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 %%% user_manual.tex --- %% Author: Nicolas Niclausse %% Version: $Id$ \documentclass{TSUNG-en} \usepackage{shortcuts} % -------------------------------------------- % Title % -------------------------------------------- \doctitle{Tsung User's manual} %\addauthor{Nicolas}{Niclausse}{nicolas.niclausse@niclux.org} \doccopyright{Nicolas Niclausse.} \docversion{1.5.0} \docreldate{\date{}} \docref{tsung-user-manual} \begin{document} \maketitle \newpage \tableofcontents \section{Introduction} \subsection{What is Tsung ?} \program{Tsung} (formerly IDX-Tsunami) is a distributed load testing tool. It is protocol-independent and can currently be used to stress HTTP, WebDAV, SOAP, PostgreSQL, MySQL, LDAP, and Jabber/XMPP servers. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2. \subsection{What is Erlang and why is it important for Tsung ?} \program{Tsung's} main strength is its ability to simulate a huge number of simultaneous user from a single machine. When used on cluster, you can generate a really impressive load on a server with a modest cluster, easy to set-up and to maintain. You can also use Tsung on a cloud like EC2. \program{Tsung} is developed in Erlang and this is where the power of \program{Tsung} resides. \par Erlang is a \emph{concurrency-oriented} programming language. Tsung is based on the Erlang OTP (Open Transaction Platform) and inherits several characteristics from Erlang: \begin{itemize} \item \emph{Performance}: Erlang has been made to support hundred thousands of lightweight processes in a single virtual machine. \item \emph{Scalability}: Erlang runtime environment is naturally distributed, promoting the idea of process's location transparency. \item \emph{Fault-tolerance}:Erlang has been built to develop robust, fault-tolerant systems. As such, wrong answer sent from the server to \program{Tsung} does not make the whole running benchmark crash. \end{itemize} More information on Erlang on \url{http://www.erlang.org} and \url{http://www.erlang-projects.org/} \subsection{Tsung background} History: \begin{itemize} \item \program{Tsung} development was started by Nicolas Niclausse in 2001 as a distributed jabber load stress tool for internal use at \url{http://IDEALX.com/} (now OpenTrust). It has evolved as an open-source multi-protocol load testing tool several months later. The HTTP support was added in 2003, and this tool has been used for several industrial projects. It is now hosted by Erlang-projects, and supported by \url{http://process-one.net/}. The list of contributors is available in the source archive (\url{https://git.process-one.net/tsung/mainline/blobs/master/CONTRIBUTORS}). \item It is an industrial strength implementation of a \emph{stochastic model} for real users simulation. User events distribution is based on a Poisson Process. More information on this topic in: Z. Liu, N. Niclausse, and C. Jalpa-Villanueva. \strong{Traffic Model and Performance Evaluation of Web Servers}. \emph{Performance Evaluation, Volume 46, Issue 2-3, October 2001}. \item This model has already been tested in the INRIA \emph{WAGON} research prototype (Web trAffic GeneratOr and beNchmark). WAGON was used in the \url{http://www.vthd.org/} project (Very High Broadband IP/WDM test platform for new generation Internet applications, 2000-2004). \end{itemize} \program{Tsung} has been used for very high load tests: \begin{itemize} \item \emph{Jabber/XMPP} protocol: \begin{itemize} \item 90 000 simultaneous jabber users on a 4-node Tsung cluster (3xSun V240 + 1 Sun V440) \item 10 000 simultaneous users. \program{Tsung} was running on a 3-computers cluster (CPU 800MHz) \end{itemize} \item \emph{HTTP and HTTPS} protocol: \begin{itemize} \item 12 000 simultaneous users. \program{Tsung} were running on a 4-computers cluster (in 2003). The tested platform reached 3 000 requests per second. \item 10 million simultaneous users running on a 75-computers cluster, generating more than one million requests per second. \end{itemize} \end{itemize} \program{Tsung} has been used at: \begin{itemize} \item \emph{DGI} (Direction Générale des impôts): French finance ministry \item \emph{Cap Gemini Ernst \& Young} \item \emph{IFP} (Institut Français du Pétrole): French Research Organization for Petroleum \item \emph{LibertySurf} \item Sun\texttrademark for their Mooddlerooms platform on Niagara processors: \url{http://blogs.sun.com/kevinr/resource/Moodle-Sun-RA.pdf} \end{itemize} \section{Features} \subsection{Tsung main features} \begin{itemize} \item \emph{High Performance}: \program{Tsung} can simulate a huge number of simultaneous users per physical computer: It can simulates thousands of users on a single CPU (Note: a simulated user is not always active: it can be idle during a \varname{thinktime} period). Traditional injection tools can hardly go further than a few hundreds (Hint: if all you want to do is requesting a single URL in a loop, use \program{ab}; but if you want to build complex scenarios with extended reports, \program{Tsung} is for you). \item \emph{Distributed}: the load can be distributed on a cluster of client machines \item \emph{Multi-Protocols} using a plug-in system: HTTP (both standard web traffic and SOAP), WebDAV, Jabber/XMPP and PostgreSQL are currently supported. LDAP and MySQL plugins were first included in the 1.3.0 release. \item \emph{SSL} support \item \emph{Several IP addresses} can be used on a single machine using the underlying OS IP Aliasing \item \emph{OS monitoring} (CPU, memory and network traffic) using Erlang agents on remote servers or \emph{SNMP} \item \emph{XML configuration system}: complex user's scenarios are written in XML. Scenarios can be written with a simple browser using the Tsung recorder (HTTP and PostgreSQL only). \item \emph{Dynamic scenarios}: You can get dynamic data from the server under load (without writing any code) and re-inject it in subsequent requests. You can also loop, restart or stop a session when a string (or regexp) matches the server response. \item \emph{Mixed behaviours}: several sessions can be used to simulate different type of users during the same benchmark. You can define the proportion of the various behaviours in the benchmark scenario. \item \emph{Stochastic processes}: in order to generate a realistic traffic, user thinktimes and the arrival rate can be randomized using a probability distribution (currently exponential) \end{itemize} \subsection{HTTP related features} \begin{itemize} \item HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1 support \item GET, POST, PUT, DELETE and HEAD requests \item Cookies: Automatic cookies management( but you can also manually add more cookies) \item \verb|'|GET If-modified since\verb|'| type of request \item WWW-authentication Basic and Digest. OAuth 1.0 \item User Agent support \item Any HTTP Headers can be added \item Proxy mode to record sessions using a Web browser \item SOAP support using the HTTP mode (the SOAPAction HTTP header is handled). \item HTTP server or proxy server load testing. \end{itemize} \subsection{WEBDAV related features} The WebDAV (RFC 4918) plugin is a superset of the HTTP plugin. It adds the following features (some versionning extensions to WebDAV (RFC 3253) are also supported): \begin{itemize} \item Methods implemented: DELETE, CONNECT, PROPFIND, PROPPATCH, COPY, MOVE, LOCK, UNLOCK, MKCOL, REPORT, OPTIONS, MKACTIVITY, CHECKOUT, MERGE \item Recording of DEPTH, IF, TIMEOUT OVERWRITE, DESTINATION, URL and LOCK-TOKEN Headers. \end{itemize} \subsection{Jabber/XMPP related features} \begin{itemize} \item Authentication (plain-text, digest and sip-digest). STARTTLS \item presence and register messages \item Chat messages to online or offline users \item MUC: join room, send message in room, change nickname \item Roster set and get requests \item Global users\verb|'| synchronization can be set on specific actions \item BOSH \& XMPP over Websocket \item raw XML messages \item PubSub \item Multiple vhost instances supported \item privacy lists: get all privacy list names, set list as active \end{itemize} \subsection{PostgreSQL related features} \begin{itemize} \item Basic and MD5 Authentication \item Simple Protocol \item Extended Protocol (new in version \strong{1.4.0} ) \item Proxy mode to record sessions \end{itemize} \subsection{MySQL related features} This plugin is experimental. It works only with MySQL version 4.1 and higher. \begin{itemize} \item Secured Authentication method only (MySQL >= 4.1) \item Basic Queries \end{itemize} \subsection{Websocket related features} This plugin is experimental. It only support rfc6455 currently. \begin{itemize} \item Both as a server type and session type \end{itemize} \subsection{LDAP related features} \begin{itemize} \item bind \item add, modify and search queries \item starttls \end{itemize} \subsection{Complete reports set} Measures and statistics produced by Tsung are extremely feature-full. They are all represented as a graphic. \program{Tsung} produces statistics regarding: \begin{itemize} \item \emph{Performance}: response time, connection time, decomposition of the user scenario based on request grouping instruction (called \textit{transactions}), requests per second \item \emph{Errors}: Statistics on page return code to trace errors \item \emph{Target server behaviour}: An Erlang agent can gather information from the target server(s). Tsung produces graphs for CPU and memory consumption and network traffic. SNMP and munin is also supported to monitor remote servers. \end{itemize} \par Note that \program{Tsung} takes care of the synchronization process by itself. Gathered statistics are «synchronized». It is possible to generate graphs during the benchmark as statistics are gathered in real-time. \subsection{Highlights} \program{Tsung} has several advantages over other injection tools: \begin{itemize} \item \emph{High performance} and \emph{distributed benchmark}: You can use Tsung to simulate tens of thousands of virtual users. \item \emph{Ease of use}: The hard work is already done for all supported protocol. No need to write complex scripts. Dynamic scenarios only requires small trivial piece of code. \item \emph{Multi-protocol support}: \program{Tsung} is for example one of the only tool to benchmark SOAP applications \item \emph{Monitoring} of the target server(s) to analyze the behaviour and find bottlenecks. For example, it has been used to analyze cluster symmetry (is the load properly balanced ?) and to determine the best combination of machines on the three cluster tiers (Web engine, EJB engine and