Casey Reas edited this page Nov 11, 2016 · 13 revisions

Having a problem? Hopefully the information on this page will help.

I've found a bug!

Please use the forum for general troubleshooting questions, especially if it's something like Processing not starting up properly, or sketches not running.

What To Do

  • First, read through this page.
  • Second, also check the Supported Platforms page in case it's something specific to your operating system.
  • Third, check the Forum. The Forum is the place for "this isn't working" type questions.
  • Fourth, search the bug database to see if your problem has already been reported.

What Not To Do

Please do not:

  • Submit an issue saying "Processing is broken" or "Processing won't start". That's not helpful (see below).
  • Reinstall Java, it does nothing and just adds to the noise.

If it's a bug

If you don't find your problem, submit a new issue here.

When reporting please include information about

  1. The version number (i.e. 3.1.2)
  2. The operating system you're using (Windows, Mac, Linux, etc.), and on what kind of hardware
  3. A copy of the smallest possible piece of code that will produce the error
  4. Details of the error, like the red spew that you see in the console.
  5. Only one issue per report! Each issue should be one... issue. It's not a point-by-point letter for the development team. If you have multiple issues, file them separately. If multiple issues are in one report, it'll be closed.

For best results:

  • Write a useful title for the report. "Processing broken" or "visual problem" are dreadful titles. The first one isn't helpful because you're reporting an issue, so we already know you think Processing is broken. Saying "visual problem" isn't helpful because Processing is used to make visual things, so nearly all problems are "visual" problems.
  • The people receiving this report work on Processing in their free time because they think it's important for the community. Berating or insulting them is obnoxious, demotivating, and a good way to ensure that your report is ignored.

For stranger errors during compile time, you can also look inside the build folder which contains an intermediate (translated into Java) version of your code. The build folder will be located inside a temporary directory on your machine, probably /tmp/buildNNNN on Mac OS X and Linux, or on Windows, in one of its many "TEMP" folders, inside a buildNNNN folder (the Ns will be numbers or letters). The more details you can post, the better, because it helps us figure out what's going on. Useful things when reporting:

  • We want the minimum amount of code that will still replicate the bug. The worst that can happen is we get a report with a subject saying "problem!" along with a three page program. Sure, everyone likes a puzzle, but simpler code will receive a faster response.
  • Occasionally we may need you to pack up a copy of your sketch folder or something similar so that we can try and replicate the weirdness on our own machine. Rest assured, we have no interest in messing with your fancy creations or stealing your ideas. The Processing team is a pair of straight-laced boys who hail from the midwestern U.S. who were brought up better than that. And as we often lack enough time to build our own projects, we have even less time to spend figuring out other peoples' projects to rip them off.

Processing won't start! Nothing (or something strange) happens when I click “Run”!

All Platforms

  • Please first seek help on the Processing Forum. We've tested the releases and thousands of people are able to start Processing. If you find that a specific Tool, Mode, or Library is the problem after following the steps below please write to the author of that extension.

  • Try moving or renaming your Sketchbook. Sometimes a Mode or Tool conflicts with opening Processing. This will disable all Modes and Tools and a new Sketchbook will be created in the default location. Once Processing is opening again, code can be moved back into the new Sketchbook.

    • The sketchbook on Windows XP is Documents and Settings → username → Application Data → Processing.
    • On Windows 7 and later, it's Users → username → AppData → Roaming → Processing.
    • For Mac OS X, it's Users → username → Library → Processing.
  • An alternate approach to moving or renaming the Sketchbook is to change the name of each Mode and Library inside the Sketchbook one at a time. When the name of the Mode or Library that is causing the issue is changed, Processing will start and you'll know where the issue is.

  • Errors inside code that is outside of setup() or draw() may just hang/freeze Processing. For instance, with this code, if "blah.vlw" is not in the "data" folder, it may just hang (and won't work in any case). Never use loadXxxx() methods outside setup() and draw().

    PFont font = loadFont("blah.vlw");
    void setup {
      // your awesome code


  • Try deleting your preferences file. On Windows XP this is located in Documents and Settings → username → Application Data → Processing → preferences.txt. On Windows 7 and later, it's in Users → username → AppData → Roaming → Processing → preferences.txt. Sometimes a bad preferences file can prevent the application from running. If you've recently hand-edited preferences.txt, that's also a likely suspect. Only delete the preferences file when Processing is not running. And do not modify the preferences.txt file inside the Processing "lib" folder.

  • Next try running from a command prompt with the following:

    .\processing.exe --l4j-debug

    This will create a launch4j.log file which will describe what's happening during the startup. Then you can post on the discourse section of the site to inquire for help, or the bugs database if you think it's a bug.

