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RVT is a collection of tools/libraries to support both static and dynamic verification of Rust programs.


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Rust verification tools

This is a collection of tools/libraries to support both static and dynamic verification of Rust programs.

We see static verification (formal verification) and dynamic verification (testing) as two parts of the same activity and so these tools can be used for either form of verification.

  • Dynamic verification using the proptest fuzzing/property testing library.

  • Static verification using the KLEE symbolic execution engine.

We aim to add other backends in the near future.

In addition, we document how the tools we wrote work in case you are porting a verification tool for use with Rust. (In particular, we describe how to generate LLVM bitcode files that can be used with LLVM-based verification tools.)

Tools and libraries

  • verification-annotations crate: an FFI layer for creating symbolic values in KLEE

  • propverify crate: an implementation of the proptest library for use with static verification tools.

  • cargo-verify: a tool for compiling a crate and either verifying main/tests or for fuzzing main/tests. (Use the --backend flag to select which.)

  • compatibility-test test crate: test programs that can be verified either using the original proptest library or using propverify. Used to check that proptest and propverify are compatible with each other.



  1. Install For installation with Docker, see the Usage section of our main docs.

  2. Fuzz some examples with proptest

    cd compatibility-test
    cargo test
    cd ..

    (You can also use cargo-verify --backend=proptest --verbose.)

    One test should fail – this is correct behaviour.

  3. Verify some examples with propverify

    cd verification-annotations; cargo-verify --tests

    cd verification-annotations; cargo-verify --tests

    No tests should fail.

  4. Read the propverify intro for an example of fuzzing with proptest and verifying with propverify.

  5. Read the proptest book

  6. Read the source code for the compatibility test suite.

    (Many of these examples are taken from or based on examples in the proptest book.)

There is also some limited documentation of how this works.


Licensed under either of

at your option.


The propverify crate is heavily based on the design and API of the wonderful proptest property/fuzz-testing library. The implementation also borrows techniques, tricks and code from the implementation – you can learn a lot about how to write an embedded DSL from reading the proptest code.

In turn, proptest was influenced by the Rust port of QuickCheck and the Hypothesis fuzzing/property testing library for Python. (proptest also acknowledges regex_generate – but we have not yet implemented regex strategies for this library.)

Known limitations

This is not an officially supported Google product; this is an early release of a research project to enable experiments, feedback and contributions. It is probably not useful to use on real projects at this stage and it may change significantly in the future.

Our current goal is to make propverify as compatible with proptest as possible but we are not there yet. The most obvious features that are not even implemented are support for using regular expressions for string strategies, the Arbitrary trait, proptest-derive.

We would like the propverify library and the cargo-verify script to work with as many Rust verification tools as possible and we welcome pull requests to add support. We expect that this will require design/interface changes.


Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

See the contribution instructions for further details.