database) \end{itemize} \section{Installation} This package has been tested on Linux, FreeBSD and Solaris. A port is available on MacOS X. It should work on Erlang supported platforms (Linux, Solaris, *BSD, Win32 and MacOS-X). \subsection{Dependencies} \begin{itemize} \item Erlang/OTP R13B and up (\url{http://www.erlang.org/download.html}). Erlang is now part of fedora and debian/ubuntu repositories. \item pgsql module made by Christian Sunesson (for the PostgreSQL plugin): sources available at \url{http://jungerl.sourceforge.net/} . The module is included in the source and binary distribution of \program{Tsung}. It is released under the EPL License. \item mysql module made by Magnus Ahltorp \& Fredrik Thulin (for the mysql plugin): sources available at \url{http://www.stacken.kth.se/projekt/yxa/} . The modified module is included in the source and binary distribution of \program{Tsung}. It is released under the three-clause BSD License. \item eldap module (for the LDAP plugin): sources available at \url{http://jungerl.sourceforge.net/} . The module is included in the source and binary distribution of \program{Tsung}. It is released under the GPL License. \item mochiweb libs (for xpath parsing, optionally used for dynamic variables in the HTTP plugin): sources available at \url{http://code.google.com/p/mochiweb/} . The module is included in the source and binary distribution of \program{Tsung}. It is released under the MIT License. \item gnuplot and perl5 (optional; for graphical output with \command{tsung\_stats.pl} script). The Template Toolkit is used for HTML reports (see \url{http://template-toolkit.org/}) \item python and mathplotlib (optional; for graphical output with \command{tsung-plotter}). \item for distributed tests, you need an ssh access to remote machines without password (use a RSA/DSA key without pass-phrase or ssh-agent) (rsh is also supported) \item bash \end{itemize} \subsection{Compilation} \begin{Verbatim} ./configure make make install \end{Verbatim} If you want to download the development version, use git: \command{git clone git://git.process-one.net/tsung/mainline.git} (see also \url{https://git.process-one.net/tsung} and the github mirror: \url{https://github.com/processone/tsung}). You can also build packages with \command{make deb} (on debian and ubuntu) and \command{make rpm} (on fedora, rhel, and other rpm based distribution) \subsection{Configuration} The default configuration file is \file{~/.tsung/tsung.xml} ( there are several sample files in \file{/usr/share/doc/tsung/examples}). Log files are saved in \file{~/.tsung/log/} . A new sub-directory is created for each test using the current date as name (\file{~/.tsung/log/20040217-0940} for ex.) \subsection{Running} Two commands are installed in the directory \varname{\$PREFIX/bin}: \command{tsung} and \command{tsung-recorder}. A man page is available for both commands. \begin{Verbatim} >tsung -h Usage: tsung start|stop|debug|status Options: -f set configuration file (default is ~/.tsung/tsung.xml) (use - for standard input) -l set log directory (default is ~/.tsung/log/YYYYMMDD-HHMM/) -i set controller id (default is empty) -r set remote connector (default is ssh) -s enable erlang smp on client nodes -m write monitoring output on this file (default is tsung.log) (use - for standard output) -F use long names (FQDN) for erlang nodes -w warm-up delay (default is 10 sec) -v print version information and exit -6 use IPv6 for tsung internal communications -h display this help and exit \end{Verbatim} A typical way of using tsung is to run: \command{tsung -f myconfigfile.xml start}. The command will print the current log directory created for the test, and wait until the test is over. \subsection{Feedback} Use the Tsung mailing list (see \url{https://lists.process-one.net/mailman/listinfo/tsung-users}) if you have suggestions or questions about \program{Tsung}. You can also use the bug-tracker available at \url{https://support.process-one.net/browse/TSUN}. You can also try the \#tsung IRC channel on Freenode. \section{Benchmark approach} \subsection{HTTP/WebDAV benchmark approach} \subsubsection{Benchmarking a Web server} \begin{enumerate} \item Record one or more sessions: start the recorder with: \command{tsung-recorder start}, and then configure your browser to use Tsung proxy recorder (the listen port is 8090). A session file will be created. For HTTPS recording, use \userinput{http://-} instead of \userinput{https://} in your browser. \item Edit / organize scenario, by adding recorded sessions in the configuration file. \item Write small code for dynamic parts if needed and place dynamic mark-up in the scenario. \item Test and adjust scenario to have a nice progression of the load. This is highly dependent of the application and of the size of the target server(s). Calculate the normal duration of the scenario and use the interarrival time between users and the duration of the phase to estimate the number of simultaneous users for each given phase. \item Launch benchmark with your first application parameters set-up: \command{tsung start} (run \command{man tsung} for more options) \item Wait for the end of the test or stop by hand with \command{tsung stop} (reports can also be generated during the test (see § \ref{sec:statistics-reports}) : the statistics are updated every 10 seconds). For a brief summary of the current activity, use \command{tsung status} \item Analyze results, change parameters and relaunch another benchmark \end{enumerate} \subsubsection{WEBDAV } It's the same approach as HTTP: first you start to record one or more sessions with the recorder: \command{tsung-recorder -p webdav start} \subsubsection{Benchmarking a proxy server} By default, the HTTP plugin is used to benchmark HTTP servers. But you can also benchmark HTTP Proxy servers. To do that, you must add in the \varname{options} section: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{LDAP benchmark approach} An LDAP plugin for the recorder is not yet implemented, so you have to write the session by yourself; see section \ref{sec:session:ldap} for more information. \subsection{PostgreSQL benchmark approach} It's the same approach as HTTP: first you start to record one or more sessions with the recorder: \command{tsung-recorder -p pgsql start} This will start a proxy listening to port 8090 and will proxy requests to 127.0.0.0:5432. To choose another port and/or address: \command{tsung-recorder -L 5432 -I 10.6.1.1 -P 5433 -p pgsql start} This will start a proxy listening to port 5432 and will proxy requests to 10.6.1.1:5433. \subsection{MySQL benchmark approach} A MySQL plugin for the recorder is not yet implemented, so you have to write the session by yourself; see section \ref{sec:session:mysql} for more information. \subsection{Jabber/XMPP benchmark approach} \subsubsection{Overview} This paragraph explains how to write a session for Jabber/XMPP. There are two differences between HTTP and Jabber testing: \begin{enumerate} \item There is no recorder for Jabber, so you have to write your sessions by hand (an example is provided in \ref{sec:sessions:jabber}). \item the jabber plugin does not parse XML; instead it uses packet acknowledgments. \end{enumerate} \subsubsection{Acknowledgments of messages} Since the jabber plugin does not parse XML (historically, it was for performance reasons), you must have a way to tell when a request is finished. There are 3 possibilities: \begin{description} \item[ack=local] as soon as a packet is received from the server, the request is considered as completed. Hence if you use a local ack with a request that do not require a response from the server (presence for ex.), it will wait forever (or until a timeout is reached). \item[ack=no\_ack] as soon as the request is send, it is considered as completed (do not wait for incoming data) \item[ack=global] synchronized users. its main use is for waiting for all users to connect before sending messages. To do that, set a request with global ack (it can be the first presence msg: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} You also have to specify the number of users to be connected: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} To be sure that exactly \varname{global\_number} users are started, add the \userinput{'maxnumber'} attribute to \varname{'users'} \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} If you do not specify \varname{maxnumber}, the global ack will be reset every \varname{global\_number} users \end{description} \label{bidi:presence} \strong{New in 1.2.2:} This version adds an new option for a session. if you set the attribute \varname{bidi} (for bidirectional) in the \varname{session} tag: \userinput{}, then incoming messages from the server will be analyzed. Currently, only roster subscription requests are handled: if a user received a subscription request (\userinput{}), it will respond with a \userinput{} message. \subsubsection{Status: Offline, Connected and Online} You can send messages to offline or online users. A user is considered online when he has send a \userinput{presence:initial} message (before this message , the state of the user is \varname{connected}). If you want to switch back to \varname{connected} before going \varname{offline}, you can use a \userinput{presence:final} message: \userinput{presence:final} does two things: \begin{enumerate} \item It removes the client from the list of Online users, and moves them into the list of Connected users. \item It sends a broadcast presence update of type='unavailable'. \end{enumerate} \userinput{presence:final} is optional. \emph{warn:} this is new in \strong{1.2.0}, in earlier version, only 2 status were available: online and offline; a user was considered online as soon as it was connected. \subsubsection{Authentication} Below are configuration examples for the possible authentication methods. Note: the regular expressions used here are only examples - they may need to be altered depending on how a particular server implementation composes messages (see also ~\ref{sec:jabber-options} for password settings). \begin{itemize} \item \strong{plain authentication} - sends clear-text passwords: \begin{Verbatim} ... \end{Verbatim} \item \strong{digest authentication} as described in XMPP JEP-0078: Non-SASL Authentication \url{http://www.jabber.org/jeps/jep-0078.html} \begin{Verbatim} ... \end{Verbatim} \item \strong{sip-digest authentication} \begin{Verbatim} ... \end{Verbatim} \end{itemize} \subsubsection{Privacy list testing} There are two actions available to allow for rudimentary privacy lists load testing: \begin{itemize} \item \userinput{privacy:get\_names} - gets the list of all names of privacy lists stored by the server for a given user \item \userinput{privacy:set\_active} - sets a list with a predefined name as active. The list name is determined from the JID, e.g. if the user's JID is "john@average.com" then the list name is "john@average.com\_list". One should take care of properly seeding the server database in order to ensure that such a list exists. \end{itemize} \section{Using the proxy recorder} The recorder has three plugins: for HTTP, WebDAV and for PostgreSQL. To start it, run \command{tsung-recorder -p start}, where \varname{PLUGIN} can be \userinput{http}, \userinput{webdav} or \userinput{pgsql} for PostgreSQL. The default plugin is \userinput{http}. The proxy is listening to port 8090. You can change the port with \userinput{-L portnumber}. To stop it, use \command{tsung-recorder stop}. The recorded session is created as \file{~/.tsung/tsung_recorderYYYMMDD-HH:MM.xml}; if it doesn't work, take a look at \file{~/.tsung/log/tsung.log-tsung_recorder@hostname} During the recording, you can add custom tag in the XML file, this can be useful to set transactions or comments: \command{tsung-recorder record\_tag "''} Once a session has been created, you can insert it in your main configuration file, either by editing by hand the file, or by using an ENTITY declaration, like: \begin{Verbatim} ]> ... &mysession1; \end{Verbatim} \subsection{PostgreSQL} For PostgreSQL, the proxy will connect to the server at IP 127.0.0.1 and port 5432. Use \userinput{-I serverIP} to change the IP and \userinput{-P portnumber} to change the port. \subsection{HTTP and WEBDAV} For HTTPS recording, use \userinput{http://-} instead of \userinput{https://} in your browser \strong{New in 1.2.2}: For HTTP, you can configure the recorder to use a parent proxy (but this will not work for https). Add the -u option to enable parent proxy, and use \userinput{-I serverIP} to set the IP and \userinput{-P portnumber} to set the port of the parent. \section{Understanding tsung.xml configuration file} The default encoding is utf-8. You can use a different encoding, like in: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{File structure} Scenarios are enclosed into Tsung tags: \begin{Verbatim} ... \end{Verbatim} If you add the attribute \userinput{dumptraffic="true"}, all the traffic will be logged to a file. \emph{Warn:} this will considerably slow down Tsung, so use with care. It is useful for debugging purpose. You can use the attribute \userinput{dumptraffic="light"} to dump only the first 44 bytes. Since version \strong{1.4.0}, you have also a specific logging per protocol, using \userinput{dumptraffic="protocol"}. It's currently only implemented for HTTP: this will log all requests in a CSV file, with the following data: \begin{Verbatim} #date;pid;id;http method;host;URL;HTTP status;size;match;error \end{Verbatim} The \varname{loglevel} can also have a great impact on performance: For high load, \userinput{warning} is recommended. Possible values are: \begin{itemize} \item emergency \item critical \item error \item warning \item notice (default) \item info \item debug \end{itemize} For REALLY verbose logging, recompile tsung with \command{make debug} and set \varname{loglevel} to \userinput{debug}. \subsection{Clients and server} Scenarios start with clients (Tsung cluster) and server definitions: \subsubsection{Basic setup} For non distributed load, you can use a basic setup like: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} This will start the load on the same host and on the same Erlang virtual machine as the controller. The server is the entry point into the cluster (\strong{New in 1.2.0:} if several servers are defined, a round robin algorithm is used to choose the server). \varname{Type} can be \userinput{tcp}, \userinput{ssl} or \userinput{udp} (for IPv6, use \userinput{tcp6}, \userinput{ssl6} or \userinput{udp6} ; only available in version \strong{1.4.2} and newer) \subsubsection{Advanced setup} The next example is more complex, and use several features for advanced distributed testing: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Several virtual IP can be used to simulate more machines. This is very useful when a load-balancer use the client\verb|'|s IP to distribute the traffic among a cluster of servers. \strong{New in 1.1.1:} IP is no longer mandatory. If not specified, the default IP will be used. \strong{New in 1.4.0:} You can use \userinput{} to scan for all the IP aliases on a given interface (\userinput{eth0} in this example). In this example, a second machine is used in the Tsung cluster, with a higher weight, and 2 cpus. Two Erlang virtual machines will be used to take advantage of the number of CPU. \begin{quote} \strong{Note:} Even if an Erlang VM is now able to handle several CPUs (erlang SMP), benchmarks shows that it's more efficient to use one VM per CPU (with SMP disabled) for tsung clients. Only the controller node is using SMP erlang. Therefore, \varname{cpu} should be equal to the number of cores of your nodes. If you prefer to use erlang SMP, add the \userinput{-s} option when starting tsung (and don't set \varname{cpu} in the config file). \end{quote} By default, the load is distributed uniformly on all CPU (one CPU per client by default). The weight parameter (integer) can be used to take into account the speed of the client machine. For instance, if one real client has a weight of 1 and the other client has a weight of 2, the second one will start twice the number of users as the first (the proportions will be 1/3 and 2/3). In the earlier example where for the second client has 2 CPU and weight=3, the weight is equal to 1.5 for each CPU. The \varname{maxusers} parameter is used to bypass the limit of maximum number of sockets opened by a single process (1024 by default on many OS) and the lack of scalability of the \varname{select} system call. When the number of users is higher than the limit, a new erlang virtual machine will be started to handle new users. The default value of \varname{maxusers} is 800 . Nowadays, with kernel polling enable, you can and should use a very large value for \varname{maxusers} (30000 for example) without performance penalty (but don't forget to raise the limit of the OS with \command{ulimit -n}, see also FAQ \ref{sec:faq:emfile}). \subsubsection{Running Tsung with a job scheduler} Tsung is able to get its client node list from a batch/job scheduler. It currently handle PBS/torque, LSF and OAR. To do this, set the \varname{type} attribute to \userinput{batch}, e.g.: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} If you need to scan IP aliases on nodes given by the batch scheduler, use \varname{scan\_intf} like this: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{Monitoring} Tsung is able to monitor remote servers using several backends that communicates with remote agent; This is configured in the \varname{} section. Available statistics are: CPU activity, load average, memory usage. Note that you can get the nodes to monitor from a job scheduler, like: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Several types of remote agents are supported (\userinput{erlang} is the default) : \subsubsection{Erlang} The remote agent is started by Tsung. It use erlang communications to retrieve statistics of activity on the server. For example, here is a cluster monitoring definition based on Erlang agents, for a cluster of 6 computers: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Note: monitored computers needs to be accessible through the network, and erlang communications must be allowed (no firewall is better ). SSH (or rsh) needs to be configured to allow connection without password on. \strong{You must use the same version of Erlang/OTP on all nodes otherwise it may not work properly !} If you can't have erlang installed on remote servers, you can use one of the other available agents: \subsubsection{SNMP} The type keyword \userinput{snmp} can replace the erlang keyword, if SNMP monitoring is preferred. They can be mixed. Since version 1.2.2, you can customize the SNMP version, community and port number. It uses the MIB provided in \program{net-snmp} (see also \ref{sec:faq:snmp}). \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} The default version is \userinput{v1}, default community \userinput{public} and default port \userinput{161}. Since version \strong{1.4.2}, you can also customize the OIDs retrieved from the SNMP server, using one or several \userinput{oid} element: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \varname{type} can be \userinput{sample}, \userinput{counter} or \userinput{sum}, and optionally you can define a function (with erlang syntax) to be applied to the value (\varname{eval} attribute). \subsubsection{Munin} Since version \strong{1.3.1}, Tsung is able to retrieve data from a munin-node agent (see \url{http://munin.projects.linpro.no/wiki/munin-node}). The \varname{type} keyword must be set to \userinput{munin}, for example: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{Defining the load progression} \subsubsection{Randomly generated users} The load progression is set-up by defining several arrival phases: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} With this setup, during the first 10 minutes of the test, a new user will be created every 2 seconds, then during the next 10 minutes, a new user will be created every second, and for the last 10 minutes, 10 users will be generated every second. The test will finish when all users have ended their session. You can also use \varname{arrivalrate} instead of \varname{interarrival}. For example, if you want 10 new users per second, use: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} You can limit the number of users started for each phase by using the \varname{maxnumber} attribute, just like this: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} In this case, only 100 users will be created in the first phases, and 200 more during the second phase. The complete sequence can be executed several times using the \varname{loop} attribute in the \varname{load} tag (\userinput{loop='2'} means the sequence will be looped twice, so the complete load will be executed 3 times) (feature available since version 1.2.2). The load generated in terms of HTTP requests / seconds will also depend on the mean number of requests within a session (if you have a mean value of 100 requests per session and 10 new users per seconds, the theoretical average throughput will be 1000 requests/ sec). \subsubsection{Statically generated users} If you want to start a given session (see ~\ref{sec:sessions}) at a given time during the test, it is possible since version \strong{1.3.1}: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} In this example, we have two sessions, one has a "0" probability (and therefore will not be used in the first phase), and the other 100\%. We define 3 users starting respectively 3mn and 5 seconds after the beginning of the test (using the \userinput{http-example} session), one starting after 10 minutes, and a last one starting after 11 minutes (using the \userinput{foo} session this time) \subsubsection{Duration of the load test} By default, tsung will end when all started users have finished their session. So it can be much longer than the duration of arrivalphases. If you want to stop Tsung after a given duration (even if phases are not finished or if some sessions are still actives), you can do this with the \varname{duration} attribute in \varname{load} (\strong{feature added in 1.3.2}): \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Currently, the maximum value for duration is a little bit less than 50 days. \varname{unit} can be \userinput{second}, \userinput{minute} or \userinput{hour}. \subsection{Setting options} \label{sec:options} \paragraph{Thinktimes, SSL, Buffers} \par Default values can be set-up globally: \varname{thinktime} between requests in the scenario, SSL cipher algorithms, TCP/UDP buffer sizes (the default value is 32KB). These values overrides those set in session configuration tags if override is true. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{Timeout for acknowledgments of messages} This is used to set the idle timeout(used for 'parse' and 'local' ack) and global ack timeout(used for 'global' ack). By default, idle timeout will be 10min(600000) and global ack timeout will be \userinput{infinity}. This value can be changed like this: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{Hibernate} A new option is available in version \strong{1.3.1}: \varname{hibernate}. This is used to reduced memory consumption of simulated users during thinktimes. By default, hibernation will be activated for thinktimes higher than 10sec. This value can be changed like this: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} To disable hibernation, you must set the value to \userinput{infinity}. \paragraph{Rate\_limit} A new option is available in version \strong{1.4.0}: \varname{rate\_limit}. This will limit the bandwidth of each client (using a token bucket algorithm). The value is in KBytes per second. You can also specify a maximum burst value (eg. \userinput{max='2048'}). By default the burst size is the same as the rate (1024KB in the following example). Currently, only incoming traffic is rate limited. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{Ports\_range} If you need to open more than 30000 simultaneous connections on a client machine, you will be limited by the number of TCP client ports, even if you use several IPs (this is true at least on Linux). To bypass this limit, Tsung must not delegate the selection of client ports and together with using several IP for each client, you have to defined a range for available clients ports, for ex: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{Sessions} \label{sec:sessions} Sessions define the content of the scenario itself. They describe the requests to execute. Each session has a given probability. This is used to decide which session a new user will execute. The sum of all session\verb|'|s probabilities must be 100. \strong{Since Tsung 1.5.0}, you can use weights instead of probabilities. In the following example, there will be twice as many sessions of type s1 than s2. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} A transaction is just a way to have customized statistics. Say if you want to know the response time of the login page of your website, you just have to put all the requests of this page (HTML + embedded pictures) within a transaction. In the example above, the transaction called \varname{index\_request} will gives you in the statistics/reports the mean response time to get \userinput{index.en.html + header.gif}. Be warn that If you have a thinktime inside the transaction, the thinktime will be part of the response time. \subsubsection{Thinktimes} You can set static or random thinktimes to separate requests. By default, a random thinktime will be a exponential distribution with mean equals to \varname{value}. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} In this case, the thinktime will be an exponential distribution with a mean equals to 20 seconds. \strong{Since version 1.3.0}, you can also use a range \userinput{[min:max]} instead of a mean for random thinktimes (the distribution will be uniform in the interval): \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \strong{Since version 1.4.0}, you can use a dynamic variable to set the thinktime value: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{HTTP} This example shows several features of the HTTP protocol support in Tsung: GET and POST request, basic authentication, transaction for statistics definition, conditional request (IF MODIFIED SINCE), ... \begin{Verbatim} ... \end{Verbatim} If you use an absolute URL, the server used in the URL will override the one specified in the \varname{} section. The following relative requests in the session will also use this new server value (until a new absolute URL is set). \strong{New in 1.2.2:} You can add any HTTP header now, as in: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \strong{New in 1.3.0:} You can also read the content of a POST or PUT request from an external file: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Since \strong{1.3.1}, you can also manually set a cookie, though the cookie is not persistent: you must add it in every \varname{}: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{Authentication} Until Tsung 1.5.0, only Basic authentication was implemented. You can now use Digest Authentication and OAuth 1.0. To use Digest authentication: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} To use OAuth authentication: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{Jabber/XMPP} \label{sec:sessions:jabber} \par Here is an example of a session definition for the Jabber/XMPP protocol: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{Roster} What you can do with rosters using Tsung: You can \begin{enumerate} \item Add a new contact to their roster - The new contact is added to the \userinput{Tsung Group} group, and their name matches their JID \item Send a \userinput{subscribe} presence notification to the new contact's JID - This results in a \emph{pending} subscription \item Rename a roster contact This changes the previously added contact's name from the default JID, to \userinput{Tsung Testuser} \item Delete the previously added contact. \end{enumerate} Note that when you add a new contact, the contact JID is stored and used for the operations that follow. It is recommended that for each session which is configured to perform these operations, only do so once. In other words, you would NOT want to ADD more than one new contact per session. If you want to alter the rate that these roster functions are used during your test, it is best to use the session 'probability' factor to shape this. The nice thing about this is that when you test run is complete, your roster tables should look the same as before you started the test. So, if you set it up properly, you can have pre-loaded roster entries before the test, and then use these methods to dynamically add, modify, and remove roster entries during the test as well. Example roster modification setup: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} See also \ref{bidi:presence} for automatic handling of subscribing requests. \paragraph{SASL Anonymous} SASL Anonymous authentication example: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{Presence} \begin{itemize} \item \varname{type} can be either \userinput{presence:broadcast} or \userinput{presence:directed}. \item \varname{show} value must be either \userinput{away}, \userinput{chat}, \userinput{dnd}, or \userinput{xa}. \item \varname{status} value can be any text. \end{itemize} For more info, see section 2.2 of RFC 3921. If you omit the \varname{show} or \varname{status} attributes, they default to \userinput{chat} and \userinput{Available} respectively. Example of broadcast presence (broadcast to members of your roster): \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Example of directed presence (sent to random \userinput{online} users): \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{MUC} Tsung supports three MUC operations: \begin{enumerate} \item Join a room (attribute \userinput{type='muc:join'}) \item Send a message to a room (attribute \userinput{type='muc:chat'}) \item Change nickname (attribute \userinput{type='muc:nick'}) \item Exit a room (attribute \userinput{type='muc:exit}) \end{enumerate} Here's an example: \begin{Verbatim} <-- First, choose an random room and random nickname: --> \end{Verbatim} MUC support is available since version 1.3.1 \paragraph{PubSub} Experimental support for PubSub is available in version 1.3.1 You can read the following entry: \url{https://support.process-one.net/browse/TSUN-115} \paragraph{VHost} VHost support is available since version 1.3.2 Tsung is able to bench multiple vhost instances by choosing a vhost XMPP name from a list at connection time in the scenario. The vhost list is read from a file: \begin{Verbatim} ... ... ... \end{Verbatim} When each client starts a session, it chooses randomly a domain (each domain has the same probability). \paragraph{Reading usernames and password from a CSV file} Since version 1.4.0, you can now use a CSV file to store the usernames and password. Configure the CSV file: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} And then you have to defined two variables of type \userinput{file}, and the first jabber request (\userinput{connect}) must include a \varname{xmpp\_authenticate} tag: \begin{Verbatim} ... \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{raw XML} You can send raw XML data to the server using the \varname{raw} type: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Beware: you must encode XML characters like \userinput{<} ,\userinput{>}, \userinput{\&}, etc. \paragraph{resource} By default, the XMPP resource is set to \userinput{tsung}. Since version 1.5.0, you can override this (in all \varname{auth\_*} and \varname{register} requests) using the \varname{resource} attribute. \subsubsection{PostgreSQL} For PostgreSQL, 4 types of requests are available: \begin{enumerate} \item connect (to a given database with a given username \item authenticate (with password or not) \item sql (basic protocol) \item close \end{enumerate} In addition, the following parts of the extended protocol is supported: \begin{enumerate} \item copy, copydone and copyfail \item parse, bind, execute, describe \item sync, flush \end{enumerate} This example shows most of the features of a PostgreSQL session: \begin{Verbatim} SELECT * from accounts; SELECT * from users; \end{Verbatim} Example with the extended protocol: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} %$ \subsubsection{MySQL} \label{sec:session:mysql} For MySQL, 4 types of requests are available (same as PostgreSQL): \begin{enumerate} \item connect (to a given database with a given username \item authenticate (with password or not) \item sql \item close \end{enumerate} This example shows most of the features of a MySQL session: \begin{Verbatim} SHOW TABLES SELECT * FROM mytable \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{Websocket} \label{sec:session:websocket} For Websocket, 3 types of requests are available: \begin{enumerate} \item connect (to a given path) \item message (send message to server) \item close \end{enumerate} Example with Websocket as a session type: \begin{Verbatim} Hello world! \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{LDAP} \label{sec:session:ldap} \paragraph{Authentication} The recommended mechanism used to authenticate users against a LDAP repository requires two steps to follow. Given an username and password, we: \begin{enumerate} \item Search the user in the repository tree, using the username (so users can reside in different subtrees of the organization) \item Try to bind as the user, with the distinguished name found in the first step and the user's password \end{enumerate} If the bind is successful, the user is authenticated (this is the scheme used, among others, by the LDAP authentication module for Apache \url{http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/mod/mod_auth_ldap.html}) \paragraph{LDAP Setup} For this example we are going to use a simple repository with the following hierarchy: \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=0.4\linewidth]{ldap-hierarchy} \end{center} \caption{LDAP Hierarchy} \label{fig:ldap:hierarchy} \end{figure} the repository has users in two organizational units \begin{enumerate} \item users (with four members) \item users2 (with tree members) \end{enumerate} For simplicity we set the password of each user to be the same as its common name (cn). Tsung Setup We will use a CSV file as input, containing the user:password pairs for our test. So we start by writing it, in this case we name the file \file{users.csv} \begin{Verbatim} user1;user1 user2;user2 user3;user3 user4;user4 jane;jane mary;mary paul;pablo paul;paul \end{Verbatim} (the pair paul:pablo should fail to authenticate, we will note that in the Tsung report) Then, in our Tsung scenario, we let Tsung know about this file \begin{Verbatim} We use two dynamic variables to hold the username and password \end{Verbatim} To start the authentication process we instruct Tsung to perform a search, to find the distinguished name of the user we are trying to authenticate \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} As we need to access the search result, we specify it using the \varname{result\_var} attribute. This attribute tells Tsung in which dynamic variable we want to store the result (if the \varname{result\_var} attribute isn't set, Tsung doesn't store the search result in any place). Finally, we try to bind as that user. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} The only thing that remains to do is to implement the \varname{ldap\_auth:user\_dn} function, that extract the distinguished name from the search result. \begin{Verbatim} -module(ldap_auth). -export([user_dn/1]). user_dn({_Pid,DynVars}) -> [SearchResultEntry] = proplists:get_value(search_result,DynVars), {_,DN,_} = SearchResultEntry, DN. \end{Verbatim} We aren't covering errors here. supposing that there is always one (and only one) user found, that we extract from the \varname{search\_result} variable (as defined in the previous search operation). Each entry in the result set is a SearchResultEntry record. The record definition can be found in \file{/include/ELDAPv3.hrl}. As we only need to access the distinguished name of the object, we index into the result tuple directly. But if you need to access other attributes you probably will want to include the appropriate .hrl and use the record syntax instead. One of the eight user:password pairs in our users file was wrong, so we expect 1/8 of the authentication attempts to fail. Indeed, after running the scenario we can confirm this in the Tsung report (see figure \ref{fig:ldap:results}). The bind operation maintains two counters: \varname{ldap\_bind\_ok} and \varname{ldap\_bind\_error}, that counts successful and unsuccessful bind attempts. \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=0.4\linewidth]{ldap-results} \end{center} \caption{LDAP Results} \label{fig:ldap:results} \end{figure} \paragraph{Other examples} \begin{Verbatim} organizationalPerson inetOrgPerson person %%_new_user_cn%% fffs SomeSN some@mail.com \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{Mixing session type} Since version \strong{1.3.2}, a new tag \varname{change\_type} can be used in a session to change it's type. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \userinput{store='true'} can be used to save the current state of the session (socket, cookies for http, \ldots{}) and \userinput{restore='true'} to reuse the previous state when you switch back to the old protocol. A dynamic variable set in the first part of the session will be available after a \varname{change\_type}. There is currently one caveat: you have to use a full URL in the first http request after a \varname{} (a relative URL will fail). \subsection{Advanced features} \subsubsection{Dynamic substitutions} Dynamic substitution are mark-up placed in element of the scenario. For HTTP, this mark-up can be placed in basic authentication (www\_authenticate tag: userid and passwd attributes), URL (to change GET parameter) and POST content. Those mark-up are of the form \userinput{\%\%Module:Function\%\%}. Substitutions are executed on a request-by-request basis, only if the request tag has the attribute \userinput{subst="true"}. When a substitution is requested, the substitution mark-up is replaced by the result of the call to the Erlang function: \userinput{Module:Function(\{Pid, DynData\})} where Pid is the Erlang process id of the current virtual user and DynData the list of all Dynamic variables (\strong{Warn: before version 1.1.0, the argument was just the Pid !}). Here is an example of use of substitution in a Tsung scenario: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Here is the Erlang code of the module used for dynamic substitution: \begin{Verbatim} -module(symbol). -export([new/1]). new({Pid, DynData}) -> case random:uniform(3) of 1 -> "IBM"; 2 -> "MSFT"; 3 -> "RHAT" end. \end{Verbatim} (use \command{erlc} to compiled the code, and put the resulting .beam file in \file{\$PREFIX/lib/erlang/lib/tsung-X.X.X/ebin/} on all client machines) As you can see, writing scenario with dynamic substitution is simple. It can be even simpler using dynamic variables (see later). If you want to set unique id, you can use the built-in function \varname{ts\_user\_server:get\_unique\_id}. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{Reading external file} \strong{New in 1.0.3}: A new module \varname{ts\_file\_server} is available. You can use it to read external files. For example, if you need to read user names and passwd from a CSV file, you can do it with it (currently, you can read only a single file). You have to add this in the XML configuration file: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \strong{New in 1.2.2}: You can read several files, using the \varname{id} attribute to identify each file: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Now you can build you own function to use it, for example, create a file called \file{readcsv.erl}: \begin{Verbatim} -module(readcsv). -export([user/1]). user({Pid,DynVar})-> {ok,Line} = ts_file_server:get_next_line(), [Username, Passwd] = string:tokens(Line,";"), "username=" ++ Username ++"&password=" ++ Passwd. \end{Verbatim} The output of the function will be a string \userinput{username=USER\&password=PASSWORD} Then compile it with \command{erlc readcsv.erl} and put \file{readcsv.beam} in \file{\$prefix/lib/erlang/lib/tsung-VERSION/ebin} directory (if the file has an id set to \userinput{random}, change the call to: \\ \texttt{ts\_file\_server:get\_next\_line(random)}). Then use something like this in your session: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Two functions are available: \varname{ts\_file\_server:get\_next\_line} and \varname{ts\_file\_server:get\_random\_line}. For the \varname{get\_next\_line} function, when the end of file is reached, the first line of the file will be the next line. \strong{New in 1.3.0}: you no longer have to create an external function to parse a simple csv file: you can use \varname{setdynvars} (see next section for detailed documentation): \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} This defines two dynamic variables \varname{username} and \varname{user\_password} filled with the next entry from the csv file. Using the previous example, the request is now: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Much simpler than the old method ! \subsubsection{Dynamic variables}\label{Dynamic variables} In some cases, you may want to use a value given by the server in a response later in the session, and this value is \strong{dynamically generated} by the server for each user. For this, you can use \userinput{} in the scenario Let's take an example with HTTP. You can easily grab a value in a HTML form like: \begin{Verbatim}