  • An exceptionally large sketchbook folder (especially on a slower machine/disk) can sometimes cause startup problems. The launcher starts, but times out because it assumes something is broken (the Processing code is still indexing the sketchbook) and says there's a launch4j error.

  • If you're having trouble with P2D or P3D (which use OpenGL graphics), update your graphics drivers. This is almost always the cause of problems in P2D and P3D.

  • Try disabling any overly protective virus scanning software. It might be holding things up, especially when libraries have been imported.

Mac OS X

  • Make sure your version of OS X is supported. See the Supported Platforms page for more information.

  • Open, found in Applications → Utilities → and see if there are any messages. If you don't know what they mean, post them to the forum where someone can help you out.

  • For weird hangs/nothing happening on startup. Do the following:

    Open Applications → Utilities →

    Assuming you have Processing installed in Applications, type:

    cd /Applications

    If that prints any error messages, report them on the Forum or as a new issue so that we can help troubleshoot the problem and prevent it in the future.


See the Linux section of Supported Platforms for additional notes.

This used to work and now it doesn't

Read the Changes section of the reference.

Other Common Problems

  • Another common problem is placing images or files into the sketch folder by hand, rather than placing them in the data folder (or using "Add File..." to do so automatically). This will work from the PDE, but on export, the files won't be in included with your sketch because they're not in the data folder.

  • Watch out for issues with capitalization! Windows and Mac OS don't care about capitalization, so "blah.JPG" looks just the same as "blah.jpg". However, since most servers run on Unix, capitalization becomes a huge problem, because it must be exact. We've added some checks to try and catch this (at least for images) but they're not perfect. This can especially be a problem when the .JPG extension is not even visible (the default on Windows), so you don't know whether it's upper or lower case.

Out Of Memory Errors (java.lang.OutOfMemoryError)

If you get an OutOfMemoryError while running your program, use the Preferences window to increase the amount of available memory. Check the box next to "Increase maximum available memory" and enter an amount.

Depending on your OS and available RAM, there are limits on how much memory you can ask for.

32-bit operating systems and software are usually limited to addressing somewhere around either 2GB and 4GB of RAM at a time. This means that even if you have 8GB of RAM installed in your machine, you may only be able to use shy of 2GB per application. Most Windows systems seem to be limited to 2 or 3GB, while Mac OS X and Linux can usually access shy of 4GB. Upcoming 64-bit operating systems get around this restriction and increase the amount of available memory significantly. However, even if you're running a 64-bit OS like Mac OS 10.5, or a 64-bit Linux, a combination of factors (version of Java, etc.) may mean that you're still limited by the 32-bit boundary of 2GB or 4GB.

Use this preference with caution, because if you set the memory too high, programs will no longer run in Processing. When you hit run, you'll get error messages.

If this message appears after you hit Run, then you're trying to use more memory than the machine has installed:

Error occurred during initialization of VM
Could not reserve enough space for object heap

The following messages mean that you're trying to use more memory than the Operating System allows (regardless of how much RAM you have):

Invalid maximum heap size: -Xmx5000m
Could not create the Java virtual machine.

Invalid maximum heap size: -Xmx5g
The specified size exceeds the maximum representable size.
Could not create the Java virtual machine.

On Windows with 1G of RAM, the limit seems to be in the neighborhood of 1.5GB. Mac OS X and Linux seem to allow up to just shy of 4GB, depending on how much RAM you have installed. Usually you can allocate almost 50% more RAM than you have installed. i.e. for a machine with 1 GB of physical memory, about 1.5GB is the maximum that can be used. Your mileage will also vary with different versions of Java (1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6...) and your operating system.

On the other hand, Java on Windows XP, for instance, cannot address more than 2GB properly. So with OS and JVM overhead, the total possible memory available is in the neighborhood of 1.5GB (no matter how much RAM you have).

Unfortunately the memory limitations of Java set an upper bound that is outside our control. If you're having trouble creating very large images for this reason, you might look into the PDF or DXF libraries that are included with Processing, or the contributed Illustrator or SVG vector export libraries that can be found on the libraries page as another alternative for creating large format images.

Memory is like any constraint found in other media, you simply need to be more clever about how to deal with the limitations.

To check the amount of memory that's used so far, or how much is available, use Java's Runtime object:

// The amount of memory allocated so far (usually the -Xms setting)
long allocated = Runtime.getRuntime().totalMemory();

// Free memory out of the amount allocated (value above minus used)
long free = Runtime.getRuntime().freeMemory();

// The maximum amount of memory that can eventually be consumed
// by this application. This is the value set by the Preferences
// dialog box to increase the memory settings for an application.
long maximum = Runtime.getRuntime().maxMemory();

Why don't these Strings equal?

