = size / sizeof(struct bpf_insn);
enum bpf_prog_type prog_type;
char buf[256];
int fd, efd, err, id;
struct perf_event_attr attr = {};
attr.type = PERF_TYPE_TRACEPOINT;
attr.sample_type = PERF_SAMPLE_RAW;
attr.sample_period = 1;
attr.wakeup_events = 1;
if (is_socket) {
prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER;
} else if (is_kprobe || is_kretprobe) {
prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_KPROBE;
} else if (is_tracepoint) {
prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACEPOINT;
} else if (is_xdp) {
prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_XDP;
} else if (is_perf_event) {
prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT;
} else if (is_cgroup_skb) {
prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SKB;
} else if (is_cgroup_sk) {
prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK;
} else {
printf("Unknown event '%s'\n", event);
return -1;
}
fd = bpf_load_program(prog_type, prog, insns_cnt, license, kern_version,
bpf_log_buf, BPF_LOG_BUF_SIZE);
if (fd < 0) {
printf("bpf_load_program() err=%d\n%s", errno, bpf_log_buf);
return -1;
}
prog_fd[prog_cnt++] = fd;
if (is_xdp || is_perf_event || is_cgroup_skb || is_cgroup_sk)
return 0;
if (is_socket) {
event += 6;
if (*event != '/')
return 0;
event++;
if (!isdigit(*event)) {
printf("invalid prog number\n");
return -1;
}
return populate_prog_array(event, fd);
}
if (is_kprobe || is_kretprobe) {
if (is_kprobe)
event += 7;
else
event += 10;
if (*event == 0) {
printf("event name cannot be empty\n");
return -1;
}
if (isdigit(*event))
return populate_prog_array(event, fd);
snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf),
"echo '%c:%s %s' >> /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/kprobe_events",
is_kprobe ? 'p' : 'r', event, event);
err = system(buf);
if (err < 0) {
printf("failed to create kprobe '%s' error '%s'\n",
event, strerror(errno));
return -1;
}
strcpy(buf, DEBUGFS);
strcat(buf, "events/kprobes/");
strcat(buf, event);
strcat(buf, "/id");
} else if (is_tracepoint) {
event += 11;
if (*event == 0) {
printf("event name cannot be empty\n");
return -1;
}
strcpy(buf, DEBUGFS);
strcat(buf, "events/");
strcat(buf, event);
strcat(buf, "/id");
}
efd = open(buf, O_RDONLY, 0);
if (efd < 0) {
printf("failed to open event %s\n", event);
return -1;
}
err = read(efd, buf, sizeof(buf));
if (err < 0 || err >= sizeof(buf)) {
printf("read from '%s' failed '%s'\n", event, strerror(errno));
return -1;
}
close(efd);
buf[err] = 0;
id = atoi(buf);
attr.config = id;
efd = sys_perf_event_open(&attr, -1/*pid*/, 0/*cpu*/, -1/*group_fd*/, 0);
if (efd < 0) {
printf("event %d fd %d err %s\n", id, efd, strerror(errno));
return -1;
}
event_fd[prog_cnt - 1] = efd;
ioctl(efd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_ENABLE, 0);
ioctl(efd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF, fd);
return 0;
}
static int load_maps(struct bpf_map_data *maps, int nr_maps,
fixup_map_cb fixup_map)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < nr_maps; i++) {
if (fixup_map) {
fixup_map(&maps[i], i);
/* Allow userspace to assign map FD prior to creation */
if (maps[i].fd != -1) {
map_fd[i] = maps[i].fd;
continue;
}
}
if (maps[i].def.type == BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY_OF_MAPS ||
maps[i].def.type == BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH_OF_MAPS) {
int inner_map_fd = map_fd[maps[i].def.inner_map_idx];
map_fd[i] = bpf_create_map_in_map(maps[i].def.type,
