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<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.3//EN"
"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.3/docbookx.dtd" [
]>
<refentry id="bwrap">
<refentryinfo>
<title>bwrap</title>
<productname>Project Atomic</productname>
<authorgroup>
<author>
<contrib>Developer</contrib>
<firstname>Alexander</firstname>
<surname>Larsson</surname>
</author>
<author>
<contrib>Developer</contrib>
<firstname>Colin</firstname>
<surname>Walters</surname>
</author>
</authorgroup>
</refentryinfo>
<refmeta>
<refentrytitle>bwrap</refentrytitle>
<manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
<refmiscinfo class="manual">User Commands</refmiscinfo>
</refmeta>
<refnamediv>
<refname>bwrap</refname>
<refpurpose>container setup utility</refpurpose>
</refnamediv>
<refsynopsisdiv>
<cmdsynopsis>
<command>bwrap</command>
<arg choice="opt" rep="repeat"><replaceable>OPTION</replaceable></arg>
<arg choice="opt"><replaceable>COMMAND</replaceable></arg>
</cmdsynopsis>
</refsynopsisdiv>
<refsect1><title>Description</title>
<para>
<command>bwrap</command> is a privileged helper for container setup. You
are unlikely to use it directly from the commandline, although that is possible.
</para>
<para>
It works by creating a new, completely empty, filesystem namespace where the root
is on a tmpfs that is invisible from the host, and which will be automatically
cleaned up when the last process exits. You can then use commandline options to
construct the root filesystem and process environment for the command to run in
the namespace.
</para>
<para>
By default, <command>bwrap</command> creates a new mount namespace for the sandbox.
Optionally it also sets up new user, ipc, pid, network and uts namespaces (but note the
user namespace is required if bwrap is not installed setuid root).
The application in the sandbox can be made to run with a different UID and GID.
</para>
<para>
If needed (e.g. when using a PID namespace) <command>bwrap</command>
is running a minimal pid 1 process in the sandbox that is
responsible for reaping zombies. It also detects when the initial
application process (pid 2) dies and reports its exit status back to
the original spawner. The pid 1 process exits to clean up the
sandbox when there are no other processes in the sandbox left.
</para>
</refsect1>
<refsect1><title>Options</title>
<para>
When options are used multiple times, the last option wins, unless otherwise
specified.
</para>
<para>General options:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--help</option></term>
<listitem><para>Print help and exit</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--version</option></term>
<listitem><para>Print version</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--args <arg choice="plain">FD</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Parse nul-separated arguments from the given file descriptor.
This option can be used multiple times to parse options from
multiple sources.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>Options related to kernel namespaces:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-user</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new user namespace</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-user-try</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new user namespace if possible else skip it</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-ipc</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new ipc namespace</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-pid</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new pid namespace</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-net</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new network namespace</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-uts</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new uts namespace</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-cgroup</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new cgroup namespace</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-cgroup-try</option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a new cgroup namespace if possible else skip it</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unshare-all</option></term>
<listitem><para>Unshare all possible namespaces. Currently equivalent with: <option>--unshare-user-try</option> <option>--unshare-ipc</option> <option>--unshare-pid</option> <option>--unshare-net</option> <option>--unshare-uts</option> <option>--unshare-cgroup-try</option></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--uid <arg choice="plain">UID</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Use a custom user id in the sandbox (requires <option>--unshare-user</option>)</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--gid <arg choice="plain">GID</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Use a custom group id in the sandbox (requires <option>--unshare-user</option>)</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--hostname <arg choice="plain">HOSTNAME</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Use a custom hostname in the sandbox (requires <option>--unshare-uts</option>)</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>Options about environment setup:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--chdir <arg choice="plain">DIR</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Change directory to <arg choice="plain">DIR</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--setenv <arg choice="plain">VAR</arg> <arg choice="plain">VALUE</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Set an environment variable</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--unsetenv <arg choice="plain">VAR</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Unset an environment variable</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>Options for monitoring the sandbox from the outside:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--lock-file <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Take a lock on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg> while the sandbox is running.
This option can be used multiple times to take locks on multiple files.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--sync-fd <arg choice="plain">FD</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Keep this file descriptor open while the sandbox is running</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>
Filesystem related options. These are all operations that modify the filesystem directly, or
mounts stuff in the filesystem. These are applied in the order they are given as arguments.