Comparing a string (quoted text) is different in Processing (Java) than it is in ActionScript or some other languages, which often confuses people. For instance, while this might make sense:

String[] lines = loadStrings("sometext.txt");
for (int i = 0; i < lines.length; i++) {
  if (lines[i] == "hello") { 
    println("hello found on line: " + i); // you'll never see this

You'll never see the message, even if "hello" is in the list. This is because a String is an object in Java, comparing them with == will only compare whether the two things are pointing at the same memory, not their actual contents. Instead, use equals() or one of the other String methods (eg. equalsIgnoreCase):

String[] lines = loadStrings("sometext.txt");
for (int i = 0; i < lines.length; i++) {
  if (lines[i].equals("hello")) {
    println("hello found on line: " + i); // happiness

"But if I write the following code, it works!"

final String HELLO = "Hello";
String hello = "Hello";
println(hello == HELLO);

That's because Java compiler detects two identical constant strings, so it groups them together, and their references (memory location) are identical. If you write instead:

final String HELLO = "Hello";
String hell = "Hell";
println(hell + "o" == HELLO);

It no longer works. Same for strings coming from an external source (file, Internet, etc.).

Why does 2 / 5 = 0 instead of 0.4?

The result of dividing two integers will always be another integer:

int a = 2;
int b = 5;
int result = a / b;
// result is zero

While somewhat confusing at first, this is later useful for more advanced programming.

To get fractions, use a 'float' instead:

float a = 2.0;
float b = 5.0;
float result = a / b;
// 'result' will be 0.4

It is not enough to just divide two integers and set them to a float:

 float y = 2 / 5;

In this case, integer 2 is divided by 5, which is zero, and then zero is assigned to a float. The number doesn't become a float until the left hand side of the = sign. On the other hand, this:

float y = 2.0 / 5;

will work just fine. In this case, Java sees that 2.0 is a float, so it also converts the 5 to a float so that they can be divided, which makes it identical to:

float y = 2.0 / 5.0;

and because floats are being used on the right hand side, the result will be a float, even before it gets to the left hand side.

Number Trouble (NaN and Infinity)

NaN is shorthand for "Not a number", which means the result of a calculation is undefined. This is caused by dividing 0.0 by 0.0 or taking the square root of a negative number. Infinity is the result of a calculation that is too large to be normally represented by a floating-point number. It's commonly seen as the result of dividing a number by 0.0. Its opposite value, -Infinity, is the result of dividing a negative number by 0.0. These unexpected results are often hidden by variables. Check the value of your variables with print() to search for these and similar numerical problems.

color(0, 0, 0, 0) is Black.

The reason this doesn't work is that color(0, 0, 0, 0) creates an int that is simply '0'. Which means that fill(color(0, 0, 0, 0)) is the same as fill(0), which This is a problem of 'color' not being a real type, but just an int, plus the fact that we overload fill() to use both int/color for a color, and also an int for a gray. Since this is unlikely to be fixed anytime soon (if ever), there are multiple workarounds that you can use:

  • use fill(0, 0, 0, 0)
  • fill(c, 0) where c = color(0, 0, 0);
  • color almostTransparent = color(0, 0, 0, 1);
  • color almostBlack = color(1, 1, 1, 0);

Problems with the Serial Port

See the Serial Issues page.

Problems with OpenGL

See the OpenGL Issues page.

Common Issues (That Are Not Bugs)

Things that are often perceived as bugs, but aren't actually "broken":

  • Typing a semicolon after an if() statement and before its associated code block nullifies the if() statement. (Lesson learned: Be careful when placing semicolons!) For example, see the sample code below. The semicolon immediately following if() should not be present here, as it effectively closes the if() logic, so the code block beneath it will always run (regardless of whether or not somethingAmazing is true or false).
if (somethingAmazing == true);
  println("This happens, whether or not something is amazing.");
  • If you write informal code (some test lines, no setup()) and want to add a function (eg. void foo() { println("Foo"); }) you will get an error: unexpected token: void. You need to wrap your lines of code (not the functions!) in setup(). Technically, that's because if your code has no setup() method, Processing will wrap it in a generated setup(). But Java doesn't allow nested methods, hence the error.

  • If your code has methods (it's not just in static mode) or needs to run over time, it must have a draw() method, otherwise nothing will happen. For instance, without a draw(), this code will stop after the setup() method:

void setup() {
  size(400, 400);

void keyPressed() {
  • An UnsupportedClassVersionError means that you're using code that was compiled for a later version of Java than is supported by Processing. As of the 3.0 releases, Processing supports Java 1.8. A message like java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: (Unsupported major.minor version 53.0) means that the code was compiled for Java 1.9, which is not currently used with Processing.