maps[i].def.key_size,
inner_map_fd,
maps[i].def.max_entries,
maps[i].def.map_flags);
} else {
map_fd[i] = bpf_create_map(maps[i].def.type,
maps[i].def.key_size,
maps[i].def.value_size,
maps[i].def.max_entries,
maps[i].def.map_flags);
}
if (map_fd[i] < 0) {
printf("failed to create a map: %d %s\n",
errno, strerror(errno));
return 1;
}
maps[i].fd = map_fd[i];
if (maps[i].def.type == BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY)
prog_array_fd = map_fd[i];
}
return 0;
}
static int get_sec(Elf *elf, int i, GElf_Ehdr *ehdr, char **shname,
GElf_Shdr *shdr, Elf_Data **data)
{
Elf_Scn *scn;
scn = elf_getscn(elf, i);
if (!scn)
return 1;
if (gelf_getshdr(scn, shdr) != shdr)
return 2;
*shname = elf_strptr(elf, ehdr->e_shstrndx, shdr->sh_name);
if (!*shname || !shdr->sh_size)
return 3;
*data = elf_getdata(scn, 0);
if (!*data || elf_getdata(scn, *data) != NULL)
return 4;
return 0;
}
static int parse_relo_and_apply(Elf_Data *data, Elf_Data *symbols,
GElf_Shdr *shdr, struct bpf_insn *insn,
struct bpf_map_data *maps, int nr_maps)
{
int i, nrels;
nrels = shdr->sh_size / shdr->sh_entsize;
for (i = 0; i < nrels; i++) {
GElf_Sym sym;
GElf_Rel rel;
unsigned int insn_idx;
bool match = false;
int j, map_idx;
gelf_getrel(data, i, &rel);
insn_idx = rel.r_offset / sizeof(struct bpf_insn);
gelf_getsym(symbols, GELF_R_SYM(rel.r_info), &sym);
if (insn[insn_idx].code != (BPF_LD | BPF_IMM | BPF_DW)) {
printf("invalid relo for insn[%d].code 0x%x\n",
insn_idx, insn[insn_idx].code);
return 1;
}
insn[insn_idx].src_reg = BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD;
/* Match FD relocation against recorded map_data[] offset */
for (map_idx = 0; map_idx < nr_maps; map_idx++) {
if (maps[map_idx].elf_offset == sym.st_value) {
match = true;
break;
}
}
if (match) {
insn[insn_idx].imm = maps[map_idx].fd;
} else {
printf("invalid relo for insn[%d] no map_data match\n",
insn_idx);
return 1;
}
}
return 0;
}
static int cmp_symbols(const void *l, const void *r)
{
const GElf_Sym *lsym = (const GElf_Sym *)l;
const GElf_Sym *rsym = (const GElf_Sym *)r;
if (lsym->st_value < rsym->st_value)
return -1;
else if (lsym->st_value > rsym->st_value)
return 1;
else
return 0;
}
static int load_elf_maps_section(struct bpf_map_data *maps, int maps_shndx,
Elf *elf, Elf_Data *symbols, int strtabidx)
{
int map_sz_elf, map_sz_copy;
bool validate_zero = false;
Elf_Data *data_maps;
int i, nr_maps;
GElf_Sym *sym;
Elf_Scn *scn;
int copy_sz;
if (maps_shndx < 0)
return -EINVAL;
if (!symbols)
return -EINVAL;
/* Get data for maps section via elf index */
scn = elf_getscn(elf, maps_shndx);
if (scn)
data_maps = elf_getdata(scn, NULL);
if (!scn || !data_maps) {
printf("Failed to get Elf_Data from maps section %d\n",
maps_shndx);
return -EINVAL;
}
/* For each map get corrosponding symbol table entry */
sym = calloc(MAX_MAPS+1, sizeof(GElf_Sym));
for (i = 0, nr_maps = 0; i < symbols->d_size / sizeof(GElf_Sym); i++) {
assert(nr_maps < MAX_MAPS+1);
if (!gelf_getsym(symbols, i, &sym[nr_maps]))
continue;
if (sym[nr_maps].st_shndx != maps_shndx)
continue;
/* Only increment iif maps section */
nr_maps++;
}
/* Align to map_fd[] order, via sort on offset in sym.st_value */
qsort(sym, nr_maps, sizeof(GElf_Sym), cmp_symbols);
/* Keeping compatible with ELF maps section changes
* ------------------------------------------------
* The program size of struct bpf_map_def is known by loader
* code, but struct stored in ELF file can be different.
