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Comment Extraction and Parsing

A common use for Reddit's API is to extract comments from submissions and use them to perform keyword or phrase analysis.

As always, you need to begin by creating an instance of :class:`.Reddit`:

import praw

reddit = praw.Reddit(user_agent='Comment Extraction (by /u/USERNAME)',
                     client_id='CLIENT_ID', client_secret="CLIENT_SECRET",
                     username='USERNAME', password='PASSWORD')

Note

If you are only analyzing public comments, entering a username and password is optional.

In this document we will detail the process of finding all the comments for a given submission. If you instead want process all comments on Reddit, or comments belonging to one or more specific subreddits, please see :meth:`praw.models.reddit.subreddit.SubredditStream.comments`.

Extracting comments with PRAW

Assume we want to process the comments for this submission: https://www.reddit.com/r/funny/comments/3g1jfi/buttons/

We first need to obtain a submission object. We can do that either with the entire URL:

submission = reddit.submission(url='https://www.reddit.com/r/funny/comments/3g1jfi/buttons/')

or with the submission's ID which comes after comments/ in the URL:

submission = reddit.submission(id='3g1jfi')

With a submission object we can then interact with its :class:`.CommentForest` through the submission's :attr:`~praw.models.Submission.comments` attribute. A :class:`.CommentForest` is a list of top-level comments each of which contains a :class:`.CommentForest` of replies.

If we wanted to output only the body of the top level comments in the thread we could do:

for top_level_comment in submission.comments:
    print(top_level_comment.body)

While running this you will most likely encounter the exception AttributeError: 'MoreComments' object has no attribute 'body'. This submission's comment forest contains a number of :class:`.MoreComments` objects. These objects represent the "load more comments", and "continue this thread" links encountered on the website. While we could ignore :class:`.MoreComments` in our code, like so:

from praw.models import MoreComments
for top_level_comment in submission.comments:
    if isinstance(top_level_comment, MoreComments):
        continue
    print(top_level_comment.body)

The preferred way is to use the :meth:`.replace_more` method of the :class:`.CommentForest`. Calling :meth:`.replace_more` will replace or remove all the :class:`.MoreComments` objects in the comment forest. Each replacement requires one network request, and its response may yield additional :class:`.MoreComments` instances. As a result, by default, :meth:`.replace_more` only replaces at most thirty-two :class:`.MoreComments` instances -- all other instances are simply removed. The maximum number of instances to replace can be configured via the limit parameter. Additionally a threshold parameter can be set to only perform replacement of :class:`.MoreComments` instances that represent a minimum number of comments; it defaults to 0, meaning all :class:`.MoreComments` instances will be replaced up to limit.

We can rewrite the snippet above as the following, which simply removes all :class:`.MoreComments` instances from the comment forest:

submission.comments.replace_more(limit=0)
for top_level_comment in submission.comments:
    print(top_level_comment.body)

Note

Calling :meth:`.replace_more` is destructive. Calling it again on the same submission instance has no effect.

Now we are able to successfully iterate over all the top-level comments. What about their replies? We could output all second-level comments like so:

submission.comments.replace_more(limit=0)
for top_level_comment in submission.comments:
    for second_level_comment in top_level_comment.replies:
        print(second_level_comment.body)

However, the comment forest can be arbitrarily deep, so we'll want a more robust solution. One way to iterate over a tree, or forest, is via a breadth-first traversal using a queue:

submission.comments.replace_more(limit=0)
comment_queue = submission.comments[:]  # Seed with top-level
while comment_queue:
    comment = comment_queue.pop(0)
    print(comment.body)
    comment_queue.extend(comment.replies)

The above code will output all the top-level comments, followed, by second-level, third-level, etc. While it is awesome to be able to do your own breadth-first traversals, :class:`.CommentForest` provides a convenience method, :meth:`.list`, which returns a list of comments traversed in the same order as the code above. Thus the above can be rewritten as:

submission.comments.replace_more(limit=0)
for comment in submission.comments.list():
    print(comment.body)

Now you can now properly extract and parse all (or most) of the comments belonging to a single submission. Combine this with :ref:`submission iteration <submission-iteration>` and you can build some really cool stuff.

Finally, note that the value of submission.num_comments may not match up 100% with the number of comments extracted via PRAW. This discrepancy is normal as that count includes deleted, removed, and spam comments.