\end{Verbatim} with: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Now \varname{random\_num} will be set to 42 during the user's session. It's value will be replace in all mark-up of the form \userinput{\%\%\_random\_num\%\%} if and only if the \varname{request} tag has the attribute \userinput{subst="true"}, like: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{Regexp} If the dynamic value is not a form variable, you can set a regexp by hand, for example to get the title of a HTML page: the regexp engine uses the \varname{re} module, a Perl like regular expressions module for Erlang. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Previously (before 1.4.0), Tsung uses the old \varname{regexp} module from erlang. This is now deprecated. The syntax was: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{XPath} A new way to analyze the server response has been introduced in the release \strong{1.3.0}. It is available only for the HTTP and XMPP plugin since it is based on XML/HTML parsing. This feature uses the mochiweb library and \strong{only works with erlang R12B and newer version}. This give us some benefices: \begin{itemize} \item XPath is simple to write and to read, and match very well with HTML/XML pages \item The parser works on binaries(), and doesn't create any string(). \item The cost of parsing the HTML/XML and build the tree is amortized between all the dyn\_variables defined for a given request \end{itemize} To utilize xpath expression, use a \varname{xpath} attribute when defining the dyn\_variable, instead of \varname{re}, like: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} There is a bug in the xpath engine, result nodes from "descendant-or-self" aren't returned in document order. This isn't a problem for the most common cases. However, queries like \userinput{//img[1]/@src} are not recommended, as the order of the \userinput{} elements returned from //img is not the expected. The order is respected for paths without "descendant-or-self" axis, so this: \userinput{/html/body/div[2]/img[3]/@src} is interpreted as expected and can be safely used. It is possible to use Xpath to get a list of elements from an html page, allowing dynamic retrieval of objects. You can either create embedded erlang code to parse the list produced, or use foreach that was introduced in release \strong(1.4.0). For XMPP, you can get all the contacts in a dynamic variable: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{JSONPath} \label{sec:jsonpath} Another way to analyze the server response has been introduced in the release \strong{1.3.2} when the server is sending JSON data. It is only for the HTTP plugin. This feature uses the mochiweb library and \strong{only works with erlang R13B and newer version}. Tsung implements a (very) limited subset of JSONPath as defined here \url{http://goessner.net/articles/JsonPath/} To utilize jsonpath expression, use a \varname{jsonpath} attribute when defining the dyn\_variable, instead of \varname{re}, like: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} You can also use expressions \userinput{Key=Val}, e.g.: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{PostgreSQL} \strong{New in 1.3.2!} Since the PostgreSQL protocol is binary, regexp are not useful to parse the output of the server. Instead, a specific parsing can be done to extract content from the server's response; to do this, use the \varname{pgsql\_expr} attribute. Use \userinput{data\_row[L][C]} to extract the column C of the line L of the data output. You can also use the literal name of the column (\ie the field name of the table). This example extract 3 dynamic variables from the server's response: First one, extract the 3rd column of the fourth row, then the \varname{mtime} field from the second row, and then it extract some data of the row\_description. \begin{Verbatim} SELECT * from pgbench_history LIMIT 20; \end{Verbatim} A row description looks like this: \begin{Verbatim} =INFO REPORT==== 14-Apr-2010::11:03:22 === ts_pgsql:(7:<0.102.0>) PGSQL: Pair={row_description, [{"tid",text,1,23,4,-1,16395}, {"bid",text,2,23,4,-1,16395}, {"aid",text,3,23,4,-1,16395}, {"delta",text,4,23,4,-1, 16395}, {"mtime",text,5,1114,8,-1, 16395}, {"filler",text,6,1042,-1,26, 16395}]} \end{Verbatim} So in the example, the \varname{row} variable equals "aid". \paragraph{set\_dynvars} \strong{Since version 1.3.0}, more powerful dynamic variables are implemented: You can set dynamic variables not only while parsing server data, but you can build them using external files or generate them with a function or generate random numbers/strings: Several types of dynamic variables are implemented (\varname{sourcetype} tag): \begin{enumerate} \item Dynamic variables defined by calling an erlang function: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \item Dynamic variables defined by parsing an external file: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \varname{delimiter} can be any string, and \varname{order} can be \userinput{iter} or \userinput{random} \item A dynamic variable can be a random number (uniform distribution) \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \item A dynamic variable can be a random string \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \item A dynamic variable can be a urandom string: this is much faster than the random string, but the string is not really random: the same set of characters is always used. \item A dynamic variable can be generated by dynamic evaluation of erlang code: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} In this case, we use tsung function \varname{ts\_dynvars:lookup} to retrieve the dynamic variable named \varname{md5data}. This dyn\_variable \varname{md5data} can be set in any of the ways described in the Dynamic variables section \ref{Dynamic variables}. \item A dynamic variable can be generated by applying a JSONPath specification (see \ref{sec:jsonpath}) to an existing dynamic variable: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \item You can create dynamic variables to get the hostname and port of the current server \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \end{enumerate} A \varname{setdynvars} can be defined anywhere in a session. \subsubsection{Checking the server's response} With the tag \varname{match} in a \varname{request} tag, you can check the server's response against a given string, and do some actions depending on the result. In any case, if it matches, this will increment the \varname{match} counter, if it does not match, the \varname{nomatch} counter will be incremented. For example, let's say you want to test a login page. If the login is ok, the server will respond with \computeroutput{Welcome !} in the HTML body, otherwise not. To check that: \begin{Verbatim} Welcome ! \end{Verbatim} You can use a regexp instead of a simple string. The list of available actions to do is: \begin{itemize} \item continue: do nothing, continue (only update match or nomatch counters) \item log: log the request id, userid, sessionid in a file (in \file{match.log}) \item abort : abort the session \item restart: restart the session. The maximum number of restarts is 3 by default. \item loop: repeat the request, after 5 seconds. The maximum number of loops is 20 by default. \item dump: dump the content of the response in a file. The filename is \file{match----.dump} \end{itemize} You can mixed several match tag in a single request: \begin{Verbatim} Retry Error \end{Verbatim} You can also do the action on "nomatch" instead of "match". If you want to skip the HTTP headers, and match only on the body, you can use \userinput{skip\_headers='http'}. Also, you can apply a function to the content before matching; for example the following example use both features to compute the md5sum on the body of a HTTP response, and compares it to a given value: \begin{Verbatim} 01441debe3d7cc65ba843eee1acff89d \end{Verbatim} You can also use dynamic variables, using the \varname{subst} attribute: \begin{Verbatim} %%_myvar%% \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{Loops, If, Foreach} \strong{Since 1.3.0}, it's now possible to add conditional/unconditional loops in a session. \strong{Since 1.4.0}, it is possible to loop through a list of dynamic variables thanks to foreach. \paragraph{} Repeat the enclosing actions a fixed number of times. A dynamic variable is used as counter, so the current iteration could be used in requests. List of attributes: \begin{description} \item[from] Initial Value \item[to] Last value \item[incr] Amount to increment in each iteration \item[var] Name of the variable to hold the counter \end{description} \begin{Verbatim} [...] [...] \end{Verbatim} \paragraph{} Repeat the enclosing action (while|until) some condition. This is intended to be used together with \userinput{dyn\_variable} declarations. List of attributes: \begin{description} \item[name] Name of the repeat \item[max\_repeat] Max number of loops (default value is 20) \end{description} The last element of repeat must be either \userinput{} or \userinput{} example: \begin{Verbatim} [...] [...] \end{Verbatim} \strong{Since 1.3.1}, it's also possible to add if statements based on dynamic variables: \paragraph{} \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} You can use \varname{eq} or \varname{neq} to check the variable. If the dynamic variable is a list (output from xpath for example), you can access to the nth element of a list like this: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} (here we compare the first element of the list to 3) \paragraph{} Repeat the enclosing actions for all the elements contained in the list specified. The basic syntax is as follows: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} It is possible to limit the list of elements you're looping through, thanks to the use of the \userinput{include} or \userinput{exclude} attributes inside the foreach statement. As an example, if you want to include only elements with a local path you can write: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} If you want to exclude all the elements from a specific URI, you would write: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} You can combine this with a xpath query. For instance the following scenario will retrieve all the images specified on a web page: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsubsection{Rate limiting} Since version \strong{1.4.0}, rate limiting can be enabled, either globally (see \ref{sec:options}), or for each session separately. For example, to limit the rate to 64KB/sec for a given session: \begin{Verbatim} ... \end{Verbatim} Only the incoming traffic is rate limited currently. \section{Statistics and reports} \label{sec:statistics-reports} \subsection{File format} By default, tsung use it's own format (see FAQ \ref{sec:what-format-stats}). Since version 1.4.2, you can configure tsung to use a JSON format; however in this case, the tools \command{tsung\_stats.pl} and \command{tsung\_plotter} will not work with the JSON files. To enable JSON output, use: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} Example