*
* Unfortunately sym[i].st_size is zero. To calculate the
* struct size stored in the ELF file, assume all struct have
* the same size, and simply divide with number of map
* symbols.
*/
map_sz_elf = data_maps->d_size / nr_maps;
map_sz_copy = sizeof(struct bpf_map_def);
if (map_sz_elf < map_sz_copy) {
/*
* Backward compat, loading older ELF file with
* smaller struct, keeping remaining bytes zero.
*/
map_sz_copy = map_sz_elf;
} else if (map_sz_elf > map_sz_copy) {
/*
* Forward compat, loading newer ELF file with larger
* struct with unknown features. Assume zero means
* feature not used. Thus, validate rest of struct
* data is zero.
*/
validate_zero = true;
}
/* Memcpy relevant part of ELF maps data to loader maps */
for (i = 0; i < nr_maps; i++) {
unsigned char *addr, *end;
struct bpf_map_def *def;
const char *map_name;
size_t offset;
map_name = elf_strptr(elf, strtabidx, sym[i].st_name);
maps[i].name = strdup(map_name);
if (!maps[i].name) {
printf("strdup(%s): %s(%d)\n", map_name,
strerror(errno), errno);
free(sym);
return -errno;
}
/* Symbol value is offset into ELF maps section data area */
offset = sym[i].st_value;
def = (struct bpf_map_def *)(data_maps->d_buf + offset);
maps[i].elf_offset = offset;
memset(&maps[i].def, 0, sizeof(struct bpf_map_def));
memcpy(&maps[i].def, def, map_sz_copy);
/* Verify no newer features were requested */
if (validate_zero) {
addr = (unsigned char*) def + map_sz_copy;
end = (unsigned char*) def + map_sz_elf;
for (; addr < end; addr++) {
if (*addr != 0) {
free(sym);
return -EFBIG;
}
}
}
}
free(sym);
return nr_maps;
}
static int do_load_bpf_file(const char *path, fixup_map_cb fixup_map)
{
int fd, i, ret, maps_shndx = -1, strtabidx = -1;
Elf *elf;
GElf_Ehdr ehdr;
GElf_Shdr shdr, shdr_prog;
Elf_Data *data, *data_prog, *data_maps = NULL, *symbols = NULL;
char *shname, *shname_prog;
int nr_maps = 0;
/* reset global variables */
kern_version = 0;
memset(license, 0, sizeof(license));
memset(processed_sec, 0, sizeof(processed_sec));
if (elf_version(EV_CURRENT) == EV_NONE)
return 1;
fd = open(path, O_RDONLY, 0);
if (fd < 0)
return 1;
elf = elf_begin(fd, ELF_C_READ, NULL);
if (!elf)
return 1;
if (gelf_getehdr(elf, &ehdr) != &ehdr)
return 1;
/* clear all kprobes */
i = system("echo \"\" > /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/kprobe_events");
/* scan over all elf sections to get license and map info */
for (i = 1; i < ehdr.e_shnum; i++) {
if (get_sec(elf, i, &ehdr, &shname, &shdr, &data))
continue;
if (0) /* helpful for llvm debugging */
printf("section %d:%s data %p size %zd link %d flags %d\n",
i, shname, data->d_buf, data->d_size,
shdr.sh_link, (int) shdr.sh_flags);
if (strcmp(shname, "license") == 0) {
processed_sec[i] = true;
memcpy(license, data->d_buf, data->d_size);
} else if (strcmp(shname, "version") == 0) {
processed_sec[i] = true;
if (data->d_size != sizeof(int)) {
printf("invalid size of version section %zd\n",
data->d_size);
return 1;
}
memcpy(&kern_version, data->d_buf, sizeof(int));
} else if (strcmp(shname, "maps") == 0) {
int j;
maps_shndx = i;
data_maps = data;
for (j = 0; j < MAX_MAPS; j++)
map_data[j].fd = -1;
} else if (shdr.sh_type == SHT_SYMTAB) {
strtabidx = shdr.sh_link;
