In this section, we go over everything you need to know to start building scripts, or bots using PRAW, the Python Reddit API Wrapper. It's fun and easy. Let's get started.
|Python Knowledge:||You need to know at least a little Python to use PRAW; it's a Python wrapper after all. PRAW supports Python 3.5+. If you are stuck on a problem, /r/learnpython is a great place to ask for help.|
|Reddit Knowledge:||A basic understanding of how reddit.com works is a must. In the event you are not already familiar with Reddit start with their FAQ.|
|Reddit Account:||A Reddit account is required to access Reddit's API. Create one at reddit.com.|
|Client ID & Client Secret:||These two values are needed to access Reddit's API as a script application (see :ref:`oauth` for other application types). If you don't already have a client ID and client secret, follow Reddit's First Steps Guide to create them.|
|User Agent:||A user agent is a unique identifier that helps Reddit determine
the source of network requests. To use Reddit's API, you need a
unique and descriptive user agent. The recommended format is
With these prerequisites satisfied, you are ready to learn how to do some of the most common tasks with Reddit's API.
:class:`.Reddit` InstanceObtain a
For the sake of brevity, the following examples pass authentication information via arguments to :py:func:`praw.Reddit`. If you do this, you need to be careful not to reveal this information to the outside world if you share your code. It is recommended to use a :ref:`praw.ini file <praw.ini>` in order to keep your authentication information separate from your code.
You need an instance of the :class:`.Reddit` class to do anything with PRAW. There are two distinct states a :class:`.Reddit` instance can be in: :ref:`read-only <read-only>`, and :ref:`authorized <authorized>`.
To create a read-only :class:`.Reddit` instance, you need three pieces of information:
- client ID
- client secret
- user agent
You may choose to provide these by passing in three keyword arguments when
calling the initializer of the :class:`.Reddit` class:
user_agent (see :ref:`configuration` for other methods
of providing this information). For example:
import praw reddit = praw.Reddit(client_id='my client id', client_secret='my client secret', user_agent='my user agent')
Just like that, you now have a read-only :class:`.Reddit` instance.
print(reddit.read_only) # Output: True
With a read-only instance, you can do something like obtaining 10 'hot'
# continued from code above for submission in reddit.subreddit('learnpython').hot(limit=10): print(submission.title) # Output: 10 submission
If you want to do more than retrieve public information from Reddit, then you need an authorized :class:`.Reddit` instance.
In the above example we are limiting the results to 10. Without the
limit parameter PRAW should yield as many results as it can with
a single request. For most endpoints this results in 100 items per
request. If you want to retrieve as many as possible pass in
- your Reddit user name, and
- your Reddit password
Again, you may choose to provide these by passing in keyword arguments
password when you call the :class:`.Reddit` initializer,
like the following:
import praw reddit = praw.Reddit(client_id='my client id', client_secret='my client secret', user_agent='my user agent', username='my username', password='my password') print(reddit.read_only) # Output: False
Now you can do whatever your Reddit account is authorized to do. And you can switch back to read-only mode whenever you want:
# continued from code above reddit.read_only = True
If you are uncomfortable hard coding your credentials into your program, there are some options available to you. Please see: :ref:`configuration`.
# assume you have a Reddit instance bound to variable `reddit` subreddit = reddit.subreddit('redditdev') print(subreddit.display_name) # Output: redditdev print(subreddit.title) # Output: reddit Development print(subreddit.description) # Output: A subreddit for discussion of ...
:class:`.Submission` Instances from a :class:`.Subreddit`Obtain
Now that you have a :class:`.Subreddit` instance, you can iterate through some of its submissions, each bound to an instance of :class:`.Submission`. There are several sorts that you can iterate through:
Each of these methods will immediately return a :class:`.ListingGenerator`,
which is to be iterated through. For example, to iterate through the first 10
submissions based on the
hot sort for a given subreddit try:
# assume you have a Subreddit instance bound to variable `subreddit` for submission in subreddit.hot(limit=10): print(submission.title) # Output: the submission's title print(submission.score) # Output: the submission's score print(submission.id) # Output: the submission's ID print(submission.url) # Output: the URL the submission points to # or the submission's URL if it's a self post
You can create :class:`.Submission` instances in other ways too:
# assume you have a Reddit instance bound to variable `reddit` submission = reddit.submission(id='39zje0') print(submission.title) # Output: reddit will soon only be available ... # or submission = reddit.submission(url='https://www.reddit.com/...')
There are several ways to obtain a redditor (a :class:`.Redditor` instance). Two of the most common ones are:
- via the
authorattribute of a :class:`.Submission` or :class:`.Comment` instance
- via the :meth:`.redditor` method of :class:`.Reddit`
# assume you have a Submission instance bound to variable `submission` redditor1 = submission.author print(redditor1.name) # Output: name of the redditor # assume you have a Reddit instance bound to variable `reddit` redditor2 = reddit.redditor('bboe') print(redditor2.link_karma) # Output: bboe's karma
Submissions have a
comments attribute that is a :class:`.CommentForest`
instance. That instance is iterable and represents the top-level comments of
the submission by the default comment sort (
best). If you instead want to
iterate over all comments as a flattened list you can call the :meth:`.list`
method on a :class:`.CommentForest` instance. For example:
# assume you have a Reddit instance bound to variable `reddit` top_level_comments = list(submission.comments) all_comments = submission.comments.list()
The comment sort order can be changed by updating the value of
comment_sort on the :class:`.Submission` instance prior to
comments (see: /api/set_suggested_sort for
possible values). For example to have comments sorted by
# assume you have a Reddit instance bound to variable `reddit` submission = reddit.submission(id='39zje0') submission.comment_sort = 'new' top_level_comments = list(submission.comments)
As you may be aware there will periodically be :class:`.MoreComments` instances
scattered throughout the forest. Replace those :class:`.MoreComments` instances
at any time by calling :meth:`.replace_more` on a :class:`.CommentForest`
instance. Calling :meth:`.replace_more` access
comments, and so must be done
comment_sort is updated. See :ref:`extracting_comments` for an example.
Determine Available Attributes of an Object
If you have a PRAW object, e.g., :class:`.Comment`, :class:`.Message`, :class:`.Redditor`, or :class:`.Submission`, and you want to see what attributes are available along with their values, use the built-in :py:func:`vars` function of python. For example:
import pprint # assume you have a Reddit instance bound to variable `reddit` submission = reddit.submission(id='39zje0') print(submission.title) # to make it non-lazy pprint.pprint(vars(submission))
Note the line where we print the title. PRAW uses lazy objects so that network
requests to Reddit's API are only issued when information is needed. Here,
before the print line,
submission points to a lazy :class:`.Submission`
object. When we try to print its title, additional information is needed, thus
a network request is made, and the instances ceases to be lazy. Outputting all
the attributes of a lazy object will result in fewer attributes than expected.