output file with JSON: \begin{Verbatim} { "stats": [ {"timestamp": 1317413841, "samples": []}, {"timestamp": 1317413851, "samples": [ {"name": "users", "value": 0, "max": 0}, {"name": "users_count", "value": 0, "total": 0}, {"name": "finish_users_count", "value": 0, "total": 0}]}, {"timestamp": 1317413861, "samples": [ {"name": "users", "value": 0, "max": 1}, {"name": "load", "hostname": "requiem", "value": 1, "mean": 0.0,"stddev": 0,"max": 0.0,"min": 0.0 ,"global_mean": 0 ,"global_count": 0}, {"name": "freemem", "hostname": "requiem", "value": 1, "mean": 2249.32421875,"stddev": 0,"max": 2249.32421875,"min": 2249.32421875 ,"global_mean": 0 ,"global_count": 0}, {"name": "cpu", "hostname": "requiem", "value": 1, "mean": 4.790419161676647,"stddev": 0,"max": 4.790419161676647,"min": 4.790419161676647 ,"global_mean": 0 ,"global_count": 0}, {"name": "session", "value": 1, "mean": 387.864990234375,"stddev": 0,"max": 387.864990234375,"min": 387.864990234375 ,"global_mean": 0 ,"global_count": 0}, {"name": "users_count", "value": 1, "total": 1}, {"name": "finish_users_count", "value": 1, "total": 1}, {"name": "request", "value": 5, "mean": 75.331787109375,"stddev": 46.689242405019954,"max": 168.708984375,"min": 51.744873046875 ,"global_mean": 0 ,"global_count": 0}, {"name": "page", "value": 1, "mean": 380.7548828125,"stddev": 0.0,"max": 380.7548828125,"min": 380.7548828125 ,"global_mean": 0 ,"global_count": 0}, {"name": "connect", "value": 1, "mean": 116.70703125,"stddev": 0.0,"max": 116.70703125,"min": 116.70703125 ,"global_mean": 0 ,"global_count": 0}, {"name": "size_rcv", "value": 703, "total": 703}, {"name": "size_sent", "value": 1083, "total": 1083}, {"name": "connected", "value": 0, "max": 0}, {"name": "http_304", "value": 5, "total": 5}]}]} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{Available stats} \begin{itemize} \item \varname{request} Response time for each request. \item \varname{page} Response time for each set of requests (a page is a group of request not separated by a thinktime). \item \varname{connect} Duration of the connection establishment. \item \varname{reconnect} Number of reconnection. \item \varname{size\_rcv} Size of responses in bytes. \item \varname{size\_sent} Size of requests in bytes. \item \varname{session} Duration of a user's session. \item \varname{users} Number of simultaneous users (it's session has started, but not yet finished). \item \varname{connected} number of users with an opened TCP/UDP connection (example: for HTTP, during a think time, the TCP connection can be closed by the server, and it won't be reopened until the thinktime has expired). \strong{new in 1.2.2}. \item custom transactions \end{itemize} The mean response time (for requests, page, etc.) is computed every 10 sec (and reset). That's why you have the highest mean and lowest mean values in the Stats report. \strong{Since version 1.3.0}, the mean for the whole test is also computed. HTTP specific stats: \begin{itemize} \item counter for each response status (200, 404, etc.) \end{itemize} Jabber specific stats: \begin{itemize} \item \varname{request\_noack} Counter of \varname{no\_ack} requests. Since response time is meaningless with \varname{no\_ack} requests, we keep a separate stats for this. \strong{new in 1.2.2}. \item \varname{async\_unknown\_data\_rcv} Only if bidi is true for a session. counter the number of messages received from the server without doing anything. \strong{new in 1.2.2}. \item \varname{async\_data\_sent} Only if bidi is true for a session. Count the number of messages sent to the server in response of a message received from the server. \strong{new in 1.2.2}. \end{itemize} OS monitoring stats: \begin{itemize} \item \varname{\{load,\}} System load average during the last minute \item \varname{\{cpu,\}} Free Memory \end{itemize} \subsection{Design} A bit of explanation on the design and internals of the statistics engine: Tsung was designed to handle thousands of requests/sec, for very long period of times (several hours) so it do not write all data to the disk (for performance reasons). Instead it computes on the fly an estimation of the mean and standard variation for each type of data, and writes these estimations every 10 seconds to the disk (and then starts a new estimation for the next 10 sec). These computations are done for two kinds of data: \begin{itemize} \item \varname{sample}, for things like response time \item \varname{sample\_counter} when the input is a cumulative one (number of packet sent for ex.). \end{itemize} There are also two other types of useful data (no averaging is done for those) : \begin{itemize} \item \varname{counter}: a simple counter, for HTTP status code for ex. \item \varname{sum} for ex. the cumulative HTTP response's size (it gives an estimated bandwidth usage). \end{itemize} \subsection{Generating the report} cd to the log directory of your test (say \file{~/.tsung/log/20040325-16:33/}) and use the script \command{tsung\_stats.pl}: \begin{Verbatim} /usr/lib/tsung/bin/tsung_stats.pl \end{Verbatim} \strong{You can generate the statistics even when the test is running !} use \userinput{--help} to view all available options: \begin{Verbatim} Available options: [--help] (this help text) [--verbose] (print all messages) [--debug] (print receive without send messages) [--dygraph] use dygraphs (http://danvk.org/dygraphs/) to render graphs [--noplot] (don't make graphics) [--gnuplot ] (path to the gnuplot binary) [--nohtml] (don't create HTML reports) [--logy] (logarithmic scale for Y axis) [--tdir ] (Path to the HTML tsung templates) [--noextra (don't generate graphics from extra data (os monitor, etc) [--rotate-xtics (rotate legend of x axes) [--stats ] (stats file to analyse, default=tsung.log) [--img_format ] (output format for images, default=png available format: ps, svg, png, pdf) \end{Verbatim} Version \strong{1.4.0} adds a new graphical output based on \url{http://danvk.org/dygraphs/}. \subsection{Tsung summary} Figure \ref{fig:report} shows an example of a summary report. \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=0.6\linewidth]{tsung-report} \end{center} \caption{Report} \label{fig:report} \end{figure} \subsection{Graphical overview} Figure \ref{fig:graph} shows an example of a graphical report. \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=0.6\linewidth]{tsung-graph} \end{center} \caption{Graphical output} \label{fig:graph} \end{figure} \subsection{Tsung Plotter} Tsung-Plotter (\command {tsplot} command) is an optional tool recently added in the Tsung distribution (it is written in Python), useful to compare different tests runned by Tsung. \command{tsplot} is able to plot data from several \file{tsung.log} files onto the same charts, for further comparisons and analyzes. You can easily customize the plots you want to generate by editing simple configuration files. You can get more information in the manual page of the tool (\command{man tsplot}). Example of use: \begin{Verbatim} tsplot "First test" firsttest/tsung.log "Second test" secondtest/tsung.log -d outputdir \end{Verbatim} Here's an example of the charts generated by tsplot (figure \ref{fig:graph:tsplot}): \begin{figure}[htb] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=0.6\linewidth]{connected} \end{center} \caption{Graphical output of tsplot} \label{fig:graph:tsplot} \end{figure} \subsection{RRD} A contributed perl script \command{tsung-rrd.pl} is able to create rrd files from the tsung log files. It's available in \file{/usr/lib/tsung/bin/tsung-rrd.pl} \section{References} \begin{itemize} \item \program{Tsung} home page: \url{http://tsung.erlang-projects.org/} \item \program{Tsung} description (French)\footnote{\url{http://www.erlang-projects.org/Members/mremond/events/dossier_de_presentat/block_10766817551485/file}} \item Erlang web site \url{http://www.erlang.org/} \item Erlang programmation, Mickaël Rémond, Editions Eyrolles, 2003 \footnote{\url{http://www.editions-eyrolles.com/php.accueil/Ouvrages/ouvrage.php3?ouv_ean13=9782212110791}} \item \emph{Making reliable system in presence of software errors}, Doctoral Thesis, Joe Armstrong, Stockholm, 2003 \footnote{\url{http://www.sics.se/~joe/thesis/armstrong_thesis_2003.pdf}} \item \emph{Tutorial on How to write a Tsung plugin}, written by t ty, \url{http://www.process-one.net/en/wiki/Writing_a_Tsung_plugin/} \end{itemize} \section{Acknowledgments} The first version of this document was based on a talk given by Mickael Rémond\footnote{\email{mickael.remond@erlang-fr.org}} during an Object Web benchmarking workshop in April 2004 (more info at \url{http://jmob.objectweb.org/}). \begin{appendix} \section{Frequently Asked Questions} \subsection{Can't start distributed clients: timeout error } Most of the time, when a crash happened at startup without any traffic generated, the problem arise because the main Erlang controller node cannot create a "slave" Erlang virtual machine. The message looks like: \begin{Verbatim} Can't start newbeam on host 'XXXXX (reason: timeout) ! Aborting! \end{Verbatim} %%%$The problem is that the Erlang slave module cannot start a remote slave node. You can test this using this simple command on the controller node (remotehost is the name of the client node) \begin{Verbatim} >erl -rsh ssh -sname foo -setcookie mycookie Eshell V5.4.3 (abort with ^G) (foo@myhostname)1>slave:start(remotehost,bar,"-setcookie mycookie"). \end{Verbatim} You should see this: \computeroutput{\{ok,bar@remotehost\}} If you got \computeroutput{\{error,timeout\}}, it can be caused by several problems: \begin{enumerate} \item ssh in not working (you must have a key without passphrase, or use an agent) \item Tsung and Erlang are not installed on all clients nodes \item Erlang version or location (install path) is not the same on all clients nodes \item A firewall is dropping erlang packets: indeed erlang virtual machines use several TCP ports (dynamically generated) to communicate (if you are using EC2, you may have to change the Security Group that is applied on the VMs used for Tsung: open port-range “0 – 65535”) \item SELinux: You should disable SELinux on all clients. \item Bad \file{/etc/hosts:} This one is wrong (real hostname should not refer to localhost/loopback): \begin{Verbatim} 127.0.0.1 localhost myhostname \end{Verbatim} This one is good: \begin{Verbatim} 127.0.0.1 localhost 192.168.3.2 myhostname \end{Verbatim} \item sshd configuration: For example, for SuSE 9.2 sshd is compiled with restricted set of paths (\ie{} when you shell into the account you get the users shell, when you execute a command via ssh you don't) and