symbols = data;
}
}
ret = 1;
if (!symbols) {
printf("missing SHT_SYMTAB section\n");
goto done;
}
if (data_maps) {
nr_maps = load_elf_maps_section(map_data, maps_shndx,
elf, symbols, strtabidx);
if (nr_maps < 0) {
printf("Error: Failed loading ELF maps (errno:%d):%s\n",
nr_maps, strerror(-nr_maps));
ret = 1;
goto done;
}
if (load_maps(map_data, nr_maps, fixup_map))
goto done;
map_data_count = nr_maps;
processed_sec[maps_shndx] = true;
}
/* load programs that need map fixup (relocations) */
for (i = 1; i < ehdr.e_shnum; i++) {
if (processed_sec[i])
continue;
if (get_sec(elf, i, &ehdr, &shname, &shdr, &data))
continue;
if (shdr.sh_type == SHT_REL) {
struct bpf_insn *insns;
if (get_sec(elf, shdr.sh_info, &ehdr, &shname_prog,
&shdr_prog, &data_prog))
continue;
if (shdr_prog.sh_type != SHT_PROGBITS ||
!(shdr_prog.sh_flags & SHF_EXECINSTR))
continue;
insns = (struct bpf_insn *) data_prog->d_buf;
processed_sec[shdr.sh_info] = true;
processed_sec[i] = true;
if (parse_relo_and_apply(data, symbols, &shdr, insns,
map_data, nr_maps))
continue;
if (memcmp(shname_prog, "kprobe/", 7) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname_prog, "kretprobe/", 10) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname_prog, "tracepoint/", 11) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname_prog, "xdp", 3) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname_prog, "perf_event", 10) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname_prog, "socket", 6) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname_prog, "cgroup/", 7) == 0)
load_and_attach(shname_prog, insns, data_prog->d_size);
}
}
/* load programs that don't use maps */
for (i = 1; i < ehdr.e_shnum; i++) {
if (processed_sec[i])
continue;
if (get_sec(elf, i, &ehdr, &shname, &shdr, &data))
continue;
if (memcmp(shname, "kprobe/", 7) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname, "kretprobe/", 10) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname, "tracepoint/", 11) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname, "xdp", 3) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname, "perf_event", 10) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname, "socket", 6) == 0 ||
memcmp(shname, "cgroup/", 7) == 0)
load_and_attach(shname, data->d_buf, data->d_size);
}
ret = 0;
done:
close(fd);
return ret;
}
int load_bpf_file(char *path)
{
return do_load_bpf_file(path, NULL);
}
int load_bpf_file_fixup_map(const char *path, fixup_map_cb fixup_map)
{
return do_load_bpf_file(path, fixup_map);
}
void read_trace_pipe(void)
{
int trace_fd;
trace_fd = open(DEBUGFS "trace_pipe", O_RDONLY, 0);
if (trace_fd < 0)
return;
while (1) {
static char buf[4096];
ssize_t sz;
sz = read(trace_fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
if (sz > 0) {
buf[sz] = 0;
puts(buf);
}
}
}
#define MAX_SYMS 300000
static struct ksym syms[MAX_SYMS];
static int sym_cnt;
static int ksym_cmp(const void *p1, const void *p2)
{
return ((struct ksym *)p1)->addr - ((struct ksym *)p2)->addr;
}
int load_kallsyms(void)
{
FILE *f = fopen("/proc/kallsyms", "r");
char func[256], buf[256];
char symbol;
void *addr;
int i = 0;
if (!f)
return -ENOENT;
while (!feof(f)) {