Any missing parent directories that are required to create a specified destination are
automatically created as needed.
</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--bind <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Bind mount the host path <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--bind-try <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Equal to <option>--bind</option> but ignores non-existant <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--dev-bind <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Bind mount the host path <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg>, allowing device access</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--dev-bind-try <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Equal to <option>--dev-bind</option> but ignores non-existant <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--ro-bind <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Bind mount the host path <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> readonly on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--ro-bind-try <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Equal to <option>--ro-bind</option> but ignores non-existant <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--remount-ro <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Remount the path <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg> as readonly. It works only on the specified mount point, without changing any other mount point under the specified path</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--proc <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Mount procfs on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--dev <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Mount new devtmpfs on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--tmpfs <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Mount new tmpfs on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--mqueue <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Mount new mqueue on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--dir <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a directory at <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--file <arg choice="plain">FD</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Copy from the file descriptor <arg choice="plain">FD</arg> to <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--bind-data <arg choice="plain">FD</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Copy from the file descriptor <arg choice="plain">FD</arg> to a file which is bind-mounted on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--ro-bind-data <arg choice="plain">FD</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Copy from the file descriptor <arg choice="plain">FD</arg> to a file which is bind-mounted readonly on <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--symlink <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg> <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>Create a symlink at <arg choice="plain">DEST</arg> with target <arg choice="plain">SRC</arg></para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>Lockdown options:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--seccomp <arg choice="plain">FD</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Load and use seccomp rules from <arg choice="plain">FD</arg>.
The rules need to be in the form of a compiled eBPF program,
as generated by seccomp_export_bpf.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--exec-label <arg choice="plain">LABEL</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Exec Label from the sandbox. On an SELinux system you can specify the SELinux
context for the sandbox process(s).
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--file-label <arg choice="plain">LABEL</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
File label for temporary sandbox content. On an SELinux system you can specify
the SELinux context for the sandbox content.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--block-fd <arg choice="plain">FD</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Block the sandbox on reading from FD until some data is available.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--userns-block-fd <arg choice="plain">FD</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Do not initialize the user namespace but wait on FD until it is ready. This allow
external processes (like newuidmap/newgidmap) to setup the user namespace before it
is used by the sandbox process.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--info-fd <arg choice="plain">FD</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Write information in JSON format about the sandbox to FD.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--new-session</option></term>
<listitem><para>
Create a new terminal session for the sandbox (calls setsid()). This
disconnects the sandbox from the controlling terminal which means
the sandbox can't for instance inject input into the terminal.
</para><para>
Note: In a general sandbox, if you don't use --new-session, it is
recommended to use seccomp to disallow the TIOCSTI ioctl, otherwise
the application can feed keyboard input to the terminal.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--die-with-parent</option></term>
<listitem><para>
Ensures child process (COMMAND) dies when bwrap's parent dies. Kills (SIGKILL)
all bwrap sandbox processes in sequence from parent to child
including COMMAND process when bwrap or bwrap's parent dies.
See prctl, PR_SET_PDEATHSIG.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--as-pid-1</option></term>
<listitem><para>
Do not create a process with PID=1 in the sandbox to reap child processes.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--cap-add <arg choice="plain">CAP</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Add the specified capability when running as privileged user. It accepts
the special value ALL to add all the permitted caps.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--cap-drop <arg choice="plain">CAP</arg></option></term>
<listitem><para>
Drop the specified capability when running as privileged user. It accepts
the special value ALL to drop all the caps.
By default no caps are left in the sandboxed process. The
<option>--cap-add</option> and <option>--cap-drop</option>
options are processed in the order they are specified on the
command line. Please be careful to the order they are specified.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</refsect1>
<refsect1>
<title>Environment</title>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><envar>HOME</envar></term>
<listitem><para>
Used as the cwd in the sandbox if <option>--cwd</option> has not been
explicitly specified and the current cwd is not present inside the sandbox.
The <option>--setenv</option> option can be used to override the value
that is used here.
</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</refsect1>
<refsect1>
<title>Exit status</title>
<para>
The <command>bwrap</command> command returns the exit status of the
initial application process (pid 2 in the sandbox).
</para>
</refsect1>
</refentry>