this makes it impossible to start an erlang node (if erlang is installed in \file{/usr/local} for example). Run: \begin{Verbatim} ssh myhostname erl \end{Verbatim} If the erlang shell doesn't start then check what paths sshd was compiled with (in SuSE see \file{/etc/ssh/sshd_config}) and symlink from one of the approved paths to the erlang executable (thanks to Gordon Guthrie for reporting this). \item old beam processes (erlang virtual machines) running on client nodes: kill all beam processes before starting tsung. \end{enumerate} Note that you do not need to use the 127.0.0.1 address in the configuration file. It will not work if you use it as the injection interface. The shortname of your client machine should not refer to this address. \emph{Warn:}Tsung launches a new erlang virtual machine to do the actual injection even when you have only one machine in the injection cluster (unless \varname{'use\_controller\_vm'} is set to true). This is because it needs to by-pass some limit with the number of open socket from a single process (1024 most of the time). The idea is to have several system processes (Erl beam) that can handle only a small part of the network connection from the given computer. When the \varname{maxusers} limit (simultaneous) is reach, a new Erlang beam is launched and the newest connection can be handled by the new beam). \strong{New in 1.1.0}: If you don't use the distributed feature of Tsung and have trouble to start a remote beam on a local machine, you can set the \varname{'use\_controller\_vm'} attribute to true, for ex.: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{Tsung crashes when I start it } Does your Erlang system has ssl support enabled ? to test it: \begin{Verbatim} > erl Eshell V5.2 (abort with ^G) 1> ssl:start(). you should see 'ok' \end{Verbatim} \subsection{Why do i have error\_connect\_emfile errors ?} \label{sec:faq:emfile} emfile error means : \emph{too many open files} This happens usually when you set a high value for \varname{maxusers} (\varname{in the } section) (the default value is 800). The errors means that you are running out of file descriptors; you must check that \varname{maxusers} is less than the maximum number of file descriptors per process in your system (see \command{ulimit -n}) You can either raise the limit of your operating system ( see \file{/etc/security/limits.conf} for Linux ) or decrease \varname{maxusers} (Tsung will have to start several virtual machine on the same host to bypass the maxusers limit). \subsection{Tsung still crashes/fails when I start it !} First look at the log file \file{~/.tsung/log/XXX/tsung_controller@yourhostname'} to see if there is a problem. If the file is not created and a crashed dump file is present, maybe you are using a binary installation of Tsung not compatible with the version of erlang you used. If you see nothing wrong, you can compile \program{Tsung} with full debugging: recompile with \command{make debug} , and don't forget to set the loglevel to "debug" in the XML file. To start the debugger or see what happen, start \program{tsung} with the \userinput{debug} argument instead of \userinput{start}. You will have an erlang shell on the \varname{tsung\_controller} node. Use \command{toolbar:start().} to launch the graphical tools provided by Erlang. \subsection{Can I dynamically follow redirect with HTTP ?} If your HTTP server sends 30X responses (redirect) with dynamic URLs, you can handle this situation using a dynamic variable: \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} You can even handle the case where the server use several redirections successively using a repeat loop (this works only with version 1.3.0 and up): \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \subsection{What is the format of the stats file tsung.log ?} \label{sec:what-format-stats} \begin{Verbatim} # stats: dump at 1218093520 stats: users 247 247 stats: connected 184 247 stats: users_count 184 247 stats: page 187 98.324 579.441 5465.940 2.177 9.237 595 58 stats: request 1869 0.371 0.422 5.20703125 0.115 0.431 7444062 581 stats: connect 186 0.427 0.184 4.47216796875 0.174 0.894 88665254 59 stats: tr_login 187 100.848 579.742 5470.223 2.231 56.970 91567888 58 stats: size_rcv 2715777 3568647 stats: 200 1869 2450 stats: size_sent 264167 347870 # stats: dump at 1218093530 stats: users 356 356 stats: users_count 109 356 stats: connected -32 215 stats: page 110 3.346 0.408 5465.940 2.177 77.234 724492 245 stats: request 1100 0.305 0.284 5.207 0.115 0.385 26785716 2450 stats: connect 110 0.320 0.065 4.472 0.174 0.540 39158164 245 stats: tr_login 110 3.419 0.414 5470.223 2.231 90.461 548628831 245 stats: size_rcv 1602039 5170686 stats: 200 1100 3550 stats: size_sent 150660 498530 ... \end{Verbatim} the format is, for \varname{request}, \varname{page}, \varname{session} and transactions (\varname{tr\_XXX}: \texttt{ \# stats:'name' 10sec\_count, 10sec\_mean, 10sec\_stddev, max, min, mean, count} or for HTTP returns code, size ... \texttt{ \# stats:'name' count(during the last 10sec), totalcount(since the beginning)} \subsection{How can I compute percentile/quartiles/median for transactions or requests response time ?} It's not directly possible. But since \strong{version 1.3.0}, you can use a new experimental statistic backend: set \userinput{backend="fullstats"} in the \userinput{} section of your configuration file. This will print every statistics data in a raw format in a file named \file{tsung-fullstats.log}. \strong{Warning}: this may impact the performance of the controller node (a lot of data has to be written to disk). The data looks like: \begin{Verbatim} {sum,connected,1} {sum,connected,-1} [{sample,request,214.635}, {sum,size_rcv,268}, {sample,page,831.189}, {count,200}, {sum,size_sent,182}, {sample,connect,184.787}, {sample,request,220.974}, {sum,size_rcv,785}, {count,200}, {sum,size_sent,164}, {sample,connect,185.482}] {sum,connected,1} [{count,200},{sum,size_sent,161},{sample,connect,180.812}] [{sum,size_rcv,524288},{sum,size_rcv,524288}] \end{Verbatim} You will have to write your own script to analyze the output. The format of the file may change in a future release. \subsection{How can I specify the number of concurrent users ?} You can't. But it's on purpose: the load generated by \program{Tsung} is dependent on the arrival time between new clients. Indeed, once a client has finished his session in \program{tsung}, it stops. So the number of concurrent users is a function of the arrival rate and the mean session duration. For example, if your web site has$1000$visits/hour, the arrival rate is$1000/3600 = 0.2778$visits/second. If you want to simulate the same load, set the inter-arrival time is to$1/0.27778 = 3.6 sec\$ (\texttt{} in the \varname{arrivalphase} node in the XML config file). \subsection{SNMP monitoring doesn't work ?!} \label{sec:faq:snmp} It use SNMP v1 and the 'public' community. It has been tested with \url{http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net/}. You can try with \command{snmpwalk} to see if your snmpd config is ok: \begin{Verbatim} >snmpwalk -v 1 -c public IP-OF-YOUR-SERVER .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.5.0 UCD-SNMP-MIB::memTotalReal.0 = INTEGER: 1033436 \end{Verbatim} SNMP doesn't work with erlang R10B and Tsung older than 1.2.0. There is a small bug in the \file{snmp_mgr} module in old Erlang release (R9C-0). You have to apply this patch to make it work. This is fixed in erlang R9C-1 and up. \begin{Verbatim} --- lib/snmp-3.4/src/snmp_mgr.erl.orig 2004-03-22 15:21:59.000000000 +0100 +++ lib/snmp-3.4/src/snmp_mgr.erl 2004-03-22 15:23:46.000000000 +0100 @@ -296,6 +296,10 @@ end; is_options_ok([{recbuf,Sz}|Opts]) when 0 < Sz, Sz =< 65535 -> is_options_ok(Opts); +is_options_ok([{receive_type, msg}|Opts]) -> + is_options_ok(Opts); +is_options_ok([{receive_type, pdu}|Opts]) -> + is_options_ok(Opts); is_options_ok([InvOpt|_]) -> {error,{invalid_option,InvOpt}}; is_options_ok([]) -> true. \end{Verbatim} \subsection{How can i simulate a fix number of users ?} Use \varname{maxnumber} to set the max number of concurrent users in a phase, and if you want Tsung to behave like ab, you can use a loop in a session (to send requests as fast as possible); you can also define a max \varname{duration} in \varname{}. \begin{Verbatim} \end{Verbatim} \section{Errors list} \begin{description} \item[error\_closed] Only for non persistent session (XMPP); the server unexpectedly closed the connection; the session is aborted. \item[error\_inet\_] Network error; see \url{http://www.erlang.org/doc/man/inet.html} for the list of all errors. \item[error\_unknown\_data] Data received from the server during a thinktime (not for unparsed protocol like XMPP). The session is aborted. \item[error\_unknown\_msg] Unknown message received (see the log files for more information). The session is aborted. \item[error\_unknown] Abnormal termination of a session, see log file for more information. \item[error\_repeat\_] Error in a repeat loop (undefined dynamic variable usually). \item[error\_send\_] Error while sending data to the server, see \url{http://www.erlang.org/doc/man/inet.html} for the list of all errors. \item[error\_send] Unexpected error while sending data to the server, see the logfiles for more information. \item[error\_connect\_] Error while establishing a connection to the server. See \url{http://www.erlang.org/doc/man/inet.html} for the list of all errors. \item[error\_no\_online jabber] XMPP: No online user available (usually for a chat message destinated to a online user) \item[error\_no\_offline jabber] XMPP: No offline user available (usually for a chat message destinated to a offline user) \item[error\_no\_free\_userid] For XMPP: all users Id are already used (\varname{userid\_max} is too low ?) \item[error\_next\_session] A clients fails to gets its session parameter from the config\_server; the controller may be overloaded ? \item[error\_mysql\_] Error reported by the mysql server (see \url{http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/error-messages-server.html}) \item[error\_mysql\_badpacket] Bad packet received for mysql server while parsing data. \item[error\_pgsql] Error reported by the postgresql server. \end{description} \section{CHANGELOG} \fvset{numbers=none,frame=lines,fontsize=\scriptsize,fontfamily=courier,fontshape=sl} \VerbatimInput{../CHANGES} \end{appendix} \end{document} %%% for AucTex/Emacs : %%% Local Variables: %%% eval:(setenv "TEXINPUTS" ":.:~/cvs/projetdoc//common/styles:./images:./figures:") %%% mode: latex %%% End:
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