  • Any code that accesses the pixels[] array should be placed inside loadPixels() and updatePixels(). This can be confusing because it was not required in older code, i.e. with some alpha/beta releases in the 1.0 series. A complete description can be found in the reference for the pixels array.

  • Why doesn't saveFrame (or saveStrings or saveBytes) write things to the data folder? All saveXxxx() functions use the path to the sketch folder, rather than its data folder. Once exported, the data folder will be found inside the jar file of the exported application or applet. In this case, it's not possible to save data into the jar file, because it will often be running from a server, or marked in-use if running from a local file system. With this in mind, saving to the data path doesn't make sense anyway. If you know you're running locally, and want to save to the data folder, use saveXxxx("data/blah.dat").

  • Objects with alpha (lines or shapes with an alpha fill or stroke, images with alpha, all fonts) are displayed in P3D and OpenGL based on their drawing order. This creates some annoying effects like making things opaque if they're drawn out of order with objects above or beneath them. This is simply how most 3D rendering works. To improve appearance, add hint(ENABLE_DEPTH_SORT) to setup(). We don't enable this by default because it would make all sketches slower, not just ones that need it.

  • Names of sketches cannot start with a number, or have spaces inside. This is mostly because of a restriction on the naming of Java classes. I suppose if lots of people find this upsetting, we could add some extra code to unhinge the resulting class name from the sketch name, but it adds complexity, and complexity == bugs. :)

  • Mind the capitalization of built-in functions. If a method or variable name is two words, usually the first word is lowercase and the first letter of the second word will be capitalized. For instance: keyPressed, movieEvent, mouseX, etc. If you have a function called mousepressed(), it won't be called when mouse events occur, because it needs the capital P on 'pressed'.

  • On Windows, sometimes your programs will run in a window that has a Java coffee cup icon, instead of the usual Processing icon. This simply means that the application is being run outside of Processing as an external application. This happens when extra libraries, multiple source code files (more than one tab), or extra code files in the 'code' folder are employed.

  • To use Sound, install the Sound Library via Sketch > Add Library... > Sound. The ancient PSound class no longer exists, and Minim (the library used in 2.x) is no longer maintained and not included in Processing 3.

  • Processing sketches have a default frameRate setting of 60. This prevents sketches from needlessly running too fast and throttling the CPU. However, this is only the "maximum" frame rate, if a lot of computation is in the code, the sketch will attempt to use as much CPU as is available. On Windows, this can sometimes cause audio hiccups when an MP3 player is running at the same time, or another application is trying to do something simultaneously. To fix the audio issue, add a delay(5) or delay(10) to your code, which will give five or ten milliseconds to other applications so they can breathe. For other applications, you may have to set the frameRate() lower, or use a longer delay().

  • If your sketch is based on Java Mode, where you explicitly say that the class extends PApplet, then the preprocessor assumes that you know what you're doing. You'll have to make sure that your code is named properly. This means that if you have "public class PooTime extends PApplet" at the beginning of your sketch, you bet your a-- the tab will need to be named PooTime. If not, your code isn't gonna run. I mean, c'mon... You know what you're doing, right? This is also true when exporting to an application.

  • Don't name your sketch the same thing as a library or other class that's used in your sketch. For instance, your sketch shouldn't be named "Server" if you've imported the net library, because it already has something called Server. You can be more creative than that.

Things that we probably can't fix

Some things are out of our control, or not actually bugs:

All Platforms

  • A long sketch menu that goes off the edge of the screen? Doesn't scroll properly? There's not much we can do. This is a java issue which happens on most platforms. To get around it, you can organize your sketches into subfolders which will appear as submenus (be sure to quit before reorganizing, and then restart when finished).

  • If you're seeing a, it's because you're trying to draw something that's waaaaay off screen (like an x coordinate of -100,000 or something nutty like that).


  • The system clock sometimes goes weird, especially when using frameRate() or delay(). This is a long-standing bug with the Windows version of the Java VM. According to someone on the Sun web site: “This bug has been fixed in bug no 4500388 and one requires a PRODUCT FLAG to use the fix. This flag and fix are available in 1.3.1_4, 1.4.0_2, 1.4.1 and 1.4.2. But for Java to actually use the fix, open your Java Plug-in Control Panel in the section 'Java Runtime Parameters' just enter: -XX:+ForceTimeHighResolution”

  • Create Font sometimes crashes on Windows, bringing down the whole environment. This seems to be a Java bug, because it's not a Java exception, but a full crash.

  • Hard crashses that write hs_err_pid10XX.txt files are errors inside the Java VM, and often something that's out of our control.


  • The following message (or messages like it) on startup:

Warning: Cannot convert string "-b&h-lucida-medium-r-normal-sans-*-140-*-*-p-*-iso8859-1" to type FontStruct. 

This is just a Java issue, but doesn't seem to affect anything.