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This is PRISM-games, an extension of the PRISM model checker for verification and strategy synthesis for stochastic multi-player games.


Up-to-date installation instructions can be found here:


Included in this release is a manual for the version of PRISM on which PRISM-games is based.

Documentation specifically for PRISM-games can be found here:


PRISM-games is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), version 2. A copy of this license can be found in the file COPYING.txt. For more information, see:

PRISM-games uses the CUDD (Colorado University Decision Diagram) library of Fabio Somenzi, which is freely available. For more information about this library, see:

PRISM-games also uses various other libraries (mainly to be found in the lib directory). For details of those, and for links to source where we distribute only binaries, see:


PRISM was created and is still actively maintained by:

  • Dave Parker (University of Oxford)
  • Gethin Norman (University of Glasgow)
  • Marta Kwiatkowska (University of Oxford)

Development of the tool is currently led from Oxford by Dave Parker.

The following have made a wide range of contributions to PRISM covering many different aspects of the tool (in approximately reverse chronological order):

  • Steffen Märcker (Technische Universität Dresden)
  • Joachim Klein (formerly Technische Universität Dresden)
  • Vojtech Forejt (formerly University of Oxford)

The following have worked specifically worked on PRISM-games (in approximately reverse chronological order):

  • Gabriel Santos: concurrent stochastic games and equilibria
  • Clemens Wiltsche: multi-objective and compositional techniques
  • Mateusz Ujma: turn-based stochastic games
  • Aistis Simaitis: turn-based stochastic games

We also gratefully acknowledge contributions to the PRISM code-base from (in approximately reverse chronological order):

  • Max Kurze: Language parser code improvements
  • Ludwig Pauly: Reward import/export
  • Alberto Puggelli: First version of interval DTMC/MDP code
  • Xueyi Zou: Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs)
  • Chris Novakovic: Build infrastructure and explicit engine improvements
  • Clemens Wiltsche: Multi-objective and compositional synthesis for stochastic games
  • Ernst Moritz Hahn: Parametric model checking, fast adaptive uniformisation + various other features
  • Frits Dannenberg: Fast adaptive uniformisation
  • Hongyang Qu: Multi-objective model checking
  • Mateusz Ujma: Bug fixes and GUI improvements
  • Christian von Essen: Symbolic/explicit-state model checking
  • Vincent Nimal: Approximate (simulation-based) model checking techniques
  • Mark Kattenbelt: Wide range of enhancements/additions, especially in the GUI
  • Carlos Bederian (working with Pedro D'Argenio): LTL model checking for MDPs
  • Gethin Norman: Precomputation algorithms, abstraction
  • Alistair John Strachan: Port to 64-bit architectures
  • Alistair John Strachan, Mike Arthur and Zak Cohen: Integration of JFreeChart into PRISM
  • Charles Harley and Sebastian Vermehren: GUI enhancements
  • Rashid Mehmood: Improvements to low-level data structures and numerical solution algorithms
  • Stephen Gilmore: Support for the stochastic process algebra PEPA
  • Paolo Ballarini & Kenneth Chan: Port to Mac OS X
  • Andrew Hinton: Original versions of the GUI, Windows port and simulator
  • Joachim Meyer-Kayser: Original implementation of the "Fox-Glynn" algorithm

For more details see:


If you have problems or questions regarding PRISM, please use the help forum provided. See:

Other comments and feedback about any aspect of PRISM are also very welcome. Please contact:

Dave Parker
Department of Computer Science
University of Oxford