if (!fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), f))
break;
if (sscanf(buf, "%p %c %s", &addr, &symbol, func) != 3)
break;
if (!addr)
continue;
syms[i].addr = (long) addr;
syms[i].name = strdup(func);
i++;
}
sym_cnt = i;
qsort(syms, sym_cnt, sizeof(struct ksym), ksym_cmp);
return 0;
}
struct ksym *ksym_search(long key)
{
int start = 0, end = sym_cnt;
int result;
while (start < end) {
size_t mid = start + (end - start) / 2;
result = key - syms[mid].addr;
if (result < 0)
end = mid;
else if (result > 0)
start = mid + 1;
else
return &syms[mid];
}
if (start >= 1 && syms[start - 1].addr < key &&
key < syms[start].addr)
/* valid ksym */
return &syms[start - 1];
/* out of range. return _stext */
return &syms[0];
}
int set_link_xdp_fd(int ifindex, int fd, __u32 flags)
{
struct sockaddr_nl sa;
int sock, seq = 0, len, ret = -1;
char buf[4096];
struct nlattr *nla, *nla_xdp;
struct {
struct nlmsghdr nh;
struct ifinfomsg ifinfo;
char attrbuf[64];
} req;
struct nlmsghdr *nh;
struct nlmsgerr *err;
memset(&sa, 0, sizeof(sa));
sa.nl_family = AF_NETLINK;
sock = socket(AF_NETLINK, SOCK_RAW, NETLINK_ROUTE);
if (sock < 0) {
printf("open netlink socket: %s\n", strerror(errno));
return -1;
}
if (bind(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&sa, sizeof(sa)) < 0) {
printf("bind to netlink: %s\n", strerror(errno));
goto cleanup;
}
memset(&req, 0, sizeof(req));
req.nh.nlmsg_len = NLMSG_LENGTH(sizeof(struct ifinfomsg));
req.nh.nlmsg_flags = NLM_F_REQUEST | NLM_F_ACK;
req.nh.nlmsg_type = RTM_SETLINK;
req.nh.nlmsg_pid = 0;
req.nh.nlmsg_seq = ++seq;
req.ifinfo.ifi_family = AF_UNSPEC;
req.ifinfo.ifi_index = ifindex;
/* started nested attribute for XDP */
nla = (struct nlattr *)(((char *)&req)
+ NLMSG_ALIGN(req.nh.nlmsg_len));
nla->nla_type = NLA_F_NESTED | 43/*IFLA_XDP*/;
nla->nla_len = NLA_HDRLEN;
/* add XDP fd */
nla_xdp = (struct nlattr *)((char *)nla + nla->nla_len);
nla_xdp->nla_type = 1/*IFLA_XDP_FD*/;
nla_xdp->nla_len = NLA_HDRLEN + sizeof(int);
memcpy((char *)nla_xdp + NLA_HDRLEN, &fd, sizeof(fd));
nla->nla_len += nla_xdp->nla_len;
/* if user passed in any flags, add those too */
if (flags) {
nla_xdp = (struct nlattr *)((char *)nla + nla->nla_len);
nla_xdp->nla_type = 3/*IFLA_XDP_FLAGS*/;
nla_xdp->nla_len = NLA_HDRLEN + sizeof(flags);
memcpy((char *)nla_xdp + NLA_HDRLEN, &flags, sizeof(flags));
nla->nla_len += nla_xdp->nla_len;
}
req.nh.nlmsg_len += NLA_ALIGN(nla->nla_len);
if (send(sock, &req, req.nh.nlmsg_len, 0) < 0) {
printf("send to netlink: %s\n", strerror(errno));
goto cleanup;
}
len = recv(sock, buf, sizeof(buf), 0);
if (len < 0) {
printf("recv from netlink: %s\n", strerror(errno));
goto cleanup;
}
for (nh = (struct nlmsghdr *)buf; NLMSG_OK(nh, len);
nh = NLMSG_NEXT(nh, len)) {
if (nh->nlmsg_pid != getpid()) {
printf("Wrong pid %d, expected %d\n",
nh->nlmsg_pid, getpid());
goto cleanup;
}
if (nh->nlmsg_seq != seq) {
printf("Wrong seq %d, expected %d\n",
nh->nlmsg_seq, seq);
goto cleanup;
}
switch (nh->nlmsg_type) {
case NLMSG_ERROR:
err = (struct nlmsgerr *)NLMSG_DATA(nh);
if (!err->error)
continue;
printf("nlmsg error %s\n", strerror(-err->error));
goto cleanup;
case NLMSG_DONE:
break;
}
}
ret = 0;
cleanup:
close(sock